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A Personal Development Portfolio for Enfield Community Care NHS Trust

An Investigation into the design of a Personal Development Portfolio for clerical and Managerial Staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust

A Report by Margaret Komba-Kono


Table of Contents

Executive Summary

1. Introduction

    1.1 Brief History
    1.2 Organisational Structure
    1.3 Internal Organisation Culture
    1.4 Factors Forcing Change
    1.4.1 Increasing Business Complexity
    1.4.2 Government Initiatives
    1.4.3 Technology
    1.4.4 Social
    1.4.5 National Training Policies
    1.5 Given Aims, Objectives and Tasks
    1.5.1 Given Aims & Objectives
    1.5.1 Given Tasks

2 Literature Review

3 Methodology
4 The Portfolio
    4.1 Definition of the portfolio
    4.1.1 Why have a Personal Development Portfolio Scheme at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust?
    4.2 Personal Development Portfolio SWOT analysis
    4.2.1 Strengths
    4.2.2 Weaknesses
    4.2.3 Opportunities
    4.2.4 Threats

5 Interpretation & analysis of feedback

6 Conclusion and Recommendations

Bibliography

8 (i) Appendix 1

(ii) Appendix 2



Executive Summary

This report describes a project undertaken for Enfield Community Care NHS Trust. The Trust was considering introducing portfolio for use by non- nursing staff.

A portfolio is used as a vehicle for recording an individual's continuing professional development (CPD). Besides being used for charting professional development, the portfolio is also a useful vehicle for exploring one's personal development.

This study aims to produce a clearer understanding of the use of portfolio and to find out what the staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust think the CPD Portfolio is used for, to establish the cost of setting up a personal development portfolio and to make recommendation for action.

In order to achieve this objective, two pilot groups were chosen, clerical and managerial as representative samples for all non-nursing staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust.



Introduction

This report describes a project undertaken for Enfield Community Care NHS Trust. The Trust was considering introducing continuing professional development portfolios for use by non- nursing staff. This study aims to:
  1. produce a clearer understanding of the use of portfolios
  2. report on what the staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust think the CPD Portfolio is used for
  3. establish the cost of setting up a personal development portfolio
  4. make recommendations for action
In order to achieve this objective, two pilot groups were chosen, clerical and managerial as representative samples for all non-nursing staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust.

The structure of this report is as follows:-

  • Chapter 1: Introduction. To explain the context, I provide a brief history of the Trust and its organisational structure. I examine the internal organisation's culture and the external factors forcing change that have led to portfolios being developed. These include national guidelines, government initiatives and the increasing business complexity.

  • Chapter 2: The Literature review - This is written in themes, in order to consider relevant issues to the study, and for ease of understanding.

  • Chapter 3: Methodology - This incorporates the aims and objectives, design and techniques used in the study.

  • Chapter 4: This describes the Personal Development Portfolio. It also discuss why a personal development portfolio scheme is to be introduced at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust and highlights the potential benefits and problems that such introduction are likely to create.

  • Chapter 5: This studies the Personal Development Portfolio with a SWOT analysis. It identifies its Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

  • Chapter 6: Presentation and analyses of the results. This contains clear and logically structured accounts of the findings. Tables and charts have been used to enhance clarity and understanding.

  • Chapter 7: Conclusion and Recommendation. This chapter contains summaries of issues that arose during the research, and suggestions for further actions to resolve new issues that have resulted from these investigations and recommendations.


    1.1 Brief History

    Enfield Community Care NHS Trust employs over 1,300 staff. This Trust was the first local NHS Trust to achieve the prestigious Investors in People award which focuses on training, communication and valuing their staff. The staff play a key role in contributing to the Trust"s continued success. The Trust's training and development plans are closely linked to their business strategy and all staff work as a team to serve the residents of Enfield and Cheshunt.

    1.2 Organisational Structure

    At Enfield Community Care NHS Trust, the bureaucratic form of organisation structure is identified. Power and responsibilities are distributed rather than centralised. This enables the organisation to grow without depending on a single or group of founders. By emphasising role rather than flair, operational processes become more predictable and consistent, with procedure and committee replacing individual judgement. Responsibility is devolved through the structure. ( Torrinton, D. and Hall, L. 1995 , pp 106-107). However, according to Torrington, this type of structure has been criticised because of its inappropriateness in times of change and has a tendency to frustrate personal initiative. Invariably, the Trust has made every effort to overcome this drawback.

    The Trust is led by a board of five Executive and five Non-Executive Directors. The board has six key functions. These includes setting the Trust's strategic direction, ensuring effective financial stewardship and ensuring effective dialogue between the Trust and the local community. The Trust board is based at Avon Villa on the Chase Farm Hospital site.

    The five executive Directors are, the chief Executive, Director of Care Services, Director of Resources, Director of Nursing and the Medical Director. They all work full time for the Trust. The chairman and Non-Executive Directors are appointed by the secretary of State for Health. They work part-time and live locally.

    The Trust's work is divided into four "Care groups" and five support services. The Care Services include, mental health, forensic services, community and primary care, elderly, learning difficulties and clinical services. The five support services are, Human resources, Estates, Finance, Information technology, Trust headquarters/corporate affairs.

    (See appendix 1 for the organisational structure chart)

    1.3 Internal Organisation Culture

    The culture of Enfield Community Care Trust was an important consideration. I have been able to observe and discuss the culture in my time at Enfield and feel that it needs to be fully understood in order to ensure the acceptance of my recommendation.

    Definition

    Culture is defined, according to Williams, A., Dobson, P. and Walters, M. 1993 , as the commonly held and relatively stable beliefs, attitudes and values that exist within the organisation. It involves the organisation's values, policies, systems, structure and management style and often manifests itself in people stating that "this is the way we do things around here."

    Culture within The Trust Head Quarters

    Within the Trust Head Quarters, Avon Villa, there appears to be a democratic style of leadership. Managers at this Trust are approachable. They encourage and motivate, as opposed to order and control their employees, to develop their existing skills and acquire new ones, so they could utilise the resources at their disposal. All employees work in teams and are very supportive of each other. ( Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. 1997 p.591).

    Performance is managed, as one manager stated. "Poor performance is dealt with immediately. This is done through a one-one meeting with the staff in question so that the reasons for poor performance could be identified and solutions for example further training is encouraged.

    Although there is performance related pay for some staff, there is no other benefit for those who perform over and above the basic job requirement. Except perhaps those who perform above their job are targeted for promotion to the next step up.

    During my interview with a senior manager, she explained that staff turn over is very low in most departments, with the exception of Information Technology department where young people leave the Trust after gaining experience for a year or so. Also in the domestic services department, there is a high turnover, because women with children tend to leave the service because of child care responsibilities.

    It is also important to understand that most policies in the Trust emanate from the National Government. Thus the culture within this organisation has always been to implement government objectives. ( HSC1999/113 - A First Class Service). Hence in order to accomplish these objectives, the Trust focuses on its staff development, their skills, and the quality of their work. In this regard, it could be deduced that a quality culture exists within the Trust. Employees are also encouraged to take responsibility for aspects of their work which in other organisations are left to the management or other specialists such as quality control, waste reduction, preventative maintenance and problem-solving teams. ( HMSO 1972 p.17) However at this Trust, although there are specialist for these positions, all staff are encouraged to contribute ideas for improvements in processes and techniques.

    Attitude towards change

    The staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust are open minded about change. Those I spoke to confirmed that if they can identify the benefits they would go along with any factors forcing change. The staff are loyal and committed to the Trust, therefore they are always willing to try new approaches as long as they can see the benefit and usefulness.

    Relating this to the project, when I consulted some of the employees regarding the introduction of a Personal Development Portfolio, they all welcomed the idea.


    1.4 Factors Forcing Change

    Kurt Lewin (1951) argues that we should analyse the propensity to change in organisations in terms forces working in opposite directions. In his work on force field analysis, a model is used that has a target of change (or goal) as the resolutin of two sets of forces: the driving forces and the restraining forces.

    According to Lewin, if we want to bring about change, then we must disturb the balance of forces by strengthening the driving forces, and weakening the restraining forces or both.

    This model helps us to analyse the various forces invading the target of change, to consider the relative strengths of these forces and to investigate alternative strategies for changing the force field. Otherwise concentrating on the driving and neglecting the restraining forces will create undue stress in the system and result in unattractive outcome such as resistance to change, employee resignation, absenteeism, industrial disputes and so forth.

    In the following analysis I look at the forces promoting and restraining change in policies for Personal Development at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust.

    The conlusion of this analysis was that at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust, the driving forces for change are stronger than those forces resisting change. Because the change is directly from the government who funds the NHS through taxation, any restraining force towards changes would be weaker. Therefore, resisting forces at the Trust, for example, low turnover, success of the organisation, stable environment, and so on, are not strong enough to resist change. ( Williams, A., Dobson, P. and Walters, M. 1993 pp 105-106 )

    Connecting this change scenario with the personal development portfolio that is introduced at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust, there will not be any difficulty in introducing change. The driving forces are stronger than the restraining forces. ( Williams, A., Dobson, P. and Walters, M. 1993 p. 105 )

    Changes at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust emerged by both external and internal forces. ( Johnson, G. and others 1993 , p.159). The external changes occurred through the political framework in which the Trust operates. ( HSC1999/113 ). Also changes like continuing professional development, which has an important contribution to make to the government's agenda for lifelong learning, has created the need for change at the trust, so that the obligations of their shareholders, clients, employee or communities would be met. ( Cannon, T. and Witana, J. Edwards, C. 1996


    In addition, it is now generally acclaimed that education and training are a continuing and lifelong process and may take many forms, not all of them traditional. The rate of scientific, technological, social and political change is now so swift and concentrated that an initial period of professional or occupational training can only provide the foundations of knowledge, skills and attitudes on which further development must be built, if it is to remain current. (Christopher Bond 1995 p.145)

    I will now consider the factors forcing change in more details in 1.4.1 to 1.4.3. This is because these are the major factors which I consider appropriate in discussing current changes in the NHS Trust in the height of many developments including environmental, technological and the disposition of the internal market within the NHS, while introducing the integrated care based on partnership and driven by performance.

    1.4.1 Increasing Business Complexity

    Business life today is dominated by change. Technologies, markets and organisations are more dynamic than at anytime in history. Professionals find themselves expected to respond to external and internal innovations. The pace of change, the pressure to respond and the challenges posed to the knowledge, understanding and competence explains many of the pressures and stress faced by professionals. ( Cannon, T. and Witana, J. Edwards, C. 1996 .

    Enfield Community Care NHS Trust is no exception to these changes. As the Prime Minister stated in his forward in the White Paper, New NHS modern -dependable:
      "As we approach the fiftieth anniversary of the NHS, it is time to reflect on the huge achievements of the NHS. But in a changing world no organisation, however great, can stand still."
    In an increasingly competitive labour market, health care service providers must, therefore, recognise the need for change and find ways in meeting those needs.

    1.4.2 Government Initiatives

    Political factors which has driven change in the new NHS is the change of government since 1997. According to the Prime Minster, Tony Blair,
      "the new NHS will get better every year so that it once again delivers dependable, high quality care standard - based on need, not ability to pay, or on who ones GP happens to be or where one lives."
    The labour government therefore replaced the internal market introduced by the conservative government with integrated care based on partnership and driven by performance. In so doing the propensity to change is greater within the NHS. ( HMSO December 1997)

    1.4.3 Technology

    Another change factor at the NHS is technology. This is a perfect external influence which has the inclination to create substantial improvements in the organisation's performance. For instance in the present NHS, there has been a lot of technological changes. A new 24 hour telephone advice line staffed by nurses has been piloted through three care and advice help lines which began in march 1998. It is also envisaged the whole country will be covered by the year 2000. ( HMSO December 1997 )

    According to the White Paper, every GP, surgery and hospital will be connected to the NHS's own information superhighway, which will enable patients to benefit from quicker test results, up-to-date specialists advice in the doctors surgery, on line booking of out-patient appointments, less waiting for prescription in the pharmacy because of electronic links between GPs and pharmacists. Also all computerised GP surgeries will be able to receive some hospital test results over NHS net by year 2002. This service will be available across the country.

    1.4.4 Social

    Social, another factor driving change, involves the expectations of customers with regards to the service they receive, especially in speed of service and range of treatment. Increase in population due to demographic pressures, for example over the next decade the NHS expects to provide services for an extra 100,000 people aged 85 and over ( HMSO December 1997 ). The NHS also has to tailor its services in order to meet the needs of individual patients, for example different cultures from different environments. Diversity has now become a key issue in the NHS.

    The next section deals with more inclusive policies which taken as a whole are geared towards making a direct impact on the NHS, thus creating cost effectiveness and increased customer satisfaction.

    1.4.5 National Training Policies

    The current (2000) government's vision of National Vocational Education and Training (NVET) is that "everyone has the opportunity and incentive to continue learning throughout life, and that the economy has the skills it needs to meet and beat the best in the world" (Employment Department Group, 1991:28).

    The white paper (1972) Training for the Future referred to the twofold purpose of NVET policy as being:
      "Economic and social - to have the right workers in the right place at the right time, with the right skill, and to provide better opportunities to individuals to develop their skills and use their abilities to that end."
    National initiatives-by government, quasi-government bodies, employer organisations, professional bodies and others- all of which have been aimed at 'making training happen.' Much of the employee development activity that is now managed has been influenced by these policies; some of it has been devised and introduced at national level.

    According to Reid, M. A. and Barrington, H. 1997 , during the past thirty years education and training have increasingly commanded the attention of UK politicians, civil servants, professional bodies, journals and many others who operate at national level. This increased importance of employee development matters is essentially linked to four major concerns:

    1. The nation's declining economic performance

    The advantage in low skilled labour-intensive industry has shifted in favour of low-cost labour markets, making 'third world' counties more competitive. The competitive edge for high cost labour now lies increasingly in the knowledge and skills of the workforce. In many of the UK's growth industries there is an imbalance between the skills and qualifications required by employers and those available in the nation's workforce.

    2 Unemployment and employment

    Attempts by employers to restore productivity and profit levels by reducing manpower, led to high unemployment during 1980s, especially among young people. At the same time, demographic trends showed a marked downturn in the number of young people leaving full-time education during the last 15 years of the century, but a dramatic increase in the numbers of older women seeking paid work.
    ( Reid, M. A. and Barrington, H. 1997 pp 13-15 )

    3 Rapid change-technology, social and legal

    New technology, new materials, new equipment, new processes, all demand the acquisition of new knowledge and skills by the nations workforce, especially in the traditional craft fields where sophisticated equipment replaces manual skills. New type of organisational structure have also evolved, requiring new styles of management. Change has become a way of life, organisation allowing it to mould their cultures.
    ( Reid, M. A. and Barrington, H. 1997 )

    #4##

    New laws defining employee rights for example, equal opportunities, employer responsibilities e.g health and safety, combined with demographic changes are leading to new ways of organising people for work. Also the single market while sharpening competition between member states has also added new constraints like anti pollution measures. This has forced employers to address a new range of operational problems and opportunities, all of which involve potential learning on the part of employees.

    The next section will be dealing with the aims and objectives given to me by my placement supervisor.


    1.5 Given Aims, Objectives & Tasks

    The original project was given to me by the Training and Development Manager at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust, who felt that there was a need for a personal Development Portfolio for non-nursing staff, in order to facilitate the national governments objectives, as set out in a First Class Service, that all NHS employers should have their training and development plans by year 2000. Having agreed the project title, the following objectives and tasks were given:

    1.5.1 Given Aims & Objectives

    The given aims and objectives were:

    To develop a resource pack for use by all non-nursing staff to aid their ongoing personal professional development.

    To tie in with NHS and National government initiative drive in securing the quality of the workforce.

    1.5.2 Tasks

    The given tasks were to:

    To research the portfolio

    Agree on materials to be inserted in the portfolio

    Word process and design the portfolio

    Attend several meeting



    2 Literature Review

    This literature review was done, as Kumar, R. 1996 suggests, primarily for three reasons:
    1. to bring focus to the research project.

    2. to help in the design and improvement of the research methodology.

    3. to broaden my knowledge of the research area and topic.

    For a clearer focus, and ease of understanding, the texts reviewed are arranged by the following themes:

    Using software for Personal Development Plans
    Coaching for Continuing Professional Development
    Continuing Professional Development
    Portfolio for Development
    Life Long Learning
    National Training Policy

    2.1 Using Software for Personal Development Plans

    John Lorriman

    Lorriman, J. 1994 talks about using software for personal development plan. He states that in order to get the best out of ourselves we need to learn as effectively as possible. This implies very strongly that we need to structure and capture our learning and target our career development. Some form of document to do all this for us is essential. Without such documentation the vast majority of our daily learning is quickly forgotten and we tend to drift in our careers, concentrating on dealing with short term problems, instead of sitting and thinking through a structured career strategy.

    Having taking this standpoint, Lorriman goes on to show how software is used for PDP. Lorriman is convinced of the enormous opportunities that are beeing opened to us by the knowledge revolution. He also talks about the explosive growth of the Internet in the 1990s and of group ware, in particular Lotus, and he goes on to say that they make it increasingly important for us all to use software to learn from each other.

    He maintains that the ability to look quickly at another person's experience or set of competencies and areas of expertise, and so on, make some sort of PDP software very attractive. All this suggests that PDP software has clear advantages over traditional approaches.

    What he says about PDP for Lotus notes is particularly interesting as Lotus notes is by far the most successful group-ware anywhere in the world. Consequently what Lorriman has done is to add to the way portfolios are done, and he states that almost everyone involved with the CPD agrees that PDP been structured form a discipline to the process. To add to the traditional folder approach a new method which is the latest in Information Technology means that there is more flexibility, responsiveness, accessibility and the possibility of sharing your data with your coach or manager.

    However, an investigation of this software is beyond the scope of this research.

    2.2 Coaching for CPD

    Paul Kalinauchas

    Talks about coaching for CPD. I think that this is relevant because coaching is increasingly been recognised as essential element in any successful CPD process. Effective coaching of the individual committed to continuous professional development will open doors to realising more potential. However coaching is an under utilise skill and frequently missing from CPD initiatives. This is why I am going to look at it as part of my literature review. He coined the phrase achievement coaching, this he defined as a continuous and participative process whereby the coach provides both the opportunity and encouragement for an individual to address his or her needs effectively in the context of personal and organisational objectives.

    He says that in its simplest form achievement coaching is about bringing out the best in people. Achievement coaching is about finding out what they really want and dovetailing this with organisational objectives. It is the developmental end of the coaching spectrum that really appeals to the professional embarked on the path of the CPD more than the controlling approach to skills development. This point I fully agree with and I will be using it in my report once the writing commences. He explains that this type of coaching requires considerable versatility on behalf of the coach to identify at which end of the coaching spectrum they should be operating. The only way to find out is to work from the other persons agenda. The coach does this by using listening questions, by asking questions about personal objectives and ambitions and listening intently to what is been said. The coach is able to guide the professional along their personal path of CPD.

    Amongst the skills which he states need to be developed are:

    active listening

    questioning skills

    giving praise and recognition

    building rapport

    creating trust

    being non-judgemental

    being candid and challenging

    being able to work from the other agenda

    giving encouragement and support

    focusing on future opportunity

    getting to the point

    observation skills

    being objective rather than subjective

    I find his coaching circle very good, wherein he talks about concepts, implement, complete and review being the four corners of the coaching circle. However, as my objective is to present a report I will not go too much into the coaching circle except that I will draw the attention of such a circle in my report.


    2.3 Continuing Professional Development

    Carol Dix

    According to Carol Dix in continuing professional development challenge and change. She says professional bodies in Britain have always upheld strong cultural and ethical standards that serve as solid and dependable spin to the real dimensions of our working lives. In terms of change we are ever more dependant on the professional bodies to be one step ahead of the day in introducing new ideas, concepts and demands on their membership, so that those values and standards are maintained. It is note worthy that however these changes will present themselves it should be ultimately stimulating and rewarding. The new professionalism according to her means dynamic knowledge and skills with less emphasis on basic training and more on a changing repertoire of knowledge and skill, also the impact of external forces focused that is on the customer and client rather than on the professions, then the adherence to the values of the local authority as well as the professional bodies, and the authority given to those whom the profession serve rather than assume by qualification alone.

    As a result professional bodies take as their prime responsibility the monitoring, guarding and evaluation of quality standards. It is within the bodies self interest, therefore that the membership support this fundamental attitude. Within this consideration, employers have the right to expect their employees to maintain acceptable levels of professional competence whilst the responsibility for undertaken CPD rests with the individual. The process must be a partnership between the employer and the employee.

    She notes that in many organisations, more money is spent on maintaining the efficiency of photocopiers than of staff. CPD need not cost a lot but it will definitely cost something. She noted that a reasonable staff development outlay for formal training is one percent of annual salary, many leading countries in UK spend up to 3 percent and in Germany up to 5 percent. This may seem a lot if you currently do not have a specific CPD or staff development budget. But even if money is limited, ;much can be done by adopting a more positive attitude to professional development and by using work as a learning experience. The aim should be to have a systematic CPD programme and budget for all staff and don't forget your own CPD needs.

    She continues and states that *quanters* for further action should include the professional bodies must continue their excellent work as standard bearers and they should have to bear in mind the changing environment and competitive markets, they must work in partnership with employers and ensure that in future CPD provision meets employers needs and ability to resource and that it meets the management requirements of the changing work environment. Also the local government employers must assess CPD within their overall training budgets and assessments. They must work together with the professional bodies to achieve the best from the partnership involved. Also they need to encourage their employees to take more responsibility for their own CPD and so on.

    In relation to this study, this last observation that employers need to encourage their employees to take more responsibility for their own CPD is one that I would comment on in my conclusion.


    2.4 Portfolio for Development

    Maureen Redman

    Maureen Redman in Portfolio for Development ( Redman, W. 1994 ) talks about what a portfolio is and how it links with current trend revolution particularly in the united kingdom with the national vocational qualification (NVQ) The book clearly show how portfolio can be used to develop individuals themes and the organisations, within an organisations' own training and development programme. There are real life examples taken from companies and organisations which show the different ways of using portfolio. It also show the possible pit falls and highlight good practice.

    I have used this book intensively to prepare the portfolio that I have been asked to do and I find the section dealing with the steps to betaken to prepare a portfolio and how to involve people at all levels very useful for my work.


    2.5 Life Long Learning

    Christopher Bond

    Bond C (1995) emphasised the importance of life long learning. Education according to Bond takes many forms and not just the traditional way which occurs in the first 20 years of life. Peter Criten (1998) writing on portfolio for development agrees with the above statement that the use of portfolio as a vehicle for recording evidence of an individuals continuing professional development is wide spread. The portfolio he added can be also used for exploring one's personal development.

      "The pace of scientific, technological, social and political change is now so rapid and intense that an initial period of professional or occupational training can only provide the foundation of knowledge, skills and attitude on which further development must be built, if it is to remain current."
    Indeed the need for personal development cannot be over emphasised as the reasons are all around us. The rate at which technology is developing is so fast that one has to be aware of the issues involved as a process of professional development.

    Bond also writes about the origins of portfolio and how it has been incorporated into personal development. he gave some uses to which professional portfolio can be used. For example:

    to incurs self-confidence/self esteem

    for personal competence/skills audit

    as a bias for staff appraisal or peer review

    as a tool for critically evaluating ones own practice.

    According to Bond preparing a portfolio takes a lot of time, it should not be hurried, it should be a continuous ;process. The portfolio needs to be updated frequently because needs change constantly at he work place.

    Consequently, as noted Bond has worked with diverse range of client groups on portfolio and I am therefore inclined to accept his findings that individuals tend to be more motivated towards learning when they are managing and directing their own learning. Also because individuals can relate to clearly set and measurable outcomes, they are more inclined to put in more effort in ensuring the portfolio details are constantly updated. The two pilot group I worked with showed great enthusiasm when we discussed the formation of the portfolio.

    I should however, state that in as much as I am in agreement with the above points, issues like the historical aspects of personal development, which should have explained why there is now so much interest in both personal and professional development was not mentioned by Bond. I will therefore be looking at Peter Critten's work from personal to Professional development creating space for growth.


    2.6 National Training Policy

    Rosemary Harrison

    As part of my introduction to this work, I have used Rosemary Harrison's Employee Development 1997 ( Harrison, R. 1997 ). In part two of her book, the wider context, she writes about the 1990's vision of national vocational education and training and national training policy.

    You will see from table one that I have listed the seven aims of the national training policy. Harrison has brought a clear direction to my study in relation to CPD.

    In addition,

      "Career development has been defined as "an organised, planned effort comprised of structured activities or processes that result in a mutual career plotting effort between employees and the organisation" (Gilley and Eggland,1989:49)."
    Traditionally, the concept of "career" was one of upward movement involving, therefore, as Sparrow and Hiltrop (1994:427) observed:

    entry criteria linked to educational attainment or vocational training

    a planned structure of job experiences and promotional steps

    progressive status and/or salary

    membership of an external professional or occupational body with its own codes and cultures

    This has reinforced my views that for an effective CPD, the employee should be actively listened to as she is an integral part of the ;process. Indeed career development is a major part of the psychological contact, this therefore requires ........management and negotiation in order to achieve both the organisational and individual objective.

    There is no shortage of advocacy of self development in HR literature, however, for an individual to take responsibility for their own leaning requires informed and objective assessment of the future skills that will be relevant to that individual


    3 Methodology

    This chapter deals with the methodology of the study. It provides an outline of the research approach, the associated methods and techniques used for the collection of relevant data ( Galliers, R.D. 1992 ). On the basis of the placement objectives, the research methodology was designed in order to forecast the answers to the research ( Punch, K.F. 1998 ). The methods used in this research are qualitative, as they are an array of interpretative techniques, which seek to describe, decode, translate and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social world ( Maanen, V 1983 ).

    Aims and objects of study

    The aims are:-
      To produce a clearer understanding of the use of Personal Development Portfolios

      To report on what the staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust think (CPD) is used for

      To establish the cost of setting up a PDP, and

      make recommendations for action

    Stages of research

    The research was done in three parts, which are explained below. A combined method was used, as that was considered useful in developing the approach to this study. This was done because, firstly different methods can be used for different purposes in a study
    ( Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 1997 ). In addition it enables triangulation to take place. This is the use of different data collection methods within one study, in order to ensure that the data are showing what they are telling me. Each method, tool or technique has its unique strengths and weaknesses ( Smith, # 1975 ). There is an inevitable relationship between the data collection method you employ and the results you obtain. Since all different methods will have different effects, it makes sense to use different methods to cancel out this 'method effect'.


    Stage 1. Implications from research methodology.

    The first stage was the literature review. This was to be fully acquainted with the methodological and research implications of the study, and to have a clearer understanding of the use of PDP's. At this stage my strategy had been the making of notes, and observation. Thus providing me with opportunities for personal insights in the particulars of selected areas, and in their later analysis.

    The information needed was carefully obtained and painstakingly combined. However since the sources were secondary, preparations were made for the next stage, which was essentially to collect the primary data.

    Stage 2 Pilot Testing

    Two pilot groups, clerical and managerial were chosen as representative samples for all non-nursing staff at the Trust. Before the questionnaires were sent to these groups, it had to be tested to en sure, according to Funk, 1995 , that respondents have no problems understanding or answering the questions.

    The questionnaire was first tested on the Training and Development Manager, who asked why each question was raised. After this test, the questionnaire was streamlined to only nine questions, this was so that managers could answer the questions in the shortest time.

    A second test was conducted, with three HR managers as representative samples for the managerial pi lot group. This was to check whether they are happy with the questions, how long it took them to co mplete the questionnaire, whether there were any unclear or ambiguous questions and if, in their op inion there were any significant topic omissions. ( Bell, 1993 )

    The interview questions also went through similar testing, with three clerical staff. They felt the que stions were appropriate and just right. However, one of the clerical staff had no clue with regards to a Personal Development Portfolio. But after showing her one example, she participated fully in the pilot testing.


    Stage 3.

    The third stage was mainly for interviews and surveys. During this stage information was mainly obtained from primary sources, to a lesser extent evaluative information was also obtained from secondary sources. Face to face interviews to gather primary data were not easy to arrange, due to time constraints. Careful planning of the questions, so as to gain maximum benefits form the primary sources later followed the pilot study. The questions were then posed in face to face interviews, or during telephone interviews. The majority of the interviews were mainly unstructured, however the interviews with managers were structured. This method was considered appropriate for the following reasons:
    • it is necessary to understand the constructs that the interviewee uses as a basis for her opinions and beliefs about a particular matter or situation;

    • one aim of the interview is to develop an understanding of the respondent's 'world' so that the researcher might influence it either independently or collaboratively as might be the case with action research ( Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, A. 1991 ).

    Stage 4 - The analysis

    The analysis of relevant information gathered in preceding stages, and contacting of original sources for clarifications was undertaken.


    Research design

    In this study an attempt was made to investigate, and if possible find answers to the following questions:-

    What are the current departmental objectives ?

    Is there any sort of Personal Development Portfolio scheme currently being carried out within your department?

    What sort of Personal Development scheme would be most appropriate ?

    To find out the potential benefits and problems in the introduction of a Personal Development Portfolio into the Trust?

    What experience do you have of a Personal Development Portfolio?

    What benefits would be derived from the introduction of a Personal Development Portfolio scheme?

    What is the management/staff's attitude towards the introduction of a Personal Develop Portfolio?

    What are the cost implications in introducing the scheme both in terms of staff time, and reproducing this pack.

    How to evaluate the implementation of Personal Development Portfolio into the Trust?

    The above questions will later be revisited in chapter 5.


    Sampling technique used in this study.

    Probability sampling technique was intended to be utilised in this study, as it is most commonly as sociated with survey-based research where there is a need to make inferences from the sample about a population to answer a research question or to meet its objectives ( Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 1997 ). However due to problems encountered during the study, Quota sampling was considered, as it has similar requirements for sample size as the former technique.

    The sampling frame for this study, is the complete staff list of the Trust. From this list the sample studied was selected, ensuring that every case in the population has a chance of selection.

    Limitation of the research

    There were many constraints regarding this research. Firstly, arranging interviews with the head of departments for non-nursing staff was problematic. Most of the managers were either attending various meetings, or were on annual holidays. It was therefore decided that a short questionnaire, a covering letter and the content page of the Personal Development Portfolio should be emailed to the various departments of the managers. This also met with great difficulties, because the computers in some departments in the Trust had not been upgraded. I received email back from some of the managers explaining that they could not retrieve the email because it appeared like little boxes. I was asked to save the work in Word 6.0 /95. As I was emailing the managers, the whole computer system in the Human Resource Department went down. After two more attempts in sending the email, I then received only three questionnaires back. They were all from the Human Resource Department, where the computers had been upgraded.

    The time factor was a big constraint in this project. The Personal Development Portfolio was not quite ready for launching, at the time of my dissertation deadline. More information would have been gathered, if the Portfolio had been distributed amongst the two pilot groups earlier, and their comments taken on board. The pilot groups had only the content page of the portfolio, to look at for both interview and questionnaire purposes.


    3.1. Pilot

    3.2. Questionnaire

    3.3. Qualitative data



    3.6 Chapter summary

    This chapter has incorporated a hypothesis, the aims and objectives of the study, a basic research approach and the three stages of this research, the research design and the type of sampling that was used. In essence, this was considered an appropriate way to develop a conceptual framework that is directly related to the literature review in the preceding chapter. The conceptual framework re presents the research focus, comprising of the current issues and theories in which the study is implanted. Consequently it has identified a clear focus and an appropriate methodology for the study.

    According to Kumar, R. 1996 a literature acquaints one with the available knowledge in the area of study. As a result the literature review has done the following:

      focused and clarified the research project.

      helped in the designing and improvement of the research methodology, and

      broadened my knowledge of the research area and topic.
    Kumar's writings have thus contributed directly to making this research pertinent to current Personal Development issues and its wider use. In addition to the acquaintance with the hard work and dedication, of earlier researchers and their productive efforts.

    In developing a theoretical framework, according to Cuba, L. and Cocking, J. 1994 , it is important to group the information collected from the Literature Review under themes and theories. By highlighting the agreements and disagreements among the different theories and writers, the identification of unanswered questions or gaps in the theory becomes easy. This direction helped me to have the clear conceptual focus of this study. Black T.R. 1993 provide a basic way of assessing the meaning and validity of research, and illustrates the distinction between doing a piece of research, and assessing it. By covering fundamental concepts comprehensively, while supporting issues relating to design data collection and analysis, which has been reflected in this study.


    4 The Portfolio

    This chapter provides a clearer understanding of the portfolio. It is in two section. Section one contains the definition of a Personal Development Portfolio and gives reasons for the introduction of the portfolio at Enfield Community Care NHS Trusts, and the second section deals with the Swot analysis of the portfolio.

    4.1 Definition of the portfolio

    A Personal Development Portfolio according to Christopher Bond ( Bond, C. 1994 ), is a personal record of ones achievements. Redman, M. 1994 also defines, portfolio for Personal Development as a process that encourages people to think about their attributes, to record and demonstrate to themselves and others what their qualities are, to take responsibility for their own continual learning, and to gain new skills and self confidence.

    The main focus in the context of Continuing Professional Portfolio is to demonstrate how what you have learned from a variety of sources relates to your competence to practise in various areas of HRD. ( Bond, C. 1994 )

    There are many examples of Professional Development Portfolio schemes. However, it is difficult to take a portfolio off the shelf and introduce it successfully into an organisation, as each scheme needs to be tailored to meet the specific needs of its participants.

    The problem at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust was in developing the Personal Development Portfolio scheme that was both appropriate to the culture and management style of the organisation and to meet the needs of the staff, and the Trust as a whole. The majority of work, now involves selling the scheme in, particularly to management, and ensuring their full acceptance and support of the portfolio.

    4.1.1 Why have a Personal Development Portfolio Scheme at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust?


    Prior to investigating the need for a portfolio scheme at the Trust, I undertook a literature search to identify possible reasons for their introduction. From the literature search, I identified that Personal Development Portfolio can be used for:

    evidence of competence to practice

    to demonstrate readiness for promotion

    for job interviews/assessment centres

    to increase self confidence/self esteem

    for a personal competence audit/skills audit

    to gain academic recognition via credit accumulation or Accreditation of Prior Learning

    As a basis for staff appraisal or peer review

    As a resource bank for case study material

    As an educational/developmental exercise

    Consequently, in trying to satisfy the above, and meeting the National Government's objectives for the NHS, Enfield Community Care NHS Trust has designed a Personal Development Portfolio tailored to meet staff requirement in collecting and presenting evidence of their Continuing Professional Development. According to HSC1999/113 [OR HSC 1998/113???] A First Class Service: Quality in The new NHS, which proposed a framework for quality improvement and fair access in the NHS, one of the main components of quality in The New NHS is:

      "local delivery of high quality health care, through clinical governance underpinned by modernised professional self- regulation and extended lifelong learning."
    Therefore, CPD should focus on the needs of patients and deliver the health outcomes and health care priorities of the NHS, as set out in National Service frameworks and local Health Improvement Programmes. CPD should also be a partnership between the individual and the organisation. Its focus should be the delivery of high quality NHS services, and to meet individual career aspirations and learning needs. (Health Service Circular, HSC 1999/154 ).

    Since the Labour government on its accession to power proposed a reorganisation of the NHS, every NHS Trust is required to embrace the concept of 'Clinical Governance', so that quality is at the core of their responsibilities as organisations. This new approach to quality is to be reflected in the responsibilities and management of the NHS Trusts. Under the previous Conservative government the NHS Trust's principal statutory duties were financial, but now the Labour Government has forwarded legislation to give NHS Trust a new duty for the quality of care. These arrangements should include professionals at ward and clinical level. The NHS Trust board would expect to receive monthly reports on quality, in the same way as they now receive financial reports, and to publish an annual report on what they are doing to assure quality.

    With this mandate from National Government, the NHS Trust has to help its staff develop in order to meet these challenges. It is envisaged that by April 2000, initiatives for Continuing Professional Development (CPD) would have been in place. The Portfolio, is therefore, introduced at the Trust to record both formal and informal learning activities to tie in with government proposals.

    See Literature review chapter 2

    4.2 Personal Development Portfolio SWOT analysis

    This section has been provided in order to have further understanding of Personal Development Portfolio for strategic management purposes. As a valuable and potent resource, the Personal Development Portfolio has many sides. It is therefore, important to know about its strengths just as it is to know its weaknesses, before taking any decisions about its cost-effective use. This section is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the Portfolio.

    During the literature search, some fundamental benefits in designing and introducing a Personal Development Portfolio scheme was identified. Conducting such a scheme at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust, would benefit far beyond the initial expectation. During informal discussion with staff, it was noted that "chances are high the portfolio will be seen as an important catalyst for growth rather than simply a way for individuals to gain qualifications." Redman, M. 1994 p.184

    4.2.1 Strengths

    Potential benefits of a Personal Development Portfolios, according to Bond, C. 1994 are as follows:

    It can be used for self development

    To assess prior learning

    To share good practice

    To evaluate training

    To enhance performance

    To change a culture

    to gain accreditation

    However, the long term benefits visualised for creating this scheme, far outnumber the benefits men tioned by Bond. The Trust would gain all the above with the inclusion of the following benefits:-

    It builds on people's professional qualifications to keep them up to date.

    It is based on the current needs of the person, the role, the task and the organisation.

    It is very personal and engaging in a way that other methods may not be able to manage.

    It happens mainly in the actual workplace (but integrates well with courses)

    It is cost-effective (though that does not mean that employees do not have to do anything)

    It keeps people alert and developing throughout their careers

    It gives people a wider portfolio of skills and abilities, so reinforcing their employability.


    4.2.2 Weaknesses

    Portfolios have so far mainly been used to accredit prior learning that ignores the potentially developmental aspects of the approach.

    introducing portfolio for development could be a new and difficult learning process for most people.

    Organisations are not yet clear how best to promote and support it.

    People can see it as time-consuming, bureaucratic and "one more damn thing to do".

    Working on one's CPD programme can be a lonely business without the support of other people.


    4.2.3 Opportunities

    Possessing a Personal Development Portfolio, provides learning opportunities

    People are likely to feel empowered to take greater responsibility for their work and to contribute more to the overall well-being of the organisation.

    people will communicate more about the things that have a bearing on them within their work.

    Developing a personal portfolio is a means of gaining a more positive self-image.

    The confidence gained through portfolio-building for professional development can have significant bearing on how they sell themselves and their skills and ideas to their employers, their customers and their colleagues.


    4.2.4 Threats

    Training agenda and Manager agenda are very busy with national changes going on, this might hinder the Personal Development scheme at the Trust.

    Different professional groups wanting their own Personal Development Portfolios.

    Change of government could mean other government issues taking priority over Continuing Professional Development.

    The Personal development Portfolio could be seen as complex, causing people to think it is difficult.



    5 Presentation and analysis of survey results


    This chapter presents and analyses the results of the survey. The research questions posed in chapter three are provided with their respective answers.

    Enfield Community Care NHS Trust is a large organisation which employs 1300 employees. Out of this total number of employees, 696 are non-nursing staff. This was made up of 582 females and 114 males. These figures were obtained from the Human resource Planner. However there is a shortfall of 81 not accounted for, probably considered as contractors. Consequently the analysis was based on a figure of 615 being the total of non-nursing staff by age categories (See Table I)


    The non-nursing staff forms the focus of this study. The focus group was further sub-divided into managerial and administrative pilot categories. Questions were administered to ten head of departments as a representative samples for the managerial pilot group and five clerical staff were interviewed as representative sample for the clerical pilot group. Several meetings were held with key members of staff to discuss issues pertaining to the proposed personal development scheme at the Trust.

    Initially, five separate meetings addressing the subjects of continuing Professional Development and the introduction of the Personal Development Portfolios at the Human resource Headquarters, Avon Villa, were held. Staff present at the various meetings included:
    1.Director of nursing
    2.Training and development manager
    1.HR Manager
    1.Head of Clerical staff

    Consequent upon these meetings, questionnaires were sent to heads of departments, and interviews were conducted with five administrative staff. Five respondents from the head of departments category completed their questionnaires and five did not. It should be pointed out that during the survey no older person above the ages of 59 was interviewed as they represented a small percentage of the workforce (see table I). As previously stated the sampling technique used was judgemental (see chapter 3, section 3.5)

    5.1 Data analysis in the context of the Research questions.

    This section deals with the original research questions that were posed at the commencement of the study. They are now considered within the context of the data collected.

    The first research question was relating to current departmental objectives

    Thirty percent of managers who responded to the questionnaire, had started work on formulating their departmental objectives and hope to complete these in the near future. Twenty percent of the respondents had their departmental objectives in place. This signifies that there is some understanding about the importance of organisational objectives. The progress in completing organisational objectives as part of a CPD seems rather slow. It was therefore imperative to introduce the use of Personal Development Portfolio as a matter of priority so that all employees and indeed their managers would have a better understanding of departmental objectives and the reasons for drawing up such objectives.

    It is also important for managers to have departmental objectives in place in order to meet the corporate objective of the Trust. Otherwise the lack of organisational objectives would result in inadequate implementation of the Central Government mandate of continuing development, and different departments would be seeking different goals rather than following a corporate policy.

    The next research question addressed the existence of PDP scheme within departments.

    This study clearly shows that few employees at the Trust are aware of the importance of both Continuing Professional Development and the Personal Development Portfolio scheme.

    According to all the responses received, there is at present no Personal Development Portfolio of any sort for non-nursing staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust. The nurses and physiotherapists have their own personal development plan tailored to meet their own needs. In the light of Central Government ■s policy in relation to all staff having a Continuing Development plan by April 2000, it makes sense for the Trust to have the PDP in place.

    The third research question asked relates to the type of PDP scheme which respondents considered the most appropriate.

    Most managers felt that the most appropriate Personal development Plans are those which allow individuals to retain control, and flexibility over their requirement. The individual in their view, should have total ownership and decide for themselves what goes into the PDP. This runs contrary to establish practice. Redman, W. (1994) states that, ■portfolio can be used to develop individuals themes and the organisations, within an organisation's own training and development programme.■ Redman seems to advocate a partnership between the individual and the organisation.

    However according to the response from some managers, it seems employees should have portfolio tailored only to their personal individual needs, and not taking the organisation's need into consideration. The PDP should be tailored to meet both the needs of the individual and the organisation. From all the interviews I had with the administrative staff, they are enthusiastic about the plans. This would indicate willingness to co-operate in the introduction of the scheme.

    The fourth question asked, whether managers could see any benefits and problems in the PDP scheme.

    The attitude of the staff, and the responses of the questionnaire indicate, every member of staff should have a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) which will be incorporated into their Personal Development Portfolio. The mere existence of a physical portfolio might be helpful to some people as it will assist them in either organising developmental needs or in providing a structure for them to build upon. This indicates the staff can see the benefit this scheme could bring and they are willing to fully participate in its development.

    The biggest drawbacks to the Trustwide scheme are:

    1) some staff may not want to use formalised tool, for recording their development, in which case it is unlikely the scheme would be of any benefit to them.

    2). Some staff would also maintain one purely because they are ■told to' or because all their colleagues are doing it. In which case, there is a possibility that a portfolio kept for the ■wrong reasons' will not do justice in reflecting it's owners true development either because it is kept without enthusiasm or because it is kept competitively against ones peers. It is one thing to own a portfolio, it is another matter when it comes down to using it.

    The fifth question was about experience of the PDP at the Trust

    Thirty percent of managers when asked this question, they honestly responded, they have little or no experience of PDP. One per cent of the managers use computerised record that is entirely private and confidential. It is not something they keep in easily accessible files on office shelves. This is in agreement with Lorriman, (1994) who talked about using software for personal development plan.

    However from discussions held with various staff members, the findings at the Trust indicate that most of the employees are not quite ready to use computer software in their developmental plans. Those who would use computerised records are those who are experienced in computing. There is still a phobia in the use of the computer. This lack of familiarity with computers is widespread. One bank staff of the Trust confirmed this problem when interviewed. She implied that most staff have little or no knowledge of computers.

    The sixth question asked staff to indicate what benefits they think would emerge after the PDP is launched.

    This question was answered by all respondents in the management team. All responded in a similar view that the only benefit of a Personal Development is as a record and tool for charting individual development. But does not have to be in place for development to occur.

    This showed, that the managers know the definition of the portfolio, but do not understand the need of a portfolio been a guide to self development. One manager thought the whole process f a portfolio helps staff take more control over their on-going development and the organisation is able to provide more structure to staff' on-going development needs.

    Question seven is about what managers think staff's attitude would be towards the PDP

    The response to this question was similar to all the other responses, majority of the managers thought some staff would welcome it while others maybe reluctant to use it, if they are not used to self reflection of any sort or other staff would want to know where the use of it will lead. i.e. what benefits will there be for them in its use. Two managers envisaged a mixed reception. Some people would welcome it and enjoy owning and maintaining it. Others would be far less enthusiastic, either seeing it as pointless or bureaucratic.

    The eight question focused on the cost of the whole scheme

    The managers response indicated, the cost of producing the pack and the time taken to explain its use, could be done at induction or for existing staff at their annual appraisal. Other managers had no clue regarding the cost. They guessed the pack would be something like a cheap ring binder with a set of photocopied inserts. Which should not cost more than five pounds. The administrative staff felt they could not answer this question, but that the cost will be small without putting a figure to it.

    The ninth question asked staff to evaluate and implement PDP

    Some responses showed, they should audit its use with a sample feedback questionnaire, whilst others felt CPD was a personal responsibility so, the individual should evaluate for themselves whether a Personal Development Portfolio was useful or not. And if an individual decides to use the Portfolio it should be on a voluntary basis, not one whereby they have to routinely present it for inspection at regular intervals. Two managers in particular stressed that if the trust was going to follow this route then managers must be prepared to explain to their staff what the portfolio is all about and to encourage its use if the staff want to use it. Equally, staff who do not want to use it should not be force to. This is contradictory , because at one point it was explained that the Trust was launching this scheme purely because it is mandatory to have in place a continuing professional development by year 2000, which means all head of department should by now be clear about the use of the portfolio and making every effort to ensure their staff are in tune with their continuing professional development programme.

    Therefore, if managers are indicating the staff could either choose to use or not to use the portfolio strongly indicates most managers are not taking the launching of the Personal Development Portfolio seriously.

    Table I
    Non-nursing employees at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust by Age groups.

    Age Groups Numbers Percentages
    15 to 29 109   18
    30 to 44 218   35
    45 to 59 242   40
    60 to 74   46     7
    Total 615 100

    This table shows the numbers of employees at the Trust. The figures were provided by the Trust's HRM Planner. Alyhough the table does not provide a gender breakdown by age of the employees, the gender breakdown has been given as follows for the total number of employees:-

    Female - 582

    Male- 114

    It would be seen from these figures that the females are over five times the number of males, and the age categories 30-44, and 45-59 constitute over 75 % of the workforce. Consequently the age categories 60-74 were not interviewed.

    With regards to Ethnicity, the breakdown of the non-nursing employees can he be seen in following table.
    Ethnic groups within the non-nursing employees at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust. With regards to Ethnicity, the breakdown of the non-nursing employees can be seen in Table II.

    Table II

    Ethnic groups within the non-nursing employees at Enfield Community Care
    NHS Trust.
    Ethnic Group Numbers Percentages
    Arabs 1 0.1
    Asian 12 1.7
    Black 12 1.7
    Black Caribbean 12 1.7
    Other 1 0.1
    Chinese 2 0.2
    European 16 3.3
    Greek Cypriot 6 0.8
    Indian 13 1.8
    Irish 7 1
    Arabic 1 0.1
    North African 1 0.1
    Not known 47 6.8
    Oriental 1 0.1
    Other 16 3.3
    Pakistan 3 0.4
    Turkish 1 0.1
    White/UK 270 39.3
    UK/Irish 32 4.6
    Undeclared 30 4.3
    British 202 29.4
    Total 686 100

    TABLE

    From the above table, white/UK, UK Irish and British constitute 73% of the workforce. Which visibly are in administrative and management. Although there is a wide range of ethnic minorities as could be seen from Table II, without any doubts the majority are in the lower paid jobs.

    This analysis would support numerous academic and governmental research on ethnic minorities within the NHS. However it should be pointed out that there are various ways of converging ethnic minorities, from my sample only one staff from the ethnic minority was interviewed. However, since ethnic minorities were not the main focus of the study, it would be suggested that future study of the impact of Continuing Professional Development and Personal Development Portfolio on this group of employees be undertaken. This would be in line with the policies of Central government and provide empirical evidence of the Trust's commitment to equal opportunities policies.

    Chapter Summary

    This chapter has presented and analysed the results of the survey particularly in relation to producing a clearer understanding, reporting on what the staff at Enfield Community Care NHS Trust think (CPD) is used for, establishing the cost of setting up a personal development portfolio, and making recommendations for action. Thus achieving the objectives of the study (see, section 3.2 ). In doing so, it has found answers to the questions posed in the research design (see sections3.4 ). It has also shown that the introduction of a PDP scheme would be well received. The next chapter will conclude this report with linkages to the issues raised on the presentation and analysis thus provided.


    6 Conclusions and recommendations

    This chapter, outlines the main conclusions and recommendations of this study. It also includes opportunities for future research.

    6.1 Conclusions

    Generally with interviews, questionnaire and the people interviewed, everybody seem to support the idea, apart from some people who do not think it is necessary. The introduction of the scheme will naturally involve a lot of money in terms of pursuing training once training needs have been identified. However, the benefit of introducing such a scheme at the Trust far outweighs any disadvantages this project might incur.

    Enfield Community Care NHS Trust has made a headway in terms of implementing this scheme. This is a very positive step not only in trying to create an efficient organisation by way of human resources, but also in meeting the targets set by Central Government. Whilst there is still a lot to be achieved, the Enfield community Care NHS Trust seem to be on the right track.

    The Personal Development Portfolio has the abilities to facilitate communication, understanding and human development at personal, team and organisational level. However, during the research process, it was noticed that the personal development portfolio has not been sold properly to the managers.

    Lack of responses from the questionnaires indicates either the managers were genuinely busy, or they did not see the importance of the portfolio. As one manager responded in the questionnaire, "the portfolio is just a ring binder, that will not cost more than five pounds." If the managers who are to help and coach the staff in their department are not quite sure what the portfolio is for, then the whole portfolio scheme will become a wasted exercise, which will achieve no results.

    Further, the pace of change in the job market means that skills have to be constantly updated. Without the core ability to learn it will be much harder for people to succeed at work. (see chapter1, section). Employers need to get more out of their employees who need to encompass broader roles and a wide range of skills.


    6.2 Recommendations

    The following recommendations are made for the Whole Trust

    1. Incentives and reward systems should be in place to help encourage people to develop,

    2. Measures to protect people against discrimination and in matters of health and safety and welfare, will help to remove barriers to individual and organisational growth. If care is not taken regarding the above, it could create major obstacle in the path of their Continuing Professional Development.

    3. Disengagement policies and practice should be in place to ensure that when people leave the organisation, positive steps are taken to facilitate their continued development after that exit point is reached, rather than leaving them with little hope or positive expectations.

    4. Although some departments have upgraded their computers, some are still using lower specification. There is therefore no uniformity amongst the whole Trust. If the Continuing Professional Development should be in place by year 2000, it is imperative that all the computer systems are upgraded, for easy access amongst the various sites of the Trust. The Trust should encourage all its staff to become computer literate. Although it will take many years to develop a system Trustwide, where, staff would use Lorriman's group-wear-Lotus for their Personal Development Portfolio, however, Information Technology should be included in the Trust's training and development activities. According to an interview conducted with a Trust bank staff, most employees are apprehensive of computers.

    5. Recruitment and selection staff should be retrained, inorder to understand fully the importance of training and the kinds of competency and motivation each employee needs. The staff should also take on board the interviewee's formal and informal experiences, at the time of selection.

    6. The induction programme should now include sessions, whereby the portfolio is introduced, and each new member allocated a portfolio.

    This should then be followed up during appraisal, where the new staff receives coaching, guidance and other forms of support and development. This would be in line with the suggestion of Kalinauchas, P. (1994). who states that effective coaching of the individual committed to continuous professional development, would open doors to realising more potential.

    7. There should be clear guidelines on recruitment and selection procedures to meet with equal opportunities principles which would be of benefit to both the organisation and staff. According to the Trust ethnic mix, Table II showed a low percentage of ethnic minorities in the non- nursing staff categories.

    8. In diagnosing training and development needs, the focus on the Trust as a learning organisation creates the need for all staff to learn how to take on a more strategic role in the development of their organisation. Training needs should not be left for too long, once identified, it should be tackled immediately. All personnel, including the managers should be actively committed to self-development on a continuous bases.

    9. The Trust may have little money or opportunity to invest in the training of their staff, however, if self-development is encouraged and supported, this will ensure regular diagnosis of the staff learning needs and would help in updating or changing the skills, knowledge and attitudes of its staff through time.

    10. There must be a strong focus on career-planning and development for staff. Attention must be given not only to those who are likely to be moving up but also to those who may not be able to move from their present job or organisational level. Because as Davis and Ddergan (1986) state, "it is as important to be concerned for the development of the 'solid citizens' and apparent dead wood" in a department as it is to have plans for the learners and the high fliers. Since the solid citizens and the dead wood may be the people who constitute the majority, and may have a strong influence on newcomers to the department. Unless ways are found to stimulate and regenerate these personnel, they may increasingly pull down the whole department.

    11. The personal development portfolio has not been sold properly to the managers, lack of responses indicates, either the managers were genuinely busy, or they did not see the importance of the portfolio. The full support of the managers is vital for the smooth running of this scheme.


    6.3 Future Research

    12 That future research be done into how Personal Development Portfolio will impact on ethnic minorities, and to look at ways in which Information Technology could be used, according to Lorriman, J. (1994) for personal development.


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