A Middlesex University resource by Andrew Roberts
Earthcore: Draft Timeline for the Core of Earth
From Manchuria to Cape Town

Linked to the social science and mental health time lines

638 - 1200 - 1300 - 1400 - 1500 - 1600 - 1700 - 1800 - 1822 - 1826 - 1828 - 1838 - 1841 - 1849 - 1856 - 1860 - 1861 - 1862 - 1863 - 1864 - 1865 - 1866 - 1867 - 1868 - 1869 - 1885 - 1886 - 1887 - 1888 - 1889 - 1890 - 1891 - 1892 - 1893 - 1894 - 1895 - 1896 - 1897 - 1898 - 1899 - 1900 - 1904 - 1914 - 1918 - 1919 - 1920 - 1921 - 1922 - 1923 - 1924 - 1925 - 1926 - 1927 - 1928 - 1929 - 1930 - 1933 - 1934 - 1935 - 1936 - 1939 - 1940 - 1941 - 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945 - 1946 - 1947 - 1948 - 1949 - 1950 - 1951 - 1952 - 1953 - 1954 - 1955 - 1956 - 1957 - 1958 - 1959 - 1960 - 1961 - 1962 - 1963 - 1964 - 1965 - 1966 - 1967 - 1968 - 1969 - 1970 - 1971 - 1972 - 1973 - 1974 - 1975 - 1976 - 1977 - 1978 - 1979 - 1980 - 1981 - 1982 - 1983 - 1984 - 1985 - 1986 - 1987 - 1988 - 1989 - 1990 - 1991 - 1992 - 1993 - 1994 - 1995 - 1996 - 1997 - 1998 - 1999 - 2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009 - 2010 - 2011 - 2012 - 2013 - 2014 - 2015 -

Pre- history

For surmises on mind and healing before we have written records click here. For interpretations of prehistoric art click here.

Historical times

According to Ackernecht, E. H. (1959 ch.2 p.9) "...the great cultures of old, such as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, vacillated between naturalistic and supernatural explanations of diseases...". For some other people's thoughts click here

Ancient Greece and Rome

Ackernecht (1959 ch.2 p.9) argues that: "The history of psychiatry, like that of scientific medicine in general, really begins with the Greeks. The Greco-Roman outlook survived unchanged until the eighteenth century, and even today we still use a large part of the Greek nomenclature... the Greeks declared themselves outspokenly in favour of naturalistic explanations and thus became the founders of scientific medicine and of psychiatry." ... For some other people's thoughts click here

638 Moslem conquest of Syria. 637 Moslem conquest of Iraq. 640 Moslem conquest of Egypt. 710 Moslems invade Spain. They went as far as France, but were defeated at Tours in 732 and moved back to Spain.

Hospitals of medieval Islam

Ackernecht (1959 ch.3 p.16-17) says:

"There is not much to say about medieval psychiatry... classical naturalistic concepts of mental illness were ... preserved in a few places and among some sections of society. This was particularly true within the hospitals which were the greatest medical achievement of the Middle Ages. Although we know that large hospitals were established as early as the fourth century, we have details about psychiatric sections in such institutions only since the founding of the great Arabic hospitals" [Muhammad]
He lists:

Baghdad as opening in 750. - Baghdad was made the capital of the Abbasid dynasty in 750 AD by the Caliph Abu-Jaifar Al-Mansur (external link). The hospital known as Baghdad Hospital was established under his successor Harun Arl-Rashid (786-809 AD) - But there were other Baghdad hospitals. (Hossam Arafa). See also Iraq history. "The most illustrious among the Arab physicians was Rhazes (865-925), the 'Persian Galen'... physician-in- chief to the Baghdad Hospital, one of the first of the ancient hospitals to have a ward devoted to the mentally ill" (Alexander and Selesnick 1966, p.62)

Cairo as opening in 873. Al-Fustat Hospital, in what is now Old Cairo, was built in 872 and was open for six centuries. Al- Mansuri Hospital was built in 1284. It was divided into different sections according to ailments. Music was used as therapy for psychiatric patients. It served 4,000 patients daily and the stay in the hospital was free. On discharge, patients were given food and money as compensation for being out of work during the hospital stay. It is now used for ophthalmology and renamed Qalawun Hospital. (Hossam Arafa). See also Ted Thornton's History of the Middle East database

Ackernecht (1959 ch.3 p.16-17) says:

"(The Arabs also accommodated the mentally ill in monasteries.) To this day the Mohammedans have unusually sympathetic attitudes to the mentally ill which are reflected in the Koran. [Bible and Koran weblinks] The Arabs were also apparently the first to build special institutions for the insane: Damascus, 800; Aleppo, 1270; Kaladun, 1283; Cairo, 1304; Fez, 1500. The Arabs achieved more in the care of the insane than in the field of psychiatry itself. Here, as in the rest of medicine, they merely repeated and expanded the Greek concepts of mental illness. Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.3 p.16-17

Psychiatric departments in general hospitals were not rare in the Middle Ages. They existed in the west since the thirteenth century, e.g. in Paris, Lyon, Montpellier, London, Munich, Braunschweig, Freiburg, Zurich, Basle etc. Here the classical traditions undoubtedly survived." Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.3 p.16-17

This somewhat mysterious (and anachronistic) passage in Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 (ch.3 p.16-17) presumably refers to places like London's Bedlam. [Does anyone have a better idea what he refers to?]

"Psychiatric departments in general hospitals were not rare in the Middle Ages. They existed in the west since the thirteenth century, e.g. in Paris, Lyon, Montpellier, London, Munich, Braunschweig, Freiburg, Zurich, Basle etc. Here the classical traditions undoubtedly survived."

Heidelberg University founded 1386 (map) - Wikipedia - University website history
See 1855 - chair of psychiatry 1871 - 1930 - 1933 - Wolfgang Huber 1964

Leipzig University (map) Founded 1409 as a breakaway from Prague University. From the early 19th century Leipzig played an important part in the development of psychology and psychiatry.

"In 1457 the Freiburg Cathedral was the site of the foundation of a university. The financier and figure after whom the institution was named was Archduke Albert 6th, of whose dominion, Western Austria, Freiburg was then a part. The "Albertina" was founded as a comprehensive university, including all important faculties of the time: Theology, Law, Medicine, and Philosophy. Its purpose was to educate young theologians and administrators. Some of the first students lived in "Bursen" (hostels) on the site of what is now known as the "Old University," where the first lectures also took place. Classes were held in Latin." (source)

In 1403/1404 Bethlem, London, had six insane and three sane inmates.

15th Century Spain

Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.3 p.21-22 speaks of the " Renaissance as an age of contradictions, saying that "ruthless persecution of the insane as witches" goes alongside "everywhere signs of a deep sympathy for the unfortunate sick", manifest in the "creation of numerous institutions for the insane" - particularly in Spain: Spain experienced a "golden era" of medicine and of civilization in general. Here Arabian influences were felt most strongly. Institutions for the mentally ill were opened in:

Valencia (east coast) in 1409 the Hospital de los Pobres Inocentes or Casa dels Fols or Hospital de l'inoscents (See Muslim Heritage. Valencia). May have been the first purpose built asylum in Europe. Its purpose became more general and in 1493 it became "Our Lady of the Innocents and the Forsaken". In 1512 the City Council united all the hospitals of the city in one "Hospital General" receiving all types of umwanted people. Thirty inmates died when the Hospital General was destroyed by a fire in 1545. It was replaced by a new building, which included a special department for children. "In virtue of the law of June 20, 1849, committee appointed by the Provincial Charity Board took care of the direction and administration of the hospital, which since then has been known as the Provincial Hospital." Lopez Ibor 2006/2008

inocente: (in Spanish) like a baby in that he or she cannot be held responsible for his or her actions. December 28th is Dia de Los Inocentes: the day of the holy innocents slaughtered by Herod and (nowadays) the day of fools when the people of Valencia throw flour at one another and do other silly things. The full title of the patron saint of Valencia is Nostra Dona Sancta dels Folls Innocents e Desamparats - Our lady of the lunatics, insane and the forsaken.

Others followed: "Fools, who until then had wandered through the fields, been collected in some monasteries, or lived and died outside the walls of the city, began to receive attention". Lopez Ibor 2006/2008

Barcelona Hospital de la Santa Cruz de Barcelona founded in 1229, received insane people from 1412 [But remained a general hospice]. Rebuilt in 1680, transformed by Pi i Molist in 1889, lasted until 1978. Lopez Ibor 2006/2008

Zaragoza (Saragossa) (north east) in 1425 the Hospital de Nuestra Señora de Gracia founded by Alfonso 5th. - "The French psychiatric reformer Philippe Pinel visited the mental hospital in Zaragoza and reportedly incorporated some of his observations into his revolutionary program in France" de Rivera 2002 - "The Zaragoza Hospital was completely destroyed by the bombing of August 3, 1808, the eve of the entry French troops to the city. This is the twilight of the psychiatric care tradition in Spain." Lopez Ibor 2006/2008

Seville (south west) in 1436 Hospital de los Inocentes de Sevilla founded by Marco Sancho, promoted hydrotherapy

Palma de Mallorca (Balearic Islands) in 1456. Founded within the Hospital General ["The hospice was founded in 1456, when three older hospitals were merged into one: the Hospital de Sant Andreu, the Hospital de Santa Catalina and the Hospital de Sant Esperit" (source)].

Toledo (central) in 1480 (The Hospital de Innocentes)

Valladolid (north) in 1489 Hospital de Inocentes de la ciudad de Valladolid (Hospital of innocents from the city of Valladolid) founded by Sancho Velázquez de Cuéllar, a rich citizen who bequeathed (will 13.2.1489) his house in Valladolid to be made a hospital for people who "lack of brains or natural judgment, but not for old age, as for these there are already houses of mercy". In December 1609, King Philip granted a licence for charitable collections to be made for the hospital, throughout the region of Seville, in view of the costs of maintaining its residents for life. [History to 1932]

1492 Columbus

16th Century Spanish asylums

Hospital Real de Granada (Granada Royal hospital) (south east) founded by the Catholic Monarchs in 1511, received people with mental disorders from 1527

20.1.1539 Juan Ciudad Duarte (Saint Juan de Dios) destroyed his books and wandered naked through the city. Children threw stones and everyone made fun of him. He was locked in the Royal Hospital as a madman. Founder of what is now the "Orden Hospitalaria de San Juan de Dios" (Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God)

1546 City of London took control of both Bethlem and St Bartholomew.

1566 Some few decades later the repentant veteran soldier, Bernadino Alvarez, built a similar hospital (San Hippolyto) in newly conquered Mexico. This was the first of its kind on the American continent. A sympathetic understanding for the mentally ill is also strongly expressed in the writings of the Spanish humanist, Juan Louis Vives (1492-1540). Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.3 p.21-22

Asylums outside Spain: "The opening of special institutions in Spain was followed in the 16th century by the founding of similar hospitals in Rome, Paris, Amsterdam, Marseilles, Avignon, Hamburg, Lubeck and elsewhere". Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.3 p.21-22

Rome: pazzarella, or place for mad people, may have existed in Rome since the mid-14th century. OR "The pazzarella at Rome already mentioned was founded during the sixteenth century by Ferrantez Ruiz and the Bruni, father and son, all three Navarrese". A legacy enabled the management, with the approbation of Pope Pius 4th, to open a new house in 1561, in the Via Lata. (Catholic Encyclopedia)

Dolhuys, Amsterdam, 1562 may have been the second purpose built asylum in Europe.

In 1641 the Charenton Asylum was founded in one of the suburbs of Paris, near the Park of Vincennes, and was placed under monastic rule. After the foundation of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, the charge of this institution was given to them (Catholic Encyclopedia). See 1826

Ackernecht's (1959) (ch.4 p.29) decription of 17th century institutional developments is a summary of Foucault:

"The absolutist governments of the mid-seventeenth century decided to resolve their social crisis by incarcerating all the poor. In Paris this occurred in May 1657. The men were taken to the Bicetre, the women to the Salpetriere. In France these pauper prisons were deceitfully called "Hopital general"; in Germany, more truthfully, "Zuchthaus" [discipline- house]; in Great Britain "workhouse."

"Halle was founded in 1694 by the elector Frederick 3rd of Brandenburg as a centre for the Lutheran party. It has been called the first modern university, largely because it soon renounced religious orthodoxy in favour of objectivity and rationalism, scientific attitudes, and free investigation. Canonical texts were replaced by systematic lectures, and disputations by seminars; German took the place of Latin as the language of instruction; an elective system replaced the traditional formalized curriculum; and professors were given almost complete control of their work. The relative liberalism of Halle was adopted by Göttingen a generation later and was gradually taken up by all German, and then most American, universities". (source) - See HalleWittenberg

From "Focus on psychiatry in South Africa" Robin Emsley, The British Journal of Psychiatry (2001) 178: 382-386:

"Institutional medical practice began in South Africa over 300 years ago with the establishment of a small hospital in Cape Town by Jan van Riebeeck. The first hospital to cater specifically for mentally deranged persons was established in 1711. It was an apartment that was added to the new Cape Hospital, which had been completed in 1699 by Simon van der Stel." See 19th century

Power writers born in Africa

1705 Ukawsaw Gronniosaw born in Bornu (now north-eastern Nigeria). Age 15 taken by a Gold Coast ivory merchant and sold to a Dutch captain for two yards of check cloth. He was bought by an American in Barbados and resold to a Calvinist minister, Theodorus Frelinghuysen, in New York. - writing 1772

1745 Olaudah Equiano born in what is now eastern Nigeria. Kidnapped and sold into slavery in Barbados and Virginia, he was purchased by a lieutenant in the Royal Navy as a present for friends in England. He was given the name Gustavus Vassa. Relief of Black Poor - writing 1789

1753 Fatou born, probably in what is now Gambia or Senegal. About 1760 she was kidnapped and sold into slavery. She was exported to Boston, Massachusetts, on a ship called The Phillis, arriving on 11.7.1761. She was bought as a servant for Susanna Wheatley and renamed Phillis Wheatley. writing 1773

1757 Quobna Ottobah Cugoano born near Ajumako, in modern-day Ghana. A Fanti. About 1760 sold into slavery and transported to Grenada to work on a plantation. He worked in the Lesser Antilles until he was purchased in 1772 by an English merchant, who took him to England and had Cuguano baptized as John Stuart. Gained his freedom following the Somerset ruling in 1772. - writing 1787

1737 University of Gottingen founded by George 2nd, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover.

1749 Gottfried Achenwall (1719-1772), professor at Gottingen, used the term Statistik in his Staatsverfassung der heutigen vornehmsten europäischen Reiche und Völker im Grundrisse [Political Constitution of the present principal European countries and Peoples]

1779 Idea Fidei Fratrum, oder kurzer Begriff der christlichen Lehre in den evangelischen Brüdergemeinen, dargelegt von August Gottlieb Spangenberg. "Idea fidei fratrum, or a short conceptualisation of Christian doctrine in the [Moravian Church], set forth by August Gottlieb Spangenber". Translated into English by Benjamin La Trobe as An Exposition of Christian Doctrine in 1796.

117: "Of the WILL of GOD concerning our SALVATION".

"If we sum up the scriptural doctrine concerning the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, we may confidently affirm, that God would have all men to be saved. He has shown the most fervent desire, and the most earnest will that we all should be saved; which is evident from his having given his own and only Son, to endure the greatest distress, and death itself, that we all might live through him. (John 3:17 and Romans 8:32.) It is plain from 1 Timothy 2:6 and 1 John 2:2 that it is the ardent desire of our Lord Jesus Christ to save us all."

"The eighteenth century saw the creation of numerous asylums which continued into the nineteenth century and which provided the material structure for the future development of psychiatry. We shall mention only a few: Bologna (1710); Warsaw (1726); Berlin (1728); Dublin (1745); Ludwigsburg (1746); London (1759); Deventer (1760); Manchester and Copenhagen (1766); Williamsburg (1773); Vienna (1784); Frankfurt on Main (1785)".

"at the end of the century... Abraham Joly in Geneva (1787); Pinel in the Paris Bicetre (1793); William Tuke, the Quaker, of York (1796); Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759-1820) after 1788 in Tuscany, and John [Johann] Gottfried Langermann (1768-1852) in 1805 in Bayreuth, struck off the chains from the insane.".[in German: "Befreiung der Irren von ihren Ketten" Sounds good!] Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.5 pp 34-35

Langerman was superintendent of an asylum near Bayreuth, Bavaria. Alexander and Selesnick say that it was largely due to his efforts that "other humanitarian hospitals were established at Seidburg and Leubus, in Prussia"

Austria: aeiou: annotatable electronic information for Austria

Psychiatrische Krankenhäuser


1784 Narrenturm ("fools' tower) Constructed in the grounds of Vienna's Old General Hospital. It was paid for by Emperor Joseph 2nd, who also gave instructions as to its design. It is a circular building with 139 single cells. Access is only by one door. The layout of the building was used to classify patients.

Neil Sturrock (email 30.12.2006):

"The main difference between this and the Panopticon was that the supervision was carried out from a guards' building which bisected the Narrenturm rather than a round tower at the centre"

Cutting provided by Neil Sturrock

The most interesting part of the hospital is the asylum behind the Josephinum, nicknamed the Narrenturm (tower of the insane) by the locals. The insane used to be housed here but it is now the Museum of Medical History. It was the only building in the immediate area of the hospital that was entirely newly constructed.

Isidor Canevale created a cylindrical building whose exterior was originally entirely rusticated. The slit-like windows give the building the appearance of a fortification, and similar designs are more commonly to be found in prison architecture than in hospital design. Behind the narrow openings for daylight there are the radially arranged cells, with a walkway connecting with the court. They can only be reached through the guardians' wing which divides the court in two. Through this arrangement, the care and supervision of patients could be maintained with a minimum level of staffing

See below for 19th century elsewhere

November 1836 The Rev. William Barnett was placed in "a private lunatic asylum" by the police authorities of Vienna.

"He was always endeavouring to impress upon the minds of those who called upon him that he had been for the space of 45 hours in hell...The Rev. Mr Barnett also laboured under the delusion that his banker at Vienna issued none but forged notes; when at the asylum, near Vienna, he fasted for three days and three nights, and gave as his reason that God had ordered him to do so, and at the same time had also ordered him to lie in bed during that period, and to keep his room darkened; he also imagined that the food in the asylum was poisoned, and would have starved himself had not the medical officers compelled him to take nourishment". (The Times 19.7.1837. Cutting provided by Richard Shrubb)

8.6.1837 John Livesay and "Dr Koestler, the medical officer of the lunatic asylum at Vienna" where William Barnett was confined, left Vienna with the Rev. Barnett, to take him to England, where he was confined at Clapham Retreat.

1839 A. Leopold Koestler (or Köstler) Bemerkungen über mehrere Irrenanstalten von England, Frankreich, und Belgien, (Remarks over several lunatic asylums of England, France, and Belgium) published Vienna.

1848-1853 the Lower Austrian provincial psychiatric hospital in Viennaïs 9th district was opened.

In 1853 use of the Narrenturm ceased

"In the course of the 19th century psychiatric hospitals were established in all Austrian provinces, which, in addition to university clinics for psychiatry, provide most of the in-patient psychiatric care in Austria".

1903-1907 The pavilion-like Lower Austrian provincial hospital for the treatment and care of psychiatric patients "Am Steinhof" (today the Psychiatric Hospital of the City of Vienna, located at Baumgartner Hähe) was established. See the church. Steht man im Innenraum der Kirche, vergißt man leicht, daß das Gotteshaus für Geisteskranke konzipiert wurde "If one stands in the interior of the church, one forgets easily that it is designed as a place of worship for mental patients"

Johann Christian Reil (1759-1813). Graduated in Halle 1782. After 1787, professor at Halle and, at the same time, the official physician of the city of Halle (Stadtphysikus). His Rhapsodieen über die Anwendung der psychischen Curmethode auf Geisteszerrüttungen (Rhapsodies on the Application of Psychic Treatment Methods to Mental Disturbances) was published in 1803.

"Ueber den Begriff der Medicin und ihre Verzweigungen, besonders in Beziehung auf die Berichtigung der Topik der Psychiaterie" (On the term of medicine and its branches, especially with regard to the rectification of the topic in psychiatry) by Reil published in Beyträge zur Beförderung einer Kurmethode auf psychischem Wege in 1808. - See psychiatry and its alleged 200th birthday and index of official starts.

In 1810 Reil became professor of Medicine at the newly founded University of Berlin. Campaigned unsuccessfully for the foundation of psychiatric institutes in Berlin and Halle. Coined term Psychiaterie in a publication of 1808.

Andreas Marneros in the British Journal of Psychiatry - (offline)

1810 University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) founded by Wilhelm von Humboldt.

Johann Christian Reil professor of medicine 1810

Georg Friedrich Hegel Professor of Philosophy from 1818

Leopold von Ranke Professor of history? 1824 to 1871.

"At the university, Ranke became deeply involved in the dispute between the followers of the legal professor Friedrich Carl von Savigny who emphasized the varieties of different periods of history and the followers of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel who saw history as the unfolding of a universal story. Ranke supported Savigny and criticized the Hegelian view of history as being a one-size-fits-all approach". (Wikipedia 24.12.2010)

From "Focus on psychiatry in South Africa" Robin Emsley, The British Journal of Psychiatry (2001) 178: 382-386:

In South Africa "The Old Somerset Hospital was the first hospital offering care for the insane from its inception in 1818. However, these facilities were regarded as inappropriate for this purpose, and in 1846 the prison colony on Robben Island was converted into a hospital for lepers, lunatics and other chronically ill patients. By 1912, the Robben Island Infirmary housed 500 mental patients. During this period, several other `lunatic asylums' were built, ensuring that mentally ill patients were largely isolated from the community. These included the Town Hill Asylum in Pietermaritzburg, Fort England Mental Hospital in Grahamstown, Valkenberg Lunatic Asylum in Cape Town, and the Pretoria Lunatic Asylum"

1817 The two Prussian universities of Halle and Wittenberg merged External link - archive
Gotthard Guggenmoos. Born 5.5.1775 Stötten/Auerberg (Germany), Died 29.1.1838 Hallein (Salzburg, Austria). Private teacher. Taught children with impaired hearing and speech from 1812. In 1829 opened in Salzburg his "Stummen und Kretinenschule" (institute for deaf-mutes and cretins). "The first school for the mentally impaired in German-speaking countries". Closed in 1835 for financial reasons.

Johann Jakob Guggenbühl(1816-1863). "In the face of much opposition, built the first institution for cretins on the Abendberg near Interlaaken in 1840". In 1845 Extracts from the First Report of the Institution on the Abendberg, near Interlachen, Switzerland; for the Cure of Cretinism, by Guggenbühl, published in London. London.]

"The immortal soul is essentially the same in every creature born of woman" (Guggenbühl)

Ackernecht says (1959 ch.8 pp 63-64):
"German administrative psychiatry flourished during this period. Modern institutions were opened everywhere"

The examples he gives (flushed left), with others (flushed right) are:

Sonnenstein opened in 1811

21.10.1811 Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773-1843) was appointed the first associate professor of "psychic therapy" at Leipzig University. This has been decribed as the "first university chair in psychiatry". (Although an associate professor did not have his own chair and when Heinroth became a full professor it was in "medicine") Coined the word "psychosomatic". According to Ackernecht (1959 ch.8 p.60) Heinroth "regarded mental illness purely as a disease of the soul and essentially as a 'lack of freedom'. God had punished the sinner by depriving him of his freedom of will." See A Short History of Psychiatry at Leipzig University An English translation (by Dirk Carius 12.10.2004) of: Eine Kurze Geschichte der Leipziger Universitätspsychiatrie by Holger Steinberg, Historian Archives for the History of Psychiatry in Leipzig.

Prague (capital of Bohemia) opened 1822

Siegburg, north of Bonn, south of Koln (Cologne, capital Rhenish Province of Prussia), opened in 1825 (map). Under the direction of Carl Wigand Maximilian Jacobi

Dusseldorf opened in 1826 Rhenish Province? of Prussia

Hildesheim (Hanover) opened in 1827

Colditz opened in 1829 (between Leipzig and Dresden in Saxony) (map)

Sachsenberg "Irren-Heilanstalt Sachsenberg", opened in 1830 Under the direction of K. (C.F.?) Flemming (1799-1880). (external link) (external link - blanket dated just before Nazi period) "Sachsenberg psychiatric asylum in Schwerin". Museums list includes Museum at the Sachsenberg at Schwerin. Address: 19055 Schwerin, Wismar Strasse 393. The "former" lunatic asylum was opened 1830 as the first German purpose built lunatic asylum. Exhibitions about the history of psychiatry: in the former water tower.

Winnenthal opened in 1834 (map). Superintendent: A. Zeller, 1804-1872, Griesinger's teacher

Halle opened in 1836 (map?) Under the direction of H. Damerow, 1798-1866, a pupil of Esquirol

Illenau Institution, near Achern (map) in the Black Forest, opened in 1842 Superintendent: Christian Roller, 1802-1878. history link

"During this period 30 institutions were opened in Germany, 18 in France and as many as 38 in Great Britain.

Thus the directors of institutions, whose speculations were constantly exposed to the test of reality through their daily contact with the patients among whom they lived, became the leaders of German psychiatry between 1830 and 1860. Three of the best known (Damerow, Roller and Flemming) founded the "Allgemeine Zeitschrift fr Psychiatrie" in 1844, taking as their model the French "Annales" with whose editors they were in close contact. This was the first German psychiatric journal which was to survive. Except for the somaticist, Flemming, their philosophy was an anthropological one based on the unity of mind, body and soul." Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.8 pp 63-64


1822: "En 1822, les docteurs Voisin et Falret ouvrirent á Vanves une maison de santé pour le traitement des aliénés." external link. Jean-Pierre Falret (1794-1870) with his friend Felix Voisin (1794-1872) founded the famous private hospital in Vanves. Falret began his work with studies on suicide. Voisin, who was much influenced by Gall, devoted himself above all to the study and training of the feebleminded. (Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.6 p.51) [See Jacobi]


1826: Esquirol's "private sanatorium in Ivry and his institution at Charenton, which were built according to his own plans and which he administered from 1826, were model institutions. Charenton (at present under the direction of Professor Baruk who lovingly guards Esquirol's beautiful library) is to this day a remarkable place. The asylums in Saint- Yon, Le Mans, Montpellier and Marseilles were also built according to his plans". (Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 ch.6 p.50) - [Rouen was also designed on Esquirol's principles]


1828 Ospedale provinciale de' mentecatti in the Papal State of Pesaro opened. Known as Ospizio di San Benedetto di Pesaro - Manicomio provinciale di San Benedetto di Pesaro - Ospedale psichiatrico provinciale San Benedetto di Pesaro from 1929. Until 1834 the asylum was managed by an accountant and a group of physicians in the city were responsible for the care of the sick. From 1834, a resident doctor ran the asylum and a team of doctors and nurses was recruited to work exclusively within the asylum. In 1871 a competition was announced: submitted an application 22 doctors, including Cesare Lombroso, who from 1872 took over the leadership of the hospital, making improvements of sanitary conditions, setting up study rooms and a pathology laboratory. A men's school in the psychiatric hospital started in 1871 and a women's school in 1872: teaching patients and nurses. The early years of the twentieth century saw small and medium enhancements. In 1928, the Board of Supervisors on asylums (introduced by Law no. 36 of 14.2.1904) denounced the serious deficiency of the mental health and hygiene of Pesaro. Closed 1981. (source).


30.6.1838 "Avec la loi du 30 juin 1838, qui fait obligation … chaque département de se doter d'un asile d'aliénés (ou de traiter avec un asile d'un autre département), leur nombre s'accroit au fil des décennies (en 1865, 41 asiles départementaux, 18 quartiers d'hospice, 16 asiles privés faisant fonction d'asiles publics, et la Maison impériale de Charenton), et celui des lits approche les 55.000 en 1888". Histoire de la psychiatrie en France

1838: The old hospital at Maréville has a gatehouse dating back to the eighteenth century. After the French Revolution it progressively become an asylum for lunatics. By accepting patients from other departments. it achieved 500 patients by 1814. From 1818 it was run by the Sisters of Saint Charles. Then, in 1838, it became the departmental hospital for the insane. (Asile d'Aliénés de Maréville at Nancy). Benedict Augustin Morel was director from 1848 to 1856, when he was appointed director of the mental asylum at Saint-Yon in Rouen. Charles Joseph Jouy was confined in the asylum in 1867 In 1879, Mareville was the most important asylum in France (French Wikipedia). In 1949 he took the name of centre psychotherapique and it becomes a public health facility on 30.10.1970.

1841: Auxerre, Bourgoyne

1848 and 1849 European missionaries saw the mountains in East Africa that are called (from African languages) Kilimanjaro and Kenya. Kenya gave its name to Kenya Colony (previously British East Africa) in 1920 and, after that, it became usual to call the mountain "Mount Kenya".

1863-1869: St Anne, Paris

click on the image to visit
the website I stole it from Hospital Perray-Vaucluse built on an estate acquired in Épinay-sur- Orge by the Department of the Seine in 1863. Opened 26.1.1869. One of five mental health institutions sectorialised on Paris. It later absorbed Esquirol, Maison Blanche and Sainte-Anne. (source) - See Groupe d'information sur le Asiles 1972

From 1855 Wilhelm Maximillian Wundt (1832-1920) worked with Mueller and then Helmhotz at Heidelberg University where he was appointed professor in 1864. From 1867 he taught physiological psychology and in 1873 published the first volume of The Principles of Physiological Psychology. In 1874 Wundt was appointed to professor of inductive philosophy at the University of Zurich and in 1875 professor at the University of Leipzig, where he remained for forty-five years. He was given his first laboratory (one room) in 1875. In 1879 he opened his first full laboratory with more rooms and equipment. In 1883 he founded the first (?) psychological journal, which was called Philosophische Studien (Philosophical Studies). In 1897 he was given his own building for a laboratory. Died in Grossbothen near Leipzig in 1920 (external link)
External link: Emil Kraepelin

Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1868):   "In 1860, he was appointed medical clinic in Zurich and director of the university psychiatric clinic of the Burghölzli. These new functions allowed him to initiate the official teaching of psychiatry, which he continued in Berlin until 1865"

Ackernecht says (1959 ch.9 p.74):

"...the period which was now to begin was that of "university psychiatry," and "As far as its orientation was concerned, psychiatry was now predominantly brain psychiatry".

He notes the establishment of these professorial chairs in psychiatry in universities within the German speaking area of Europe:

Berlin in 1864

Gottingen in 1866

Zurich in 1869

18.1.1871 German Empire:
Political unification of large parts of German speaking Europe

Heidelberg in 1871 -

Badische [Baden] Universitäts-Irrenklinik, the first university hospital for the insane, opened in 1878. (External link to history). The first chair holder C. Fürstner was neuropathologist. In 1890, he moved to Strasbourg. Emil Kraepelin was in charge of it from 1891 to 1903. He was succeded by Karl Bonhoeffer (two months only) and Franz Nissl (1904-1918). See 1909. Karl Wilmanns ran the clinic from 1918 to 1933. See 1919. Wilmanns was removed by the Nazis. His Nazi successor, Carl Schneider, committed suicide on 11.12.1946. Kurt Schneider was chair of psychiatry from 1945 to 1955, Walter Ritter von Baeyer from 1955 to 1972. Wolfgang Huber began working at the clinic 1964. In 1970 Huber was at the centre of the post-1968 student conflicts in the clinic leading to the formation of the SPK. Werner Janzarik (1973-1988) restored order. From 1989 to 2009 Christoph Mundt, who wrote a "History of Psychiatry in Heidelberg". Sabine C Herpertz took over in 2009

Vienna in 1877

Leipzig and Bonn in 1882.

13.6.1886 Dr Bernhard von Gudden and his patient, Ludvig 2nd king of Bavaria, drowned in Lake Starnberg near Castle Berg, Bavaria. The official explanation is that the king murdered his psychiatrist and then committed suicide. external link

German History - mid-ninteeenth century


2.1.1861 Wilhelm 1st of Prussia. (b.1797 d.1888)


September 1862 Bismarck chief minister of Prussia. In 1860s he flirted with the Lassalleans


1863 Leipzig congress of workers' unions founds Lassallean socialist party [ADAV]. Ferdinand Lassalle (d. 1864) wanted producers' co-ops funded by the state


1864 Danish war over Schleswig Holstein. Weber born

First International Workingmen's Association established by French and English Labour leaders in London (dissolved 1876). Marx drew up its Inaugural Address - a much more moderate document than the Communist Manifesto (1848). The Lassallean's did not join.



1866 "Seven Weeks War" of Prussia and her allies with Austria and other German states. - Old German ties cut. The Austrian Empire advocated Grossdeutschland, a concept whereby all German-speaking lands would unite. Prussia however, preferred Kleindeutschland whereby all German states except those in Austria, would be led by Prussia. The outcome of the Prussian victory was the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation and the termination of Austrian dominance of the German nations. Prussian victory was followed by the establishment of two German blocks:


1867 North German Federation. Constitution based on the Frankfurt Constitution of 1849. [Institutions established (e.g. Bundesrat and Reichstag) continued throughout German Empire (from 1871)]. National Liberal Party founded. [From 1867 to 1878 Bismark supported the Liberals: Free trade policies]

1867 Austro-Hungarian Empire (See Wikipedia Austria-Hungary)



1869 "Eisenach Party" (SAP) [South German Party] founded by Marx's German followers (including Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel). The Eisenach Programme adhered in general to the line of the International.


click on the image to visit
the website I stole it from In 1870 an estate in west Netherlands was purchased by Doctors E. Coudewater van den Bogaert and L. Pompe of the Society for the care of the insane. Here they established the asylum called Coudewater. See 1970.

14.7.1870 Ems telegram

18.7.1870 Decree of Papal Infallibility

Liebknecht and Bebel were imprisoned for opposing the war
19.7.1870 French declaration of war on Prussia
August: French defeats
1.9.1870: Surrender of Napoleon 3rd and MacMahon at Sedan

18.1.1871 German Empire:
Political unification of large parts of German speaking Europe

18.1.1871: German Empire proclaimed at Versailles. Wilhelm 1st: Emperor Bismarck: Imperial Chancellor. German Unification.

28.1.1871: Armistice

1871 (to 1878 or 1887: see below) KULTURKAMPF ("Conflict of Beliefs") between Bismarck and Catholic Church. Prussian "Falk Laws" of May 1873 completely subordinated the church to state regimentation. Election of Pope Leo 13th in 1878 began negotiations which restored most Catholic rights by 1887. [Palmer].

1871 Centre Party formed.

Period of boom



1873 Verein fur Sozialpolitik (Association for Social-Politics?) formed

5.6.1873 Treaty between Her Majesty [Queen Victoria] and the Sultan of Zanzibar for the Suppression of the Slave Trade. In the name of the Most High God.



Khartoum - the Congo - "Darkest Africa"

29.1. 1881 Muhammad Ahmad announced his claim to be the Mahdi so as to prepare the way for the second coming of the Prophet Isa (Jesus).

1883/1884 British General Charles George Gordon accepted an offer from Leopold 2nd, King of the Belgians, to take charge of the Congo. However, he was then asked by the British government to proceed to the Sudan, where he had been Governor.

13.3. 1884 Troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad began a siege of Khartoum. Charles George Gordon killed.

15,11.1884 to 26.2.1885 Berlin Conference of European powers - Kongokonferenz (Congo Conference) - Afrikakonferenz (Africa Conference) -

26.1. 1885 Khartoum fell to the Mahdists.

7.8.1885 Arrival of five German warships to intimidate the Sultan of Zanzibar who had protested against the activities of the Gesellschaft für Deutsche Kolonisation. "The British and Germans agreed to divide the mainland between themselves, and the Sultan had no option but to agree". (Wikipedia)

1885 to 1908 État indépendant du Congo (The Congo Free State), which "was privately controlled by Leopold 2nd, King of the Belgians through... the Association internationale africaine." Rubber, copper and other minerals in the upper Lualaba River basin. (Wikipedia)

1886 to 1889 "Emin Pasha Relief Expedition" by Europeans and Americans under Henry Morton Stanley, for the relief of Emin Pasha, General Charles Gordon's besieged governor of Equatoria. Reported 1890 in In Darkest Africa.

2.9. 1898 Mahdist forces defeated by British forces under Herbert Kitchener. In 1899, Khartoum became the capital of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

1904 British Parliamentary Papers, 1904, LXII, Cd. 1933 [Roger Casement's report] - Wikipedia

1907 Babikir Badri (1856 - 1954), a survivor of 1898, was given permission to start a school for girls. He "began his secular school for girls in a mud hut with nine of his own daughters and eight of those of his neighbors. From this humble beginning, the Badri family has nurtured private education in Sudan for over three generations. Babiker's son, Yusuf, carried on his father's work, and in 1966 established the Ahfad University College for Women in Omdurman across the Nile from Khartoum and near the site of the battle in which Babiker had fought as a young Sudanese soldier."

March 1913 Charlotte Mew's Men and Trees 2 "human sacrifices are still being offered by American and European syndicates to the sacred tree of civilisation, the rubber tree. Civilisation demands speed, speed demands rubber, and rubber, coated with blood and slime, turns quickly into gold. We have almost forgotten the Congo".

1966 Ahfad University College for Women ["steady growth of Ahfad Institutions through the 1970s and 1980s"]
1982 Ahfad University College National Committee formed to make plans and raise funds for a new campus and library.
1983 Arabicization
1989 Islamic legal code
1991: New library
1995 Ahfad University for Women
2015 Badri women are strong


1882-1884 Famine in what became Kenya. A smallpox epidemic broke out at Sagalla and quickly spread across the country. Another epidemic occurred during famine in 1898. It also hit Nyanza Province in 1899, 1909 and 1915.




Sociology in Germany

"Following an interest in German thought," [Albion] "Small went on to study history, social economics and social politics at the universities of Berlin (1879-1880) and Leipzig (1880-1881). He also spent some time at Weimar and at the British Museum in London. His experiences in Europe subsequently shaped his writings as a sociologist" (external source)

Simmel: See dictionary Interaction

Georg Simmel (1858-1918) taught at the University of Berlin as a Privatdozent from 1885 to 1901, and then as Ausserordentlicher Professor to 1914, when he was appointed Professor at the University of Strasbourg.

[Simmel's] "courses ranged from logic and the history of philosophy to ethics, social psychology, and sociology. He lectured on Kant, Schopenhauer, Darwin, and Nietzsche, among many others. Often during a single academic year he would survey new trends in sociology as well as in metaphysics" (Lewis Coser External Link)

Albion Small published translations of Simmel into English in the American Journal of Sociology in 1896 - 1898 - 1902 - 1904 - 1906 and 1910

1900 Georg Simmel Philosophy of Money. From 1900 he "devoted himself for over a decade primarily to the fledgling discipline of sociology. At that point there were still no chair of sociology in Germany" (Lloyd Spencer) - weblinks

1908 Georg Simmel's Sociologie attempted an analysis, classification and interpretation of several forms of social relations, such as isolation, contact, superordination, subordination, opposition, persistence or continuity of social group, social differentiation, and integration. Sociologie incorporated previous studies such Über soziale Differenzierung - Das Problem der Sociologie - Comment les formes sociales se maintennent.

Carl Peters (or Karl) (27.9.1856-10.9.1918) founded the Gesellschaft für Deutsche Kolonisation (Society for German Colonization) in March 1884. - See East Africa

1885 Declaration of a German protectorate in the Africa Great Lakes region.

Lutheran and Moravian missionaries began to arrive from Germany. They took over the work of British Missions.

1886 Evangelische Mission nach Deutsch Ostafrika. From 1891 it was led by Friedrich von Bodelschwingh, Senior of the Bethel Institution. See Lutindi

British and allied troops effectively controlled East Africa from October 1916, but the German forces kept fighting until November 1918. The larger part of German East Africa became Tanganyika Territory administered by the British from 20.7.1922.


6.6.1886 Hans Prinzhorn born in Hemer, Westphalia. After studying art history and philosophy (Ph.D. Vienna 1908) he trained as a singer. He then qualified as a doctor and became a psychiatrist. From 1919 to 1921 he built up a Museum for Pathological Art at Heildelberg. His Bildnerei der Geisteskranken (Artistry of the Mentally Ill) in 1922 made comparisons with the art of children, "primitives" and contemporary art. died 14.6.1933





22.1.1891 Antonio Gramsci born. See 1926 - 1929 - 1934 - death: 1937 - 1957

19.12.1891 Carl Schneider born in Gembitz im Kreis Mogilno, Posen. In 1926, he published an article on psychology and psychiatry and in 1930 a book on The Psychology of schizophrenics, In this he said he sought to overcome "therapeutic nihilism". He joined the Nazi party on 1.5.1932. In October 1933 he took over the Heidelberg Clinic. Under him the research and courses offered by the clinic was narrowed to racial hygiene and genetic biology related topics. He was recruited to the T4 Programme autumn 1939 as one of its top evaluaters of who should be killed in the "euthanasia" programme. (At least 200,000 patients were killed under this programme). With funds from the "euthanasia center", Carl Schneider led from 1942 a research program to differentiate the various forms of "idiocy" and epilepsy. As part of this, some (21?) children examined at the Heidelberg Clinic were then sent to the Kinderfachabteilung (Childrens department) at the Eichberg state clinic (asylum), where they were killed with the intention of having their brains returned to Heidelberg for research.



In 1893 the Imperial British East Africa Company transferred its administration rights of territory consisting mainly of Buganda Kingdom to the British Government. In 1894 the Uganda Protectorate was established, and the territory was extended beyond the borders of Buganda to an area that roughly corresponds to that of present-day Uganda. (Wikipedia) - Typewritten postage stamps (1895) developed into printed ones for the Uganda Protectorate, but from 1903 stamps were for East Africa and Uganda, then Kenya and Uganda (1922-1927) and then Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika/Tanzania (1935-1976). See British East Africa . Prison asylums 1920s - 1967 - Mental Health Uganda 1997


1895 Plantesamfund published by Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (1841-1924), professor of botany and director of the botanical garden at the university of Copenhagen (1185-1911) Previously (1882-1885) professor of botany at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm - (Wikipedia - biographical sketch)

Plantesamfund was translated into German in 1896 as Lehrbuch der Ökologischen Pflanzengeographie. An extended version of this was translaated into English in 1909 as Oecology of Plants; An Introduction to the Study of Plant- Communities

"In this work Warming developed the notion of the plant community, relating this unifying concept to more particular conditions of plant physiognomy and adaptation, and to varying substrates and moisture regimes. Through this book Warming effectively invented the field of plant ecology, also establishing a new foundation for the ecological side of plant geography studies" (External source)

Henry Cowles learnt Danish in order to read Warming

Arthur Tansley learnt German in 1894 and read Warming in German. This reading gave him the ecological framework of thought.

[See Burgess 1925]


The British "sphere of influence", agreed in Berlin in 1885 extended inland across the future Kenya and after 1894 included Uganda as well. On 1.7.1895 the British government proclaimed a protectorate. (See Wikipedia)

See 1900 colonial asylums and Njenga 2002

Tanganyika Territory became part of British East Africa after the first world war.

1896/1897 In Lutindi (in the Usambara Mountain), in what is now in Korogwe, Tanga, Tanzania, the German "Bethel Mission" (Lutheran) established a slave sanctuary for children who had been freed from slavery. With the decline of slavery Lutindi developed as a school and orphanage. Asylum established 1904

1896. Adolf Meyer's visit to Emil Kraepelin at the Heidelberg Clinic - See books




Colonial lunatic asylums

About 1900: Of the British empire's 74 colonial lunatic asylums, 21 are in India (or British Asia), six in South Africa, one in Sierra Leone (Kissy Lunatic Asylum 1820); one in Gold Coast (Accra, 1887). Yaba close to Lagos (Nigeria) opened in 1907 and Nairobi (Kenya) in 1910. In the German Africa, missionaries opened an asylum in Lutindi Tanganiyka (Tanzania) in 1905. In the Dutch East Indies there were three asylums on Java (Surabaya, 1876; Buitenzorg close to Batavia, 1881, and Lawan in 1902. From 1897 The Dutch East Indies had comprehensive lunacy legislation, similar to the law in Holland and France. Folie et ordre colonial. Les difficultés de mise en place d'une assistance psychiatrique au Sénégal et en Afrique occidentale René Collignon, Paris, CNRS. available as a pdf or view as html (no longer available)

In South Africa, "The Mental Disorders Act was introduced in 1916. No provision was made for neurotic and personality disorders, alcohol dependence or learning disability. When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, there were eight mental institutions caring for 3624 patients. In 1955 there were 13 government mental hospitals and 17 881 patients. Today there are 24 registered public psychiatric hospitals, accommodating some 14 000 acute and long-term care patients." ( "Focus on psychiatry in South Africa" Robin Emsley, The British Journal of Psychiatry (2001) 178: 382-386)




1903: Due to poor therapeutic conditions, including overcrowding, at the Heidelberg Clinic and better research facilities at Munich, Kraepelin moved to Munich.

28.7.1903 Ernest William Hens Bohle born Bradford, Yorkshire West Riding. 24.6.1904 Certificate of Naturalisation for Hermann Bohle [4.10.1876-12.7.1943] 14 Bertram Road, Bradford, a subject of Germany, having been born at Bergneustadt; the son of Friederick Wilhelm and Ida Bohle, both subjects of Germany. Twenty Seven years old a lecturer and teacher of science and electrical engineering. Married [to Antonie, née Knode] Three children: Hermine Johhnna Bohle aged six years [about 1898] - Anne Maria Bohle aged five years [about 1899] - Ernest William Hans aged 9 months [Had reside in UK at least five years during the last eight and intended to stay.] - Harry (Heinrich) Bohle was born about 1907. There may have been another sister called Johanna - The family went to South Africa in 1906 - 1931/1933: Auslands Organisation - 1938 Kristallnacht - January 1939 Greene-Bohle letters -

14.2.1904 "The first comprehensive law on mental health in Italy dates back to 1904. At that time, the mental hospital was regarded as the cornerstone of the care system, 'admitting individuals with all types of mental disorders of any cause whatsoever, when they were dangerous to themselves or the others or were prone to public scandal' (Legge n. 36, 1904). Admission to a mental hospital could be requested by anyone 'in the interest of the patient or the society' (Legge n. 36, 1904) and even by the police on the basis of a medical certificate. The police soon became the most common source of referral since most admissions took place under emergency conditions. Admissions were compulsory, might last indefinitely and implied the loss of civil and political rights. Each province was responsible for the local provision and organisation of mental health care and set up its own mental hospital, which was kept apart from the general health care system." Piccinelli, Politi and Barale 2002

28.5.1904 Walter Ritter von Baeyer born, Munich. See 1964 Died: 26.6.1987 Heidelberg

1930 picture
  1904 "Kolonialirrenanstalt" (colonial insane (irren) asylum (anstalt)) Lutindi, the "Klein-Bethel Ostafrikas" (Little Bethel East Africa) built to plans by the architect Karl Siebold. Friedrich Wilhelm Bokermann (1867-1947), Lutindi's lead missionary, is said to have suggested the transformation. (But see Snyder 2013). In 1914, the asylum had 86 patients.

Treatment focused on outdoor work in the coffee and banana fields (men) and the vegetable garden (women). Weaker members exercised in the courtyard. No corporal punishment was allowed, but handcuffs and straitjackets were used, especially in the early years. Potassium bromide used in epilepsy, replacing sedatives and hypnotics such as chloral hydrate. There was an attempt to initiate a family care system. "By World War the work was only briefly interrupted". See 1921. "In 1927 and then again in 1951 came the Bethel missionaries back to Lutindi". A government lunatic asylum was opened at Dodoma in the 1920s

Treaties with the Masai in 1904 and 1911 gave the British government huge tracts of land in central Kenya which became the larger part of the "White Highlands."

1904 A small pox isolation centre established in Mathari, Nairobi, Kenya. Redesigned as Nairobi Lunatic Asylum in 1910. Known as Mathari Lunatic Asylum. Renamed Mathari Mental Hospital 16.9.1924 - James Cobb and other psychiatrists - See McCulloch1995 - Njenga 2002 - Wikipedia -






about 1909 The Heidelberg Clinic assembled a teaching collection of patient's art.


17.2.1911 Birth of a double agent? Joachim Benemann born Hamburg, Germany, port on the Elbe just south of Denmark. Said to have been very close to the Communist Party in the early 1930s while employed in Moscow. First went to the United Kingdom 25.8.1931. Came to England 8.12.1933 and left 11.2.1934. In 1934 and 1935 he worked in the United Kingdom under Otto Bene of the German Embassy arranging boys camps for members of the Hitler Youth and English boys. In December 1935 he was in Germany, trying to link the Hitler Youth with the British Scouts. In 1936 and 1937 he arranged camps in Germany and the United Kingdom. In 1937 he returned to study at London University and to develop the Hitler Youth in the UK. Organised cycling tours and gliding, which thought possibly a cover for espionage. He played a key role in a tea party for Baden Powell (Scouts) and Rose Kerr (Guides) at the German Embassy in London. Became a member of the Nazi Party in April 1938 [??]. Party number 5518162. Left the UK in 1939. [He was on a list of people who should be interned]. In Second World War he worked for the Communist-influenced Resistance in Denmark. [Which may indicate that Hamburg, where he was born, had remained a base for him]. He returned to England after the war and married an English woman. His anti-Nazi affiliations were investigated when he applied unsuccesfully for British naturalisation in 1953. He died in Devon, aged 95, in 2007.


1913 Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda founded by Albert Ruskin Cook. - Wikipedia - See Hoima.

Sometime in 1914, a citizens' university was established at Frankfurt in Germany, by wealthy Frankfurt citizens, including prominent businesspeople, scholars, and philanthropists. Carl Grünberg founded the Institut für Sozialforschung there in 1923. The university was re-named the Johann Wolfgang Goethe- Universität in 1932. Nazification in 1933. In 1950 the Institut fü Sozialforschung returned to Frankfurt from its exile in the USA

click on the image to visit
the website I stole it from Max Beckmann
Irrenhaus (Madhouse)
Drypoint on laid paper
It comes from a series called Gesichter (faces)

1918 Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic. In 1795 Polish lands had been partitioned between Prussia, Russia and Austria.

25.11.1918 Formal surrender of the German forces in East Africa to the British drawn by an African artist whose name has been lost.

1919 A sociology department established in the Law Faculty at the University of Warsaw.

1919 A Museum for Pathological Art authorised at the Heidelberg Clinic (one room). Hans Prinzhorn (supported by Karl Wilmanns) built up the collection. In 1921 it staged an exhibition at Frankfurt's Gallery Zinglers Kabinett, which then moved to Gallery Garvens in Hannover.

1919Partito Nazionale Fascisto formed in Italy. In power 1922 to 1943.


The Weimar Republic started with the election of a National Assembly on 19.1.1919 (Or established 11.8.1919). Friederich Ebert of the SPD was German President from 11.2.1919 to 28.2.1925 - Government by decree began 29.3.1930

5.1.1919 to 12.1.1919 Spartacist Uprising. Ebert used troops to suppress an uprising led by the Spartacus League and the Independent Social Democrats in Berlin. Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested by the troops and murdered.

5.1.1919 Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party) (D.A.P.) formed by Anton Drexler, a virulent anit-Semite.

January 1919 Founding conference of the Third International (the Communist International) - meant an external influence on policies of the KPD and other communist parties outside the USSR.

15.4.1919 Save the Children Fund was founded in London as an effort to alleviate starvation of children in Germany and Austria-Hungary during the Allied blockade of Germany, which continued after the Armistice.

28.6.1919 Treaty of Versailles ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. Germany to pay reparations.

15.10.1919: The ABC of Communism


9.10.1921 J. Spittles and his wife, C. M. Spittles, became Superintendent and Matron of Lutindi Lunatic Asylum. The asylum had 86 patients on 31.12.1921. 21 new patients were admitted in 1921. Nine patients died and six died.

"With the exception of thirteen men and six women, who are necessary as attendants, and to take charge of tools, stores, etc., all work was performed by patients. Work undertaken was cultivation of fields, care of stock, making and repairing clothing, all necessary repairs to buildings and building new drains and latrines in male and female wards."

Miss B. G. Allardes, Nursing Sister. C. A. Patel, Fourth Grade Clerk. (P.M.O.'s Office). D. B. Somvasi, Fourth Grade Clerk, J. B. da Cunha, Third Grade Clerk. (P.M.O.'s Office

There was no serious casualty during the year. One patient required forcible feeding for three weeks. One man with hydrocele was 57 tapped four times during the year. One female suffering from Syphilis was sent to Tanga Hospital for injections. The treatment was successful. The rate for each patient per day was cents 6o (Shg.) It has since been found that it can be reduced cents 10 per day, resulting in a saving of shillings 240/- per month. Besides the aboveú a small asylum sufficient to accommodate six lunatics has been erected at Tabora. The building of a large Central Lunatic Asylum is contemplated in the near future.

"Communism equals the power of the Soviets plus electrification of the whole country"

1920 Florian Znaniecki (15.1.1882 -) became the (first) Professor of Sociology at the University in Poznan, in Poland. There he organized the Polish Sociological Institute (Polski Instytut Socjologii) and began publishing The Polish Sociological Review (Polski Przeglad Socjologiczny). [See 1946 and 1957] (Wikipedia)

Early 1920 Deutsche Arbeiterpartei became Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. Adolph Hitler, its propaganda officer, drafted a twenty five point party programme that became the permanent basis for the party.

13.3.1920. Kapp Putsch (Counter-Revolutionary)


About 1921 [Possibly 1920] (Benjamin) Ben Greene (28.12.1901 - October 1978) joined the Quakers, left Oxford University and went, on a Nansen Pass (Save the Children Fund Pass), with Quaker Relief Work in Germany, Poland, Czeco- Slovakia and Russia. He was in Russia on famine relief work for 18 months. Probably returned towards the end of 1923. In 1935 he was deputy chief returning officer of the Saar Plebiscite, after which he gave a lecture on his experiences expressing sympathy with German ideals and aspirations.. See 1936 Berkhamsted - 1938 change of allegiance - 1938 Kristallnacht - January 1939 Greene-Bohle letters - 1939 British People's Party. Greene was detained under Regulation 18B on 23.5.1940 because of his German sympathies ("hostile associations"), but was released in 1942. After the war, his views on the British constitution were published the nationalist Candour which supported the League of Empire Loyalists. His daughter, Leslie, was the secretary of the League and a founder of the National Front in 1967.

MI5 - Wikipedia. Ben Greene (1902-1978), his mother (Eva 1884-1979) and wife Leslie (1899-1989) are buried in the burial ground of Leiston Quaker Meeting House in Suffolk.

March 1921 "March Action" of workers and KPD in Germany. Abortive.

1922 Stalin




January 1923 to Summer 1925 French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr to secure reparations.

October 1923 "The German October" and "Hamburg Uprising": abortive communist revolutions.

8-9.11.1923 Bierkeller Putsch, Münchener Putsch or Hitlerputsch.

The publicity of Hitler's trial gave momentum to the Völkischer Block, an alliance of racist organisations, which became the third largest party in the Bavarian parliament. Confined in Landsberg Castle, Hitler dictated the first part of Mein Kampf (My Struggle) to Rudolph Hess:

19.8.1923 The First Agricultural and Crafts Exhibition opened in Moscow. The Exhibition appears to have been a showcase for the Societ Union but is said to have emphasised international aspects of the display and to have attracted foreign businesses wanting to exhibit their products. Lenin toured exhibition in October 19234, despite being extremely sick. (about the exhibition)

Ben Greene probably returned to England towards the end of 1923. He came home via Moscow, St Petersburg, Helsinki, Bergen and Newcastle. At the Moscow Trade Fair he admired the "proud flag of Italian fascism", but had less time for that flown by "that parody of the German republic". 29.10.1924: unsuccessful Labour Party candidate for Basingstoke in the General Election. He married in London in March 1925.


May June 1924. Pravda published Joseph Stalin's lectures on The Foundations of Leninism (External link to Peking edition). Lecture 9 on "Style in Work" explains that "The combination of Russian revolutionary sweep with American efficiency is the essence of Leninism in Party and state work"


1925-1933 Field Marshal von Hindenberg President of Germany

1925   Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf (First volume). Promoting the hierarchic Fürer-state, aryan supremacy, anti-semitism and expansionist Lebensraum (living-space) ideas.

Gwynneth and her husband Donald Latham (a young doctor) arrived in Tanganyika. Her diaries include description of visit to Lutindi and reference to the planned asylum at Dodoma.

3.9.1925 Report by His Britannic Majesty's Government on the Administration under Mandate of Tanganyika Territory for the year 1924 Société des Nations - League of Nations Genève 1925 Geneva

"A certain number of lunatics are confined at the Lunatic Asylum at Lutindi, but the Asylum is situated in a remote district and the accommodation available is inadequate for the needs of the Territory. It is necessary at present to confine criminal and other lunatics in ordinary gaols. This is most undesirable and the erection of a Central Lunatic Asylum at Dodoma to accommodate both criminal and civil lunatics is about to be commenced. A small asylum and gaol for criminal lepers will also be erected at Dodoma."

Zygmunt Bauman was born on 19.11.1925 in Poznan, Poland. His parents were non practising Jews.

Janina Lewinson was born on 18.8.1926 in Warsaw. She remained in Poland when Germany invaded.

When Germany and Russia invaded Poland in 1939, Zygmunt escaped to the Russian zone. Later he served in a Polish military unit under Russian control.

"he was a teenager when the Germans invaded. His family caught the last train east to Russia. When he was old enough he joined the Fourth Division of the Polish exile army in Russia - with whom he entered Poland."

Bauman says he was a "communist" from 1946 to 1967. When he was 19 he joined the Polish Secret Service, for three years. (1945 to 1948)

From 1945 to 1953 Bauman was a political instructor in the Internal Security Corps (KBW), a military unit formed to combat Ukrainian nationalist insurgents and part of the remnants of the Polish Home Army.

At some point after the war Bauman became a student of sociology at Warsaw University.

March 1948: Janina Lewinson met Zygmunt Bauman at Warsaw University. They became engaged very shortly afterwards.

Zygmunt taught at Warsaw University from 1954 to 1968,

Zygmunt studied for a year in the late 1950s at London School of Economics.

He published in Polish in 1959 - 1960 - 1961 - 1962 - 1964 -

Zygmunt became Professor of General Sociology in 1964.

He published in Polish in 1965 and 1966.

An anti-semitic purge in 1968 meant that Zygmunt and Janina lost their jobs. Bauman taught at the University of Tel Aviv from 1968 to 1970,

at the University of Leeds from 1972 to 1990. Modernity and The Holocaust, published in 1989, was influenced by the recollections of a Warsaw childhood published by his wife, Janina, in 1986.


9.11.1926 The Fascist government enacted a new wave of emergency laws, taking as a pretext an alleged attempt on Mussolini's life several days earlier. The fascist police arrested Gramsci, despite his parliamentary immunity, and brought him to the Rome prison Regina Coeli.


1926 or 1927 Mirembe Asylum built in Dodoma, by the British colonial administration to serve the whole of the Tanganyika Territory. - Wikipedia - facebook - partnership. "The hospital was founded in 1926, originated from an orphanage, and was originally used for patients with malaria and fever (and associated confusion) to absorb. Now it is a National Referral Hospital for Mental Health. The only psychiatric hospital in Tanzania, but there are still patients with physical illnesses, such as HIV / AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc. There are 700 beds, of which 250 forensic places. There are five divisions: Mirembe for ordinary patients (about 500), Isanga for forensic examination and Mirembe annex is an intermediate form of these two.Hombolo is a kind of small town where patients can live as they have nowhere else to go, and where they can live their own farming business with chickens, goats, cows and agriculture such as corn. If there is a 5th part Nurses Training related to hospital (with 25 students) .. The treatment is free or based on 50% cost sharing. That is determined by a Social Worker. The management did their policies well, but they are just not able to deliver. Every care to 100% They just make do with what they have and they were very positive. They hope that the situation would improve". (Fortune of Africa)

1927 German missionaries return to Lutindi. Heinrich Waltenberg (born 1902) arrived in 1930 as Pastor. He and his wife, Hildegard Waltenberg, were interred as enemy aliens at the start of World War two, but then commissioned by the Tanganyika Government to head the Lutindi Mental Hospital during the War.


4.6.1928 Antonio Gramsci sentenced (with other Italian Communist leaders) to 20 years, 4 months and 5 days in prison. Sent to a prison in Turi, in the province of Bari, which turned out to be his longest place of detention (June 1928 -- November 1933).

1929- 1935 Antonio Gramsci's Prison Notebooks written

From Nsereko 2013:

Mental health services in Uganda started in Hoima prison in the 1920s. [Hoima Prison built 1930s?]. In 1934-1936, a ward at Mulago hospital was opened to receive mental health patients from Hoima. "In 1940, the remaining batch of patients in Hoima was transferred to Mulago in the legendary ward 16". See Butabika

From Maling 2015:

1920s: Confinement in Prison Asylums.
1935: Patients were transferred from Hoima to Mulago in Kampala
1954: Butabika Hospital was built,
1960: Butabika School of Psychiatric Nursing established
1962 Butabika Hospital expanded
1964: Mental Treatment Act (1964).
1970: Out Patient Department (ward 16) started at Mulago Hospital
1970s: Mental health units in large Regional Referral Hospitals (OPD & in- patient services offered)
1979 PCO school was opened by Prof. Bbosa

1930 Alfred Rosenberg's The Myth of the 20th Century

1930 "Foundations laid for the New University
1933-1939 59 of the 214 teaching staff deprived of their posts in the National Socialist era
1945 Gradual resumption of teaching (15 August); first rector: Karl Heinrich Bauer (Medicine); Collegium Academicum established
1962 Opening of the interdisciplinary South Asia Institute
1962 Establishment of the Cancer Research Centre (from 1972: German Cancer Research Centre)
1964 Opening of the University hospital complex in Mannheim (1969: Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Mannheim)
1969 New constitution for the University: 16 Faculties instead of 5
1986 600th anniversary of Heidelberg University with Gisbert zu Pulitz as rector
1994 The Faculty of Medicine is the largest in Germany; the University now has 15 Faculties" (source)


1.5.1931 Auslands (Foreign) Organisation of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) founded at Hamburg "upon suggestion of some Germans abroad". Ernst Wilhelm Bohle became a volunteer assistant in December 1931 and joined the Party on 1.3.1932. On 8 May 1933 he became leader On account of my experience and my connections abroad -- I was born in England and raised in South Africa. (Nuremberg Proceedings). About 1937 two relatives of Ernst Wilhelm were listed working for the Auslands Organisation in the Amt für Technik (Office for technology). Im Germany: Heinrich Bohle "Bruder von Ernst Wilhelm Bohle" and in South Africa Hermann Bohle "Vater des Gauleiters Bohle"

25.8.1931 When Joachim Benemann arrived in the United Kingdom, he had already worked in Italy (under Mussolini), Russia (under Stalin), and Scandanavia.

14.9.1931 Second Spanish Republic proclaimed 9.12.1931 Constitution adopted


Antonio Gramsci's Notebook 12 contains "Notes on the History of Intellectuals" 3 Notes

1932: A project for exchanging political prisoners (including Gramsci) between Italy and the Soviet Union failed

"By chance in the mid-1930s promethazine, a compound with antihistamine (anti-allergy) properties from a group called phenothiazines, was shown in France to calm people who were suffering from delusions, hallucinations, or similar conditions (collectively called psychoses). A related compound chlorpromazine was synthesized by the French company Rhône-Poulenc in 1950? and Henri Laborit, a surgeon, tried it to decrease anxiety before surgery. Noting the calming effect of this drug on his patients, he suggested that it might be useful in treating mental illness." (Flanagan, R.J. 2002)

"Après découverte du rôle de l'histamine dans les allergies, le laboratoire Rhône-Poulenc cherche à développer dès 1933 des "anti-histaminiques", les chimistes synthétisent donc en 1947 un dérivé phénothiazinique, la prométhazine, qui possède, des propriétés sédatives marquées. En 1948, le chirurgien Pierre Huguenard l'utilise dans un cocktail lytique pour provoquer sédation et indifférence chez les opérés, et Henri Laborit, un autre chirurgien, cherche à prévenir le choc opératoire, et soupçonne un effet "stabilisant" du Système Nerveux Central (SNC) pouvant créer une hibernation artificielle et une sédation sans narcose, il demande alors au laboratoire Rhône-Poulenc de travailler sur des composés aux propriétés stabilisante plus marquées, ce qui permet la création de la chlorpromazine." Wikipedia

30.1.1933 Nationalsozialist party in power in Germany

around 25.2.1933 Nazi commissar for Frankfurt announced. "Frankfurt was the first university the Nazis tackled, precisely because it was the most self-confidently liberal of major German universities," Peter Drucker

Karl Wilmanns (1873-1945), director of the University Hospital of Psychiatry at Heidelberg was forced to leave his post. Carl Schneider (1891- 11.12.1946), a National Socialist, was appointed in his place.

7.4.1933 Bertha Bracey became Secretary of the Quaker "Germany Emergency Committee" which held its first meeting on 12.4.1933 and started functioning in Berlin in October 1933. It was later renamed the Friends Committee for Refugees and Aliens.

1933 Publication of Datos históricos científicos y estadísticos, referentes al Hospital de Inocentes de la ciudad de Valladolid, de 1489 a 1932 by Francisco de Sisniega y Pérez. Published in Valladolid: Gráficas Valencia, 1933. 24 pages. Available http://bibliotecadigital.jcyl.es/i18n/consulta/registro.cmd?id=2466

Francisco de Sisniega y Pérez had been the doctor in charge of the provincial lunatic asylum for 25 years and was a delagate to the Spanish League of Mental Hygiene.

1934 Antonio Gramsci's Notebook 22 contains "Americanism and Fordism" (16 Notes)

In 1934 Gramsci gained conditional freedom on health grounds, after visiting hospitals in Civitavecchia, Formia and Rome.

1934 Hitler named Joachim von Ribbentrop Special Commissioner for Disarmament. In August 1934 Ribbentrop founded the Büro Ribbentrop (later the Dienststelle Ribbentrop), linked to the Nazi Party, which functioned as an alternative foreign ministry. See Deutsch- Englische Gesellschaft - Ambassador - Ribbentrop Bohle 1937 - Foreign Minister 1938

1934 Intercepted letters Joachim Benemann, generally relating to Hitler Youth. Spring: From Kurt Weitbrecht in Hamburg to England. July from Benemann in Hamburg to Otto Bene. He is returning to England 11.7.1934. Negotiations with the Scouts are under way. He wishes to enlist sympathy in British Public Schools.

1935 Carrel, A. (1935) L'Homme, cet Inconnu. Paris: Plon. - See Wikipedia

Dr Alexis Carrel, a Nobel prizewinner [Physiology, 1912 - external link and an extreme advocate of eugenic measures, believing that "families where there exists syphilis, cancer, tuberculosis, neurosis and feeble-mindedness are more dangerous than those of thieves and assassins" (J.L.T. Birley 2002, translating from l'Homme, cet inconnu)

Alexis Carrel, l'Homme, cet inconnu:

"Quant aux autres, ceux qui ont tué, qui ont volé à main armée, qui ont enlevé des enfants, qui ont dépouillé les pauvres, qui ont gravement trompé la confiance du public, un établissement euthanasique, pourvu de gaz appropriés, permettrait d'en disposer de façon humaine et e conomique. Le même traitement ne serait-il pas applicable aux fous qui ont commis des actes criminels ? Il ne faut pas hésiter à ordonner la socié moderne par rapport à l'individu sain. Les systèmes philosophiques et les préjugés sentimentaux doivent disparaître devant cette nécessité. Après tout, c'est le développement de la personnalité humaine qui est le but suprême de la civilisation " (Taken from Les archives de l'Humanité - archive)

As for the others, those who killed, who fled at gun-point, who removed children, who stripped the poor, who seriously misled the public, an establishment for euthanasia, equipped with appropriate gases, would allow them to be removed in a human and economic way. Should not the same treatment be applied to the insane who have done criminal acts? We should not hesitate to create a modern society that one can compare to the healthy individual. The philosophical systems and the sentimental prejudices must disappear in front of this need. After all, it is the development of the human personality which is the supreme goal of civilisation

early 1935 Wolfgang Huber born - See 1964 - 1966 - 1968 - 1970 - 1971 - 1973 - 1995 ruprecht - 1998 - 2001 list of dates - 2006 - 2007 -

30.12.1934 News photograph about Ben Greene being appointed Deputy Chief Returning Officer for the Saar Plebiscite.

13.1.1935 A plebiscite held in the Saar territory, which was the only part of Germany still under foreign occupation following World War I. 90.8%, voted to re-join the German Reich. 8.8% wanted to remain under British and French occupation under a League of Nations mandate. 0.4% wanted to join France. The main reason why 8.8% voted to remain occupied was tat they did not wish to be ruled by Nazis.

Bryanston School Camp May 1935

Copy of dual language Unser Lager - Our Camp sent to MI5 in 1935 showed the efforts to link Hitler Youth with the Boy Scouts. Benemann had "failed so far" to reach agreement with the "Boy Scout Headquarters"

11.4.1935 A broadcast (BBC?) made by Joachim Benemann. MI5 sent information about him to the UK Home Office and Foreign Office. Shortly after a letter from Lotte Wolff, Croydon was intercepted sayingthat organisation of Benemann's camps was continuing despite his return to Germany. Leslie Wood working as his representative in England. They are about to found an Anglo- German circle.

2.12.1935 The Deutsch-Englische Gesellschaft founded by Ribbentrop. It was a sister organisation to the Anglo-German Fellowship. The Deutsch-Englische Kreis (German-English Circle) was the youth organisation of the Deutsch-Englische Gesellschaf, which organised youth camps. The organisations were disbanded when war broke out in 1939.

26.12.1935 to 5.1.1936 Anglo-German Camp near Berchtesgaden for the winter sports. At this camp a programme for 1936 will be drawn up.

6.2.1936 to 16.2.1936 Winter Olympics Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. The last year in which the Summer and Winter Games were both held in the same country

17.7.1936 Spanish Civil War

1.4.1939 Fall of the Republic

Sometime 1936 A camp organised at Berkhamsted School in Hertfordshire. Joachim Benemann, the organiser, stayed as the guest of the headmaster (Cuthbert Machell Cox from 1931 to 1946). At sometime during the camp he was in hospital. MI5 files mention "Unser Lager, published by the Anglo-German Circle, of which the parent organisation is the Deutsch-Englisher Kreis. J. Benemann is head of the German organisation" [Benemann worked with Ben Greene , whose uncle was Charles Henry Greene (father of Graham Greene), who was headmaster of Berkhamsted from 1911 to 1927)]

1.8.1936: Berlin Olympic Games opened

August 1936 Ribbentrop appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom with orders to negotiate an Anglo-German alliance. He arrived to take up his position in October 1936


1937: Martin Niemoller arrested by the Gestapo. Eventually sent to Sachsenhausen and then to Dachau. Moved in 1945 to the Tirol.

January 1937 Church and State in Germany. The attitude of the National Socialist Party and the German government towards Christianity by Baron Friedrich von der Ropp. (Service Volume 8, Number 1)

2.3.1937 Orange Street meeting of the Civil Service Christian Union with Baron Friedrich von der Ropp.

27.4.1937 Death of Antonio Gramsci, at the "Quisisana" Hospital in Rome (46years old). His ashes are buried in the Protestant Cemetery there. External link (deceased) to John M. Cammett's 1998 bibliography which includes a bibliography of translations from the Italian into other languages.

25.5.1937 Musée de l'Homme founded in Paris.

19.7.1937 Exhibition of Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art), organized by Adolf Ziegler and the Nazi Party, opens in Munich.

30.9.1937 Press photograph of Ribbentrop, the German ambassador, with Ernst Bohle, the leader of the foreign organisation of the Nazi party, at Croydon airport. Bohl was visiting Britain to speak at a harvest festival meeting of German Nazi's at the Porchester Hall in Paddington, London, a hall that had been used by the Nazis since 1934. Bohle coming from Germany meant a large attendance was expected. Brendan Bracken, conservative MP for North Paddington and a Winston Churchill's supporter protested strongly at the hall being used. The council were assured the meeting would be orderly, especially as the Ambassador was to be present.

1937 James Cobb succeeded H.L. Gordon in charge of Mathari. Succeeded by John Colin Dixon Carothers (1903-1989). James Cobb publicly had sexual intercourse with large animals.


4.2.1938 Ribbentrop succeeded Konstantin von Neurath as German Foreign Minister

19.7.1938? Düsseldorf speech by Carl Schneider on the first anniversary of the Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibition.

He attributed the "successful cure" of a "schizophrenic artist" who had "already produced pathological works" to the following measures:

"We (did) the opposite to what ... Lombroso, Prinzhorn and others had done. Instead of saving the woman's morbid works we destroyed them, and guided her while she went about her normal, self-allotted tasks."

29.9.1938 and 30.9.1938 Munich and "giving way" to Hitler.

September 1938 Ben Greene resigned from the Labour Party because he was in favour of Chamberlain's policy of peace with Hitler and the Labour Party opposed it. He worked for the Peace Pledge Union before going to Germany after Kristallnacht.

7.11.1938 A Polish-Jewish student, Herschel Grynszpan, shot a German diplomat, Ernst vom Rath, in Paris. Ernst vom Rath died 9.11.1938. Kristallnacht was organised as reprisals.

9/10.11.1938 Kristallnacht (Night of Crystal). Night of broken glass. Anti-Jewish pogrom initiated by Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda, and the Sturmabteilung (SA) (Sturmtruppen - Storm Troopers). Ninety-one Jews were killed, hundreds seriously injured. About 7,500 Jewish businesses were gutted and an estimated 177 synagogues burned or otherwise demolished.

[Hermann Göring led the economic despoliation of the Jews in Germany and the territories Germany occupied. (Encyclopedia Britannica)]

12.11.1938 Speech by Hermann Göring (Hitler's second in command) proposed ghettos as a means of concentrating and controlling the Jews.

12/13.11.1938 Decrees confiscated the major part of Jewish wealth and imposed a fine of one million marks on the Jewish community.

Ben Greene in Germany. He went on behalf of the Germany Emergency Committee , travelling out via Amsterdam, where he met the Dutch Prime Minister (discussing passage of Jews through Holland if the United Kingdom should allow them in). John Scanlon (Daily Express then Oswald Mosley journalist) gave Greene contact details for Ernst-Wilhem Bohl and Harry Bohl


1.1.1939 Letter addressed to Herrn H. Bohle, Berlin, W8, Krausen St W1 from Ben Greene in Berkhamstead (Telephone Berkhamstead 1), who will follow Bohle's advice to postpone going to Germany until after he has seen him in London. 29.8.1939 A reply letter to "Dear Ben" from "Bohle" 30, Wetzler Stresse, Berlin-Wilmersdorf. - 29.8.1939 A reply letter to "Dear Ben" from "Bohle" 30, Wetzler Stresse, Berlin-Wilmersdorf. [This Bohle, who Greene considered a friend, is Heinrich (Harry)]

January 1939 Office to promote emigration of Jews "by every possible means" established.

30.1.1939 Hitler speaks of "the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe" in the event of a second world war fermented by "international finance Jewry".

Spring 1939: Reich Committee for Scientific Research of Hereditary and Severe Constitutional Diseases established. This oversaw the killing of an estimated 5,000 'deformed' children in a 'euthanasia' programme that only finished in November 1944.

July 1939 Planning of 'T4' programme of 'mercy killings' of the insane began. Experimental gas chambers were tried out at Brandenburg euthanasia centre in late 1939. An estimated 80,000 to 100,000 people were killed before the T4 programme was 'stalled' in August 1941 after public protest.

In October 1939, Hitler signed a back-dated "euthanasia decree" to 1 September 1939 which authorised Philipp Bouhler and Karl Brandt to carry out the programme of euthanasia (translated into English as follows):

Reich Leader Bouhler and Dr. med. Brandt are charged with the responsibility of enlarging the competence of certain physicians, designated by name, so that patients who, on the basis of human judgment [menschlichem Ermessen], are considered incurable, can be granted mercy death [Gnadentod] after a discerning diagnosis."
The new recruits were mostly psychiatrists, notably Carl Schneider (Heidelberg), Max de Crinis (Berlin) and Paul Nitsche from the Sonnenstein state institution. (Wikipedia)

Friday 1.9.1939 Russia and Germany invaded Poland.

During the occupation, Universities in Poland were closed down, but the "Secret University of Warsaw" (Tajny Uniwersytet Warszawski) was organised by lecturers and met in people's homes.

The Bauman family, who were Jews, ran away from their home in Posnan, near the German boarder, as the Germans invaded. "We took the last train east, but we were stopped at a station which was being bombed by the Germans. We should have run away from the station because that was the object of the bombing, but" [my father] "wanted to find a ticket inspector to pay for our tickets." (Zygmunt Bauman quoted Bunting, M. 2003)

The family of Janina Lewinson (also Jews) remained in Poland.

Janina's father was a surgeon and a Polish Army reservist. He was attached to a military hospital during the German invasion, was captured by the Red Army and taken to Kozielsk, officers' camp. His family received just one letter before he was killed in the Katyn Forest massacre.

15.9.1939 House of Commons Debate: ANGLO-GERMAN ORGANISATIONS.

Mr. Mander asked the Home Secretary whether the activities of the Anglo- German Kameradschaft, the Anglo-German Circle, and the Anglo-German Academic Bureau, have now closed down; and whether the Anglo-German Review has ceased publication.

Sir J. Anderson: I am informed that the Anglo-German Kameradschaft and Anglo-German Circle have been disbanded, that the Anglo-German Academic Bureau is in process of being wound-up, and that the publication of the Anglo-German Review has been discontinued.

Commander Locker-Lampson: Are the British Fascists in Smith Square also being liquidated?

Sir J. Anderson: That is another question, which my hon. and gallant Friend had better put on the Paper

18.8.1939 Janina Lewinson's thirteenth birthday.

15.9.1939 to 28.9.1939 Siege of Warsaw by German army.

"On 25 September - it was Monday, the day of Rosh Hashna, the Jewish New Year - all hell on earth broke loose. We learnt later that it was the final German storming of Warsaw... An immense wall of flame... We stood in perfect emptiness, Artek and I... on the brink of life...l Then we kissed, the first kiss of my life and his. And the last - we believed" (Janina, pp 25-26)

"since I was just 13. I had to wear a band, a white band with a blue star. It started at 13 and I was just that. My sister was still not obliged to wear it, she was just nine."


5.3.1940 A proposal of Lavrentiy Beria's to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps, was approved and signed by the Soviet Politburo, including Joseph Stalin. About 22,000 victims were murdered in the Katyn Forest in Russia, the Kalinin and Kharkov prisons and elsewhere during April and May 1940.

9.4.1940 The German army crossed the Danish border by land, sea and air. Denmark was the way to Norway.

10.5.1940 - 22.6.1940: Germany invaded France

22.4.1940 German armistice with French government under which Germany would occupy northern and western France including the entire Atlantic coast. The remaining two-fifths of the country would be governed by the French government with the capital at Vichy under Pétain.

"official rations amounted to 1200 calories per day, insufficient to support life. French citizens went hungry, but did not starve to death - they were expected to obtain extra food in various ways. Many groups were allowed extra rations: the young, heavy labourers, pregnant and nursing mothers and hospital patients. But not all hospital patients. Those in psychiatric hospitals were specifically excluded. Their death rate rose dramatically."

"French psychiatrists reported what was happening at the time, largely in detached, clinical terms, to avoid the censor. They described famine oedema; and famine behaviour - fighting round the food trolleys, eating anything (grass, dust, faeces, even their own fingers) and a profound lethargy. In a review of the publications in the Annales Medico-Psychologiques during the Vichy years, Gourevitch (1995) reported that 'articles on starvation in the hospitals featured more than any other topic'" (J.L.T. Birley 2002)

18.8.1940 Janina Lewinson's fourteenth birthday.

16.10.1940 Warsaw Ghetto established.

Janina, her sister, Zosia, and their mother were in the Warsaw ghetto from October 1940 to January 1943. They spent 26 months there. . Janina's Warsaw experiences are online - (archive)

18.8.1941 Janina Lewinson's fifteenth birthday.


"The next day, 22 July 1942, the mass deportation of people from the Warsaw ghetto began" (Janina p.64) Beginning of the "Grossaktion".

23.7.1942 Mass extermination. by gassing, of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins at the Treblinka death camp.

"I was trying to make out what day it was, what date. Great- Aunt Bella, who had been keeping a diary, helped me: it was Tuesday 18 August, which meant it was my birthday, probably the last. I was sixteen" (Janina p.72)"

Towards the winter of 1942/1943, Janina Lewinson remembers seeing leaflets calling Jews to fight and defend themselves. The second 'aktion' began in January.


25.1.1943 Janina Lewinson, her mother and Sophie escaped from the Ghetto and hid with families in the Aryan areas of Warsaw.


25.8.1944 Free French recapture Paris.


Saturday 27.1.1945 freeing of Auschwitz by Russian troops.

October 1945 " Les Temps Modernes est une revue politique, littéraire et philosophique, fondée en octobre 1945 par Jean- Paul Sartre et Simone de Beauvoir, publiée chez Gallimard d'octobre 1945 à décembre 1948, chez Julliard de janvier 1949 à septembre 1965, aux Presses d'aujourd'hui d'octobre 1965 à mars 1985, chez Gallimard à partir d'avril 1985." Wikipedia

December 1945 Lectures resumed for almost 4,000 students in the ruins of Warsaw University. The buildings were gradually rebuilt.


Zygmunt Bauman says he was a "communist" from 1946 to 1967.

"Poland was a very backward country before the war, which was exacerbated by the occupation. In an impoverished country you expect deprivation, humiliation, human indignity and so on, a whole complex of social and cultural problems to be dealt with. If you looked at the political spectrum in Poland at that time, the Communist party promised the best solution. Its political programme was the most fitting for the issues which Poland faced. And I was completely dedicated. Communist ideas were just a continuation of the Enlightenment." (Guardian interview 28.4.2001)

1946 Polski Przeglad Socjologiczny began to appear again (but not for long)

Autumn 1946 the City of Frankfurt, Hesse and Frankfurt University expressed a wish to reestablish the Institut für Sozialforschung at the university. After many doubts and skeptical considerations Horkheimer agreed to return. (Geschichte) - He returned in 1949 and the Institute reopened in 1950 (Wikipedia).

The twelve USA trials before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals took place from 9.12.1946 to 13.4.1949. The trials were:

November 1946 Marian Brody arrived at Le Havre to join Eugene Brody

The Doctors' Trial (9.12.1946 - 20.8.1947)
The Milch Trial (2.1.1947 - 14.4.1947)
The Judges' Trial (5.3.1947 - 4.12.1947)
The Pohl Trial (8.4.1947 - 3.11.1947)
The Flick Trial (19.4.1947 - 22.12.1947)
The IG Farben Trial (27.8.1947 - 30.7.1948)
The Hostages Trial (8.7.1947 - 19.2.1948)
The RuSHA Trial (20.12.1947 - 10.3.1948)
The Einsatzgruppen Trial (29.9.1947 - 10.4.1948)
The Krupp Trial (8.12.1947 - 31.7.1948)
The Ministries Trial (6.1.1948 - 13.4.1949)
The High Command Trial (30.12.1947 - 28.10.1948)

January 1948 Marian and Eugene Brody returned to the USA. "Dr. Brody told an interviewer in 1999 that he was dealing with "death squad leaders, people who had been in charge of major occupied areas and were responsible for the deaths of many - doctors who condemned schizophrenic and developmentally disabled people to death, [and] industrialists who had used slave labor - it was difficult to carry out the purely psychiatric tasks without being concerned about the entire issue of human rights and Nazi atrocities" (Baltimore Sun obituary)

4.3.1947. American forces at Dachau charged 28 former camp personnel, 2 former kapos, and 1 former prisoner with participating in the Operation of the Buchenwald concentration camp. The former prisoner was Edwin Katzen- Ellenbogen

5.8.1947 Dr. Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen on the witness stand


1947 First students enrolled in the Warsaw University Institute of Sociology (External link Polish links to English and German translations)


1948 East African High Commission established cooperation between the Kenya Colony, Uganda Protectorate, and Tanganyika Territory (of the United Kingdom). There was a customs union, with a common external tariff, currency, and postage. It also dealt with common services in transport and communications, research, and education. Following independence (1961- 1964), these integrated activities were reconstituted and the East African Common Services Organisation.

Bauman - the 'persecution' years

"I cooperated for two, three years, I was the object of persecution from the secret services for 15 years. Immediately afterwards, I was spied on, I was reported on, I had my flat bugged, my telephone was bugged, and so on. I was thrown away from the internal army, and in the end, as you know, I was expelled from the university, expelled from any ability to publish." Zygmunt Bauman (Guardian interview 28.4.2001) "

March 1948 Birth of Margrit Schiller. Eldest child of an army major in the West German Military Counterintelligence. Her mother a and a local CDU politician. She studied psychology in Bonn and Heidelberg. A student member of the 1970 Socialist Patients' Collective. Became first a supporter and then active member of the Red Army Faction. Arrested 22.10.1971 in Hamburg, when policeman Norbert Schmid was shot (but not with Schiller's weapon). The alleged shooter Gerhard Mller later became witness of the Attorney General . According to their own statements, Schiller was in prison several times in solitary confinement . She participated in several hunger strikes . After her release from prison in 1973 she went back underground. Arrested again 4.2.1974 and serving a prison sentence until 1979. The offense, on the basis she was sentenced, closed card forgery , unauthorized possession of firearms as well as membership and support of the RAF one. To avoid a feared re-arrest, she went in 1985 after Cuba into exile, where granted her the government for political asylum . (source)


1949 Theodor W. Adorno wrote "Kulturkritik und Gesellschaft" (Cultural Criticism and Society), published in Prismen (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1955), pages 7-31

"The more total the society, the more reified also the spirit [mind] and all the more paradoxical its beginning, of itself to extricate itself from reification. Yet even the most extreme consciousness of calamity threatens to degenerate into empty chatter. Cultural critique finds itself opposite the final stage of the dialectic of culture and barbarism : to write a poem after Auschwitz is barbaric, and that eats away also at that insight that explains why it has become impossible to write poetry today." (30-31)

See 1995 and (external link) Poetry of the Holocaust

October 1949 Adorno left America for Europe just as The Authoritarian Personality was being published. Adorno resumed his teaching at the university soon after his arrival, with seminars on "Kant's Transcendental Dialectic," aesthetics, Hegel, "Contemporary Problems in the Theory of Knowledge" and "The Concept of Knowledge." (Wikipedia on Adorno)


Chlorpromazine (see above) was synthesized on 11.12.1951 by Paul Charpentier, in the laboratories of Rhône-Poulenc, a French pharmaceutical company, and released for clinical investigation in May 1952 as a possible potentiator of general anesthesia... Chlorpromazine became available on prescription in France, under the proprietary name of Largactil, ie, large in action, in November 1952. The proprietary name was chosen to reflect the diversity of pharmacological actions and potential clinical indications of the drug.

1951 Henri Laborit, a surgeon at the Val-de-Grâce military hospital in Paris reasoned that 'surgical shock' might be lessened if patients' metabolic rates were reduced by external cooling by using ice packs and administering a mixture of various 'potientiating' drugs. Laborit decided to use antihistamines as part of this cocktail to exploit their drowsiness effect. Rhône-Poulenc gave him a sample of the experimental drug 4560RP, chlorpromazine.

Laborit noticed that instead of patients anxiously awaiting the mask, they showed a certain 'uninterest' which he termed 'euphoric quietude'. He noted in his report:

"These findings allow one to anticipate certain indications for the use of this compound in psychiatry, possibly in connection with barbiturates, in a deep sleep cure"
(Dronsfield and Ellis 2006)

1952 Henri Laborit, P. Huguenard, R. Alluaume "Un noveau stabilisateur végétatif (le 4560 RP)" La Presse Médicale. 1952; 60: pp 206-208.

1952 J. Delay and P.Deniker "Le traitments de psychoses par une méthode neurolytique dérivée de l'hibernothérapie; le 4560 RP utilisée seul en cure prolongée et continue". Comptes rendus du 50e congrès des médecins aliénistes et neurologistes de France et des pays de langue française, (France) 1952; 50: pp 497-502.

Between 1953 and 1955, chlorpromazine treatment in psychiatry spread around the world. (Ban, T. 2007)

1951 to 1954 Gomulka denounced as right-wing and reactionary, and expelled from the Polish United Workers' Party - imprisoned.

5.3.1953 Death of Joseph Stalin

"The 'thaw' which set in after the death of Stalin greatly benefited Polish sociology, and under Gomulka the Polish sociologists, who are for the most part, like Ossowski, convinced Marxists, placed themselves unreservedly at the disposal of the work of reconstruction in their country" ( Maus, H. 1956/1962 p.169)

Sometime in 1953 (aged 28), Zygmunt Bauman was dismissed from his post in the army. He was told that his father had been seen making enquiries at the Israeli Embassy about the possibility of emigration.

1954 Zygmunt Bauman teaching at the University of Warsaw from 1954

1955 Butabika Hospital opened in Kampala, Uganda. - Wikipedia - east london link

In 1955 Butabika hospital, located on the shores of Lake Victoria, was started as a mental asylum for psychotic patients and serving the whole of East and Central Africa. It catered for both civil and forensic cases. The latter were criminal psychotics who could not be contained by just the prison services. The location at Butabika Hospital was considered because it was more spacious than Mulago hospital where patients would often be a nuisance to passers-by in the densely populated suburbs of Mulago. In the early years, expatriate psychiatric workers manned the mental health facilities in Uganda right from Hoima, Mulago and Butabika hospitals. The first indigenous mental health workers learnt on the job as far back as 1956. Some were sent abroad for specialized training in psychiatry.

25.2.1956 Nikita Khrushchev's report "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences" to a closed session of the 20th Party Congress

12.3.1956 Boleslaw Bierut, president of Poland, died in Moscow.

22.8.1956 to 29.8.1956 Soviet bloc delegates attend World Congress of Sociology in Amsterdam.

19.10.1956 Rehabilitation of Wladyslaw Gomulka in Poland - Wikipedia - General Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party from 1956 to 1970.

26.10.1956 Red Army troops invade Hungary.

29.10.1956 Israel invades the Sinai Peninsula and push Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal.

31.10.1956 The United Kingdom and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.

1957 to 1959 Russian publication (three volumes) of selected works of Antonio Gramsci. See Social Science Timeline.

"I discovered Gramsci and he gave me the opportunity of an honourable discharge from Marxism. It was a way out of orthodox Marxism, but I never became anti-Marxist as most did. I learnt a lot from Karl Marx and I'm grateful" ( Zygmunt Bauman quoted Bunting, M. 2003)

"The Institute of Sociology at the Warsaw University emerged from the Faculty of Philosophy in 1957 and since 1968 has been known as the Institute of Sociology." "The existence of the Institute has been always related to the outstanding work of the best Polish Sociologists including among others: Stanislaw Ossowski, Stefan Nowak, Zygmunt Bauman, Jerzy Szacki, Antonina Kloskowska". "Stanislaw Ossowski (1897-1963) - The patron of the Institute of Sociology." "When Poland was still under control of the Soviet Union, the Institute of Sociology was one of the centres of Polish democratic political opposition which ignited problems with the communist state authorities." ( Powerpoint Presentation by Anna Broda and Dariusz Brzosko of The Insitute of Sociology - University of Warsaw, Poland. Also available as html

1957 Polski Przeglad Socjologiczny re-appeared.

Friday 4.10.1957 First Sputnik (Russian satellite). Second was sent on 3.11.1957 with a dog on board.

Late 1950s Zygmunt Bauman studied for a year at the London School of Economics, under Robert McKenzie. He prepared a comprehensive study on the British socialist movement.

1959 Zygmunt Bauman (in Polish) British Socialism: Sources, Philosophy, Political Doctrine


1960 Klasa-ruch-elita. Studium Socjologiczne Dziejow Angilskiego Ruchu Robotniczego [Class, Movement, Elite: A Sociological Study on the History of the British Labour Movement] by Zygmunt Bauman published in Warszawa [Warsaw]. It was translated into English in 1972 (publication) by Sheila Patterson as Between Class and Elite: The Evolution of the British Labour Movement: A Sociological Study


Wednesday 12.4.1961 Major Yuri Gagarin made first flight into space and back.

Zygmunt Bauman (in Polish) Questions of Modern American Sociology

From "Focus on psychiatry in East Africa" by Frank Njenga The British Journal of Psychiatry October 2002, 181 (4) pages 354- 359

East Africa is made up of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, all previous colonies of the British Empire which attained their independence in the early 1960s. At the time of independence, the East African community held the three countries together. Political expedience broke up the community in 1977 but greater wisdom and economic reality have brought the three countries back together in December 2001, in the form of a common Legislative Assembly and Court of Appeal. A Customs Union is expected soon, ahead of full political integration.

Geographically, the three countries surround the second largest freshwater lake in the world, Lake Victoria. They can be treated as one system for the purpose of this discussion but, as will become evident, the three developed in distinctly different ways following political independence. Kenya embraced a strict capitalist market-driven economy, Tanzania committed itself to a socialist system of government called Ujamaa, while Uganda experimented with rapidly changing and increasingly violent political systems. In recent times, the three have once again discovered commonality in being home to 1.5 million refugees from all the surrounding countries, namely Somalia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Burundi, Congo, Malawi and Mozambique.

Their mental health services have, however, remained united in their apparent refusal to improve. A visit to the famous mental hospitals, Muhimbili" [ Mirembe? (Tanzania), Butabika (Uganda) and Mathari (Kenya), in the late 1960s and early 1970s told the same story of neglected, dilapidated, overcrowded asylums located far from the centre of the city; areas not to be visited by those with any medical authority. Many of the patients spent years in these institutions, never visited by psychiatrists or relatives and often receiving chlorpromazine or barbiturates (when available) for sedation.


1962 Zygmunt Bauman co-edited with S. Chodak, J. Strojnowski, J. Banaszkiewicz (in Polish) The Party Systems of Modern Capitalism, and published (in Polish) his own The Society We Live In and Outline of Sociology. Questions and Concepts


15.10.1964 Khrushchev ousted as Party Leader

1964-1968 Zygmunt Bauman Professor of General Sociology at Warsaw University.

In 1964 Bauman published (in Polish) Outline of the Marxist Theory of Society and Socjologia na co dzien (Sociology for Everyday Life). Socjologia na co dzien "reached a large popular audience in Poland and later formed the foundation for the English-language text-book Thinking Sociologically (1990). (Wikipedia)

1964 Baeyer, Häfner, and Kisker's Psychiatrie der Verfolgten. [Baeyer in charge of the Heidelberg Psychiatric Hospital from 1955 to 1972. Wolfgang Huber began working there in 1964.

1965 Zygmunt Bauman published (in Polish) Visions of a Human World: Studies on the social genesis and the function of sociology

1966 Zygmunt Bauman published (in Polish) Culture and Society, Preliminaries

1966 Yusuf Badri established the Ahfad University College for Women in Omdurman, across the Nile from Khartoum, with 23 students and a faculty of three, including Yusuf, Ahfad now has an enrollment of over 5,000 students.

22.6.1966 "sit-in" at the Free University of Berlin

1966-1970 "Dr. HUBER expands his voluntarily undertaken work in the Policlinic of the Psychiatric University Clinic well beyond his personal duties".


2.6.1967 Student Benno Ohnesorg shot and killed by a Police officer, on a demonstration against an official visit of the Shah of Iran to West Germany.


An anti-semitic purge in 1968 meant that Zygmunt Bauman and his wife Janina lost their jobs. "They joined their daughter in Israel, but he was not a Zionist, and they felt uncomfortable. By the time they arrived in Leeds they were in their 40s." (Guardian interview 28.4.2001)

1967 Power of Milton Obote in Uganda cemented by parliament passing a new constitution that abolished the federal structure of the independence constitution and created an executive presidency. The "kingdoms" were abolished by Article 118(1) of the 'republican constitution' of 1967, which stated thus: "The institution of King or Ruler of a Kingdom or Constitutional Head of a District, by whatever name called, existing immediately before the commencement of this Constitution under the law then in force, is hereby abolished." As well as Buganda, this included Ankole (also called Nkore) in south west Uganda was abolished by Obote in 1967. the 1967 that ultimately eliminated kingdoms.

1968 Wilhelm Hahn (14.5.1909-9.12.1996) was CDU Minister for Culture [education) in Baden-Wuerttemberg from 1968 to 1978.

"When Minister HAHN introduced his new university law and HUBER, at that time vice director of the policlinic of psychiatry, stood against this law in his quality as candidate of his 'list Demos' with the votes of 90 colleagues, he had long since opened the clinic to the population. "Get along with each other and stick together, foremost outside, too. If necessary also against me and the other physicians." - and the students among the patients, numerically in the minority, were included in this dynamic of dialogue -> dialectic -> collectivity."

1968 At Heidelberg, Wolfgang Huber developed a Patientenkollektivs (Patient Collective) "1968: Entwicklung und Gründung des ursprünglichen Patientenkollektivs durch Dr. HUBER, mehr außerhalb, aber auch zunehmend innerhalb seines neuen Arbeitsplatzes". "Development and foundation of the original Patients' Collective by Dr. HUBER, more outside of but also and increasing inside his new sphere of work." (2001 list of dates)

30.5.1968 Notstandgesetze (Emergency Acts) passed as 17th constitutional amendment to the Grundgesetz, adding emergency clauses to ensure the federal government's ability to act in crises such as natural disasters, uprisings or war. The laws came into effect on 28.6.1968, marking the end of the special powers the Allied forces had been given over Germany in the Statute of Occupation of 21.9.1949. (Wikipedia)


28.4.1969 "Je cesse d'exercer mes fonctions de président de la République. Cette décision prend effet aujourd'hui … midi". (Charles de Gaulle)

May 1969 Dr Spazier denied a medical position previously offered - Dr Rauch, assistant medical officer replaced (Helen)

October 1969 Dr Kretz appointed


January 1970 to November 1972 Rolf Rendtorff rector of Heidelberg University. The problems of mediating between conservative professors, the Ministry of education (Kultusministerium) of Baden-Wrttemberg and the students demanding reforms, led eventually to his resignation.

February 1970 At Heidelberg, patients held several "assemblies", some with the press present. This may have been the origin of the Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv (Socialist Patient Collective)

5.2.1970 "first general assembly of patients in medical history" demanding the withdrawal of Wolfgang Huber's notice and the resignation of Kretz

29.2.1970 Compromise solution

"Assistant Medical Officer Dr. Huber was eventually fired together with his patients in February 1970 and was banned from entering the psychiatric clinic and the out-patient clinic" (Huber 1972/1973 p.20)

2.3.1970 Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv founded at Heidelberg University by Wolfgang Huber, his wife Ursula Schaefer, two colleagues and 40 ex-patients from the Heidelberg Psychiatric Clinic. [From this point, I think the story means that the Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv existed as a unit within the University - not within the clinic]

"There was a Marx work group, a Hegel working group, one of anti-psychiatry and one to the new left social analysis. I enrolled immediately for interviews, which were named in the SPK "Individual agitation"." (Margrit Schiller's autobiography quoted - German)

April 1970 First issue of Cahiers pour la Folie

[Directors of the Maoist journal La Cause du peuple were imprisoned in early 1970. Jean-Paul Sartre was asked to become the Director on the grounds that the government would not arrest him.]

1.5.1970 Number 20 of with Jean-Paul Sartre as Director of publication of La Cause du peuple. In May 1971 it merged with J'accuse and the first Cause of the people - J'accuse appeared on 24.5.1971. Sartre remained Director until September 1973. La Cause du peuple gave publicity to prison issues.

5.6.1970 Founding statement of the Rote Armee Fraktion, "Die Rote Armee aufbauen!", published in 883 magazine.

In a paper on the concept of the urban guerilla, the Rote Armee Fraktion wrote that "American imperialism is a paper tiger. This means that it may be finally defeated. Victory is possible if we fight in every corner of the world, forcing it to split its forces to make it possible to cut it down because of this division. If the theory of the Chinese Communists is right, there is then no reason for any country or region to opt out of the anti-imperialist struggle under the pretext that forces of the revolution are low while those of the reaction are strong". [Les Temps Modernes March 1974]

9.12.1970 Eviction order against the SPK. (2001 list of dates)


8.2.1971 (France) Manifesto of the Le Groupe d'information sur les prisons signed by Jean-Marie Domenach, Michel Foucault et Pierre Vidal-Naquet.

24.3.1971 "PATIENTS' INFO No 33: It concerns telephoned death threats against Wolfgang HUBER". (2001 list of dates)

16.4.1971 and 5.5.1971 "PATIENTS' INFO No 35-36 ... Suicide equals murder / starvation equals murder. Concerning what the press describes as a so called suicide of an SPK(H)-patient on 8.4.1971". (2001 list of dates)

24.6.1971 "a mysterious shooting at Heidelberg police station". Search of Wolfgang Huber's house. Wolfgang Huber and two other SPK members arrested. Wolfgang Huber was released a day later, the other two remained in custody.

25.6.1971 and 26.6.1971. "a mass search operation". Eight SPK members arrested.

30.6.1971 PATIENTS' INFO No 47: - GORILLAS IN HEIDELBERG " ... we demand the licenses to make use of 500 weapons for patients so that they can defend their often demanded right to self-defense, against the outbreak of unrestricted police terror, by these means". "30.06.71: PATIENTEN-INFO Nr. 47 - GORILLAS IN HEIDELBERG "... fordern wir 500 Waffenscheine für Patienten, damit sie ihr oftmals gefordertes Recht auf Selbstverteidigung gegen den losgebrochenen maßlosen Polizeiterror durch diese Mittel unterstreichen können." (2001 list of dates)

16.7.1971 Informationezentrum Rote Volksuniversitat [Information Centre of the Red People's University] formed in place of Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv.

19.7.1971 - 20.7.1971 New arrest warrants against 11 SPK members, house searches and arrests. (2001 list of dates) [May have included the re- arrest of Wolfgang Huber. He was in prison from 1971 to January 1976.

22.10.1971 Arrest of Margrit Schiller in Hamburg. "While arresting her, RAF members Irmgard Möller and Gerhard Müller attempt to rescue her, getting into a shootout with police. Police sergeant Heinz Lemke is shot in the foot. Sergeant Norbert Schmid is killed". (source)

7.11.1972 Beginning of the trials of Wolfgang and Ursel Huber and others. A teach-in on the trials with, among others, Professor Brueckner was held.

November 1972 Counter-inquiry (French: Enquête) of European supporters held in Heidelberg over several weeks: International Information Group for Counterinvestigations into the SPK trial. Organised by the IZRU, very actively supported by Jean-Paul Sartre.

19.12.1972 Wolfgang Huber and Ursel Huber each sentenced to four and a half years in prison.


Groupe d'information sur le Asiles (Groupe Information Asiles or GIA) (Group for Information on Asylums) formed sometime in 1972

28.1.1972 West German Chancellor Willy Brandt and the premiers of the states instituted the "Radikalenerlass" (Anti-Radical Decree).

17.4.1972 Jean Paul Sartre's preface to SPK - Aus der Kranheit eine Waffe Machen [Make Your Illness a Weapon] Link to web copy of manuscript of Sartre's letter and a translation into English.


A.R.M. (Association contre la répression médico- policière) was an organisation of the non-authoritarian left in France that existed in 1973.

8.5.1973 Hunger strike of German political prisoners began on "the anniversary of the victory over Nazi fascism". Political prisoners in Germany were (almost completely) members of the RAF - Rote Armee Fraktion RAF or the SPK, which Les Temps Modernes called "Collectif socialiste de patients de l'universite de Heidelberg" [Les Temps Modernes March 1974]

end of June 1973 end of hunger strike.

Saturday 30.6.1973 Fresnes, outside Paris: "it was rather a shock when a group in one of the workshops introduced themselves as the Red Army Faction or RAF from Germany, who said they were associated with the Bader Meinhof Group." (Lesley). "we divided into small groups, where many people did speak English, there were police with guns wandering amongst us and closely listening in. Like Lesley we had not reckoned on the involvement of the Socialist Patients Kollective (SPK) and their links with the Red Army Faction. We remember that some members of the RAF were in prison at that time and on hunger strike as there were leaflets about this." (Liz and Brian).

Sunday 1.7.1973 Press conference followe by a march:

On the occasion of the Press Conference, a number of celebrities signed an appeal calling for an end to the solitary confinement of political prisoners and that they should be treated as the common law prisoners. The signatories included Leclerc, Michel Foucault, Jean-Paul Sartre, Philippe Sollers, Marcelin Pleynet, Jean-Jacques de Felice and le C.A.P. (Comite d'action des prisonniers).

Paris march to the West German embassy in support of members of the SPK in prison awaiting trial - "The IZRU (Informationezentrum Rote Volksuniversitat) [Information Centre of the Red People's University] from Germany described the treatment of the S.P.K. (Socialist Patients Collective) who are in prison awaiting trial. Political prisoners are isolated from all contact with other prisoners, have restricted visits from close relatives and all mail is censored. 60 prisoners had been on a hunger strike for seven weeks which had been ignored by the authorities and the press"


March 1974 Les Temps Modernes [Mars 1974 (1)] contained an article about what it called the "torture" of political prisoners in West Germany.

"Malgré ce boycott par la droite et par la gauche, la grève de la faim a été menée collectivement environ un mois et demi et s'est achevée par une conférence de presse donnée à Paris dans les locaux de l'A.P.L. par les avocats des prisonniers politiques, et par une manifestation devant l'ambassade d'Allemagne avec la participation des membres des groupes suivants: A.R.M. (Association contre la répression médico- policière), Cahiers pour la folie, G.I.A. (Groupe d'information sur les asiles), comités contre la torture envers les prisonniers politiques en R.F.A., I.Z.R.U. informationszentrum, Rote Volksuniversitât - Heidelberg, The Mental Patient Union (Grande-Bretagne)."
"Despite the" [publicity] "boycott by the right and the left, the hunger strike was conducted collectively about a month and a half and ended with a press conference given in Paris in the premises of the A.P.L. by counsel [lawyers or advocates] for the political prisoners, and a demonstration in front of the Germany Embassy [in Paris] with the participation of members of the following groups: A.R.M. (association against medico- policiere repression), cahiers pour la folie, GIA (group information on asylums), committees against torture against political prisoners in the Federal Republic of [West] Germany [République fédérale d'Allemagne], I.Z.R.U. informationszentrum, Rote Volksuniversitat - Heidelberg, The Mental Patient Union (Great Britain)."

[SPK members mentioned in the dossier in relation to a possible diagnosis of mental disorder: Eckehard Bleck, Siegfried Hausner, Heinz Mühler et Werner Schork]









10.11.1982 Brezhnev died and was succeeded by Andropov


1983 Sudan National Council for Higher Education endorsed the principle of Arabicization. Carried out in several faculties of the University of Khartoum by 1987. Policy further endorsed by the National Islamic Front backed government (see 1989). By 2008 almost all universities taught in arabic, with the exception of some private colleges using English as a medium of instruction. (source)

June 1983 Sudanese President Jaafer Mohammed al-Numeiry announced a thorough reform of the judicial system. 8.9.1983 President announced that the penal code had been revised in order to link it "organically and spiritually" with Islamic Law (Sharia). Theft, adultery, murder and related offences would hence forth be judged according to the Koran, and alcohol and gambling were both prohibited; non-Moslems, however, would be exempt from Koranic penalties except when convicted of murder or theft. 23.9.1983 Inauguration of the new code marked by a ceremony in Khartoum in which stocks of alcohol were dumped in the river Nile.


2.2.1984 Andropov died and was succeeded by Chernenko


10.3.1985 Chernenko died and was succeeded by Gorbachev

1985/1986 Glasnost and perestroika


GESIS - German Social Science Infrastructure Services established. One of its databases is The Knowledge Base Social Sciences in Eastern Europe (not stated when established). This includes reviews of the history of social sciences in different eastern european countries. (See text archive)




30.6.1989 Omar al-Bashir came to power in a bloodless military coup in Sudan. The new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code.



12.11.1991 Ahfad University College for Women celebrated the opening of its new library, Maktabat El Hafeed.

This library, the most modern in the Sudan, was the first building to be completed at Ahfad's new campus extension, and was to serve as a focal point for academic life at Ahfad.



1.1.1993 Publication of SPK: TURN ILLNESS INTO A WEAPON Socialist Patients' Collective. Translated from the German by Dr. W.D. Huber. Publisher: KRRIM (via AK Distribution) ISBN: 33926491175 (source)



Conference organised by the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at The Johns Hopkins University on the reconstruction of German culture after 1945. Papers published 1996 as Revisiting Zero-Hour 1945 - The Emergence of Postwar German Culture (pdf) edited by Stephen Brockmann and Frank Trommler

16.5.1995 ruprecht Heidelberger student(inn)enzeitung article about the SDP and Wolfgang Huber

M. Gourevitch, (1995) "Les Annales Médico-Psychologiques sous Pétain". Perspectives Psychiatriques, 46, 27-31 (see above)
1995 Sudan National Council for Higher Education granted Ahfad University for Women full university status, based on the expansion of its curriculum and student body.

12.1.1995 Colonial Psychiatry and the African Mind by Jock McCulloch. Cambridge University Press,




1.7.1998 First "Heathen World" archive on the SPK. One copy has "this article copyright 1996 by John Cheney".


July/August 1999 irren-offensive deutchsland. A tour of sites connected with the Nazi extermination of psychiatric patients. Includes a list of institutions from which victims are believed to have come.

"In August 1999, the World Psychiatric Association held its international congress in Hamburg, the first to have been held in Germany. It provided an opportunity, bravely taken, to report on, and mount an exhibition of, the abuses of psychiatry during the Nazi rule between 1933 and 1945" (J.L.T. Birley, The British Journal of Psychiatry 2002)



11.7.2001 First web archive of German version of SPK list of dates. 25.12.2001 First web archive of the SOCIALIST PATIENTS' COLLECTIVE / PATIENTS' FRONT SPK/PF(H) List of dates. Reference in the document to "Today, 22 years later" (than 1971) suggest it was written in 1993


Sunday 24.11,2002 Zanzibar: Mental health case study BBC Live

January 2002 Psychiatric Times "Psychiatry in Spain" by José L.G. de Rivera, M.D., FRCP(C). Available at http://psicoter.es/pdf/psyc_spain.pdf

16.10.2002 The New Library of Alexandria (New Bibliotheca Alexandrina) in Egypt is "dedicated to recapture the spirit of openness and scholarship of the original Bibliotheca Alexandrina".


5.4.2003 Madeleine Bunting Guardian "Passion and Pessimism" - A profile of Zygmunt and and Janina Bauman, including interview material.




14.6.2006 What appears to be the first Wikipedia article about the Socialist Patients Collective.

November 2006 In Maranon week, Juan José Lopéz Ibor [Dressing] gave a paper on the foundation of the hospital at Valencia. This was developed and published in 2008.


7.1.2007 to 7.2.2007. Field study trip on Mental health care through East Africa. (report - archive)

21.12.2007 First archive of Terror begets Terror 's critique of the Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv. This confuses Wolfgang Huber born 12.8.1942 with Wolfgang Huber born early in 1935.



A report of the assessment of the mental health system in Sudan using the World Health Organization - Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS). Khartoum, Sudan 2009. Available online - (offline)





"The evolution of mental health services /counseling in Uganda" by Norman D Nsereko of Nkumba University, Entebbe, Uganda. Available on researchgate - (offline) - See Uganda

December 2013 Edward N. Snyder Work not Alms: The Bethel Mission to East Africa and German Protestant debates over Eugenics, 1880-1933 PhD Dissertation University of Minnesota. - (offline) - See Bethel, Lutindi



Salma Tatta Gasim 26.2.2015 on Facebook

In Sudan one of the most common and most asked questions: "What family are you from?".

Replying "Badri", I am overwhelmed by their praises and comments. "You are the family that educated our girls and women". "Turned our young girls into strong, independent and successful women". "Badri women are strong and successful women".

Hearing these words I can't help but feel proud!

Summer 2015 Presentation: "State of Mental health in Uganda" by Samuel Maling of Mbarara University of Science and Technology. - (offline) - See Uganda

home page to all
of Andrew
Roberts' web site home page for
mental health

African and Asian asylums in 1900

East Africa

Egypt and Mesopotamia




Austria 1784 on



European middle ages


17th Century

18th Century

Guggenmoos and Guggenbühl

Germany: Early 19th century

Germany Academic

1925: Hitler's Mein Kampf and Zygmunt Bauman

Germany 1945 and after


For a large part of the world's population, the Mediterranean is culturally and physically the centre of the earth. A vast land mass north of the Himalayas through Europe the Middle East and Africa is the conceptual space on which I am modelling this web page - with the Americas on another page and the ancient civilisations and modern colonies east, where the sunrises for me, on another. Here in Hackney I am the sunrise or sunset of people with other earthcores. Greetings friends

Everything has to start somewhere - So I have begun this page with extracts from Ackernecht's (1959) Short History of Psychiatry

mad English

dol Dutch

fou French

mad people English

Irren German (plural of irre/irrer

mad house English

Irrenhaus German

"Dolhuis is een ander woord voor gekkenhuis" (Dutch)

mental patients English


Psychiatrische Krankenhäuser German

psychiatric hospital English

hôpital psychiatrique French