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A criminology and deviancy theory history timeline

based on The New Criminology. For a social theory of deviance (1973), by Ian Taylor, Paul Walton and Jock Young and Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community (2012) by Tony Goodman.
1188 - 1290 - 1500 - 1612 - 1640 - 1660 - 1670 - 1682 - 1722 - 1754 - 1756 - 1764 - 1765 - 1776 - 1777 - 1779 - 1781 - 1785 - 1787 - 1789 - 1791 - 1794 - 1797 - 1800 - 1805 - 1808 - 1810 - 1813 - 1821 - 1823 - 1829 - 1835 - 1832 - 1838 - 1840 - 1842 - 1851 - 1857 - 1863 - 1867 - 1868 - 1876 - 1877 - 1878 - 1879 - 1880 - 1881 - 1882 - 1883 - 1884 - 1885 - 1886 - 1887 - 1888 - 1889 - 1890 - 1891 - 1892 - 1893 - 1894 - 1895 - 1896 - 1897 - 1898 - 1899 - 1900 - 1901 - 1921 - 1925 - 1934 - 1936 - 1937 - 1938 - 1949 - 1951 - 1960 - 1964 - 1967 - 1971 - 1973 - 1974 - 1975 - 1979 - 1981 - 1982 - 1984 - 1986 - 1987 - 1989 - 1990 - 1993 - 1997 - 1998 - 1999 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009 - 2010 - 2011 - 2012 - 2013 - 2014 - 2015 -

Roman Republic "During the time of the republic, freemen were never put to the torture, and slaves only were exposed to this punishment"

See torture


1066: Norman conquest

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "the burning of heretics was first decreed in the eleventh century". Heresy is unacceptable religious belief. See England 1401 - 1554.

12th Century

From 1154: a common law for England

1166 The Assize of Clarendon, a law of Henry 2nd, established courts throughout the country, and prisons for those awaiting trial. Each shire (county) was required to provide a gaol where people could be detained until the court appearance or punishment. The gaol was not considered a form of punishment. (See below)

Prison was not, in itself, generally considered as punishment (See above). However, there are some statutory provisions for imprisonment as punishment. These include a year sentence and fine for poaching in the royal forests. From the 12th century on, their was an increase in the number of prisons In England, and also an increase in their use as punishment for crimes such as fraud and for petty crime, and sometimes even felonies. (Norman Johnston 2009 p. 11S),

13th Century

Felonies and the death penalty "Next below treason stand the felonies. Common law felonies ... consist of those crimes that have been considered as peculiarly grave at the time when our common law first took shape in the thirteenth century: homicide, arson, burglary, robbery, rape and larcency. Broadly speaking we may say that they were capital crimes, save petty larceny, stealing to less value than 12d. (Maitland, F.W. 1963 p.229)

Humiliation punishments especially for women
1215 "Brawling women undergo the punishment of the 'Coking Stole'" Cornwall quotation in Oxford English Dictionary, which describes the cucking, cukkyng, cuckyng, cooking or cuk stool as "An instrument of punishment formerly in use for scolds, disorderly women, fraudulent tradespeople, etc., consisting of a chair (sometimes in the form of a close-stool), in which the offender was fastened and exposed to the jeers of the bystanders, or conveyed to a pond or river and ducked." See 1362/1378 and 1511

14th Century

Gruesome Displays
By the English
Treason Act of 1351, the punishment of men was to be hung, drawn and quartered and the punishment of women was to be burnt. See also burning of heretics. France, see Foucault on the Ordinance of 1670.

Humiliation punishments 1351 Following the Black Death, the English Statute of Labourers of 1351 required that "stocks be made in every town" and that twice a year farm labourere be required to take an oath to work for the established wage in their usual place of work. "those which refuse to take such oath or to perform that that they be sworn to ... shall be put in the stocks... by three days or more, or sent to the next gaol, there to remain, till they will justify themselves." text of Act - Pillory 1562/1563 - Deborah Wilson 1669

1362/1378 Wikipeda claims that "There is a reference from about 1378 to a cucking-stool as wyuen pine ("women's punishment") in Langland's Piers Plowman, B.V.29." I am not sure that is what the passage (below) means:

"Tomme Stowue he taughte to take two staves
And fecche Felice horn fro wyve pyne."

15th Century

1401 English Act for the burning of heretics

1422 to 1461 Henry 6th King of England

14.5.1431 Joan of Arc burnt alive on conviction of heresy

1485 Tudors

1487 Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of the Witches) published in Germany - See England an Scotland 1562/1563 - King James 1597 - Pendle 1612 - Bideford 1682 - Salem 1692.

16th Century

About 1500 Eight capital crimes were defined: treason, petty treason, murder, robbery, larceny, rape and arson. (Timeline of capital punishment in Britain (archive) - which does not say what the eighth was)

1533 An Act for the punishment of the vice of Buggery (25 Henry 8 c. 6) made anal intercourse (sodomy) with a man, woman or animal a civil, rather than ecclesatical crime, with the penalty of hanging.

November 1554. English heresy laws, which had been repealed, were reinstated. Under them, convicted heretics were to be burnt alive. The burnings began in February 1555.

1562 or 1563 English Witchcraft Act. If the witchcraft was held to have caused someone's death, the witch shall "suffer pains of death as a felon" (that is, be hanged). if it caused injury to someone's person or goods, the witch was to be detained in prison for a year and "once in every Quarter of the said year", on a market day or fair "stand openly upon the Pillory" for six hours and "there shall openly confess his or her "error and offence". For a second offence, the witch would be hung.

1563 Scottish Witchcraft Act

1597 King James of Scotland, fearful of the abundance of witches and enchanters in Scotland, wrote and pubished Daemonologie, a book about these "detestable slaves of the Devil".

17th Century

27.5.1610 Francois Ravaillac executed in Paris by being pulled apart by four horses. See types of punishment

11.4.1612 Edward Wightman was executed by being burnt alive in the Market Place at Lichfield. His crime was heresy. Wightman is believed to be the last person in England to be executed for heresy by burning alive

Summer 1612 Pendle (Lancashire) witch trials convicted convicted the accused on the evidence of a child.

Transportation of convicts "Between 1614 and 1775 some 50,000 English men, women, and children were sentenced... to be sent to the American colonies for a variety of crimes". See National Archives Guide

1640 Abolition of the Star Chamber in England meant the abolition of any torture allowed by English law.

John Bunyan

1678 John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress (Part One) in which Christian follows the straight and narrow path to heaven (external link to text)

1680 John Bunyan's The Life and Death of Mr Badman outlines his staggering steps to hell (external link to text)

1684 John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress (Part Two) In which Christiana follows her husband, Christian, with her children

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the works of Bunyan and the Bible were amongst the very small range of books that one might expect to find in the homes of ordinary, but literate, people in England and Wales. They shaped the common perception of crime and punishment.

Newgate Prison, and the adjacent court, were amongst the buildings destroyed in the London fire of 1666. Another building destroyed was the old Bedlam.


Ordonnance criminelle de 1670
The Criminal Ordinance of 1670
Ordonnance criminelle de Colbert

Enacted under the reign of Louis 14th

Made in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Registered by the Parliament of Paris (a court) on 26.8.1670. Came into effect on 1.1.1671

"one of the first legal texts attempting to codify criminal law in France."

Remained in force until the French Revolution. Abrogated (repealed) by a decree of the National Constituent Assembly on 9.10.1789.

Text in French

Main source: Wikipedia

Torture to extract confessions or to extract the names of accomplices was permitted under some circumstances under the code. Torture to extract confessions was abolished in 1780. Torture to extract the names of accomplices was abolished in 1788

1672 Newgate Prison rebuilt.
1673 The "Old Bailey" court rebuilt

1674 "News from Newgate: or an exact and true accompt of the most remarkable tryals of several notorious malefactors... in the Old Baily". The first of the publications reproduced as:
"The Proceedings of the Old Bailey 1674-1913" online.

"Punishments at the Old Bailey - Late 17th Century to the early 20th Century" outlines the evolution of punishment.

1682: Bideford Witch Trials led to last executions for witchcraft in England. In 1685 Alice Molland may have been hanged. If so, she is believed to have been the last person executed for witchcraft. Let us hope she survived.
See Salem Witch Trials

May 1717 France: Voltaire imprisoned in the Bastille for eleven months, accused of writing two anonymous libels.

"This was a turning point for Voltaire, for he felt the sting of injustice most keenly, and it surely influenced his later campaigning against the injustices dealt out to others." (source)
In 1725 Voltaire was imprisoned for a second time in the Bastille and later exiled to England. See 1762 - 1763 - 1764 -

1722 Sweden the first Continental European state to abolish torture.

1754 Prussia the second Continental European state to abolish torture.


Britain William Blackstone, professor of law at Oxford University, published his lectures as An Analysis of the Laws of England

5.1.1757 France: Robert-François Damiens, an unemployed domestic servant, rushed at King Louise 15th of France, stabbing him with a knife and inflicting a slight wound. Damiens was condemned ( 1.3.1757) as a regicide (a person who kills a king) and sentenced to be publicly drawn and quartered, by horses. The execution was carried out on 28.3.1757 - See Foucault and Wikipedia

France: From the 1760s A campaign to reorganizing the justice system in which the writings of Voltaire were influential.

10.3.1762 Execution of Jean Calas in Toulous haveing been "condemned to the torture, ordinary and extraordinary, was then broken upon the wheel, and finally burnt". See Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 - Wikipedia - Casper Hewett

1763 Traité sur la Tolérance … l'occasion de la mort de Jean Calas by Voltaire

The Language of Law Beccaria, in 1764, speaks of the laws "being written in a language unknown to the people" in "the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe". By this, I believe he refers to the Holy Roman Empire, of which the part of Italy where he lived was part. See 1784

Classical Criminology


Italy: Cesare Beccaria's Dei delitti e delle pene published in Italian. It was translated into French, and from the French into English as An Essay on Crimes and Punishment (1767) with a commentary attributed to Voltaire.

Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment is taken as the first formulation of the principles of classical criminology. It is called classical because the later "positivist school of criminology" saw itself as a modern development that moved beyond the classical by being more "scientific" than "philosophic". Biological Positivism was established a hundred years later in the same area of Italy by Cesare Lombroso.

Beccaria built on the idea of "social contract" used by state of nature theorists such as Hobbes and (later) Rousseau, and on theories later called utilitarian (Helvetius and David Hume).

This is how Taylor, Walton and Young (1973 page 2) claim classical theory can be summarised in seven points. Jennifer Seelig has identified parts of Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment that may illustrate six of the points. I have linked through to these.

1) Everyone is, by nature, self-seeking and this means everyone is liable to commit crime.

2) There is a consensus in society that it is desirable to protect private property and personal welfare

3) In order to prevent a war of all against all, people freely enter into a contract with the state to preserve the peace within the terms of this consensus.

4) Punishment must be used to deter individuals from violating the interests of others. It is the prerogative [monopoly? - see Weber] of the state, granted to it by the individuals making up the social contract, to act against these violations.

5) Punishments must be proportional to the interests violated by the crime. It must not be in excess of this, neither must it be used for reformation; for this would be encroach on the rights of the individual and transgress the social contract. [This is a contentious aspect of the Taylor, Walton, Young summary - But they do not back it up]

6) There should be as little law as possible, and its implementation should be closely delineated by due process

7) The individual is responsible for his actions and is equal, no matter what his rank, in the eyes of the law. Mitigating circumstances or excesses are therefore inadmissible.

Compare Beccaria 21

Quite what this summary summarises is not entirely clear, but Taylor, Walton and Young indicate their broad concept of classical theory when they speak of "classical social contract theory - or utilitarianism". - The utilitarian Bentham considered social contract theory "nonsense upon stilts" - The Taylor, Walton and Young list appears to be a construct taking elements from different eighteenth and early nineteenth century theories, and possibly combining them with elements from 20th century theories. It's educational value must include trying to find theorists who agree or disagree with its elements.

English Conservatism


Britain Between 1765 and 1769, William Blackstone published the first edition of his Commentaries on the Laws of England

"Of a constitution, so wisely contrived, so strongly raised, and so highly finished, it is hard to speak with that praise, which is just and severely its due - the thorough and attentive contemplation of it will furnish its best panegyric"

1770 Denmark abolished torture. Russia abolished torture in 1774

1771 Initial suggestions of Jean Jacques Philippe Viscount Vilain 14th (1712-1777) led to the Maison de Force (House of Correction) being founded at Ghent (Austrian Flanders - later Belgium), in 1772. Described as an enlightened detention centre, combining prison, work-house, and house of correction. A place of correction for offenders, mendicants, vagrants, and others. Its treatment regime was solitary confinement at night and collective labour in the day. It was reformed in 1775 (see below).

Norman Johnston (2009) describes it as the "first large-scale adult penal institution to use architecture to implement a reform-minded penal philosophy. When four of the eight trapezoidal sections were completed in 1773, they separately housed male felons, beggars, women, and unemployed labourers and abandoned children-a very early example of classification of different types of inmates. Ghent remained a model prison until it later became seriously overcrowded-always a spoiler in the history of prison reforms"

1775 Mémoire sur les Moyens de Corriger le Malfaiteurs et Fainéans a leur propre Avantage et de les Rendre utiles à l'état proposé à l'Assemblée des Députés par le Vicomte Vilain XIIII., etc. [Memoire on the means of correcting criminals to their true advantage and of rendering them useful to society] A printed edition of 268 pages, with four double-page engraved plates, was published in the early 19th century (1841?) in Ghent, by Pierre de Goesin. The British Library has a copy.


Abolition of torture in the Austrian empire, of which Beccaria's Milan was part.

Bentham's Utilitarianism


Britain Jeremy Bentham's A Fragment of Government published Criticising Blackstone's conservative theory. In 1768, Bentham had decided to provide a scientific foundation for jurisprudence (the science of law) and legislation (laws passed by parliament). He formulated the principle of utility, that the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the only proper measure of right and wrong and the only proper end of government. His early manuscripts frequently mention Helvetius and Beccaria

Bentham and Crime and Punishment

Bentham's theories relate crime to learning more than to inborn propensities. His psychology is based on the association of ideas.

Utilitarian theory: One needs a balance of pain and pleasure that will lead to people doing what is socially desirable:

Modern Prisons

Revolting America stops taking transported British prisoners , stimulating:
  • Prison hulks in Thames: 1776 to 1857
  • Australia's development as an alternative place to send convicts.
  • Act to allow state prisons (1779)
  • Prison as a mode of punishment and reform developed, in theory and practice, during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Foucault argues that the theory of discipline developed before the practice.


    Britain John Howard's The State of the Prisons

    1779 Penitentiary Act: The first English Act authorising state prisons. Only Millbank was built under the Act.

    1780 Gordon rioters attack Newgate
    1782 A new Newgate Prison finished
    1783 Public hangings moved from Tyburn to Newgate. (See 1789 and 1817

    Germany Immanuel Kant's philosophy is the major alternative to Utilitarianism. Kant developed the moral ideas of Rousseau into a formal theory of the difference between reasoning about what is (science) and reasoning about what we ought to do (ethics, or "practical reason"). His theories are a criticism of the Scottish utilitarian philosopher, David Hume.

    24.8.1780 France: Royal Oridinance of Louise 16th abolished the "preparatory question" (question préparatoire): the form of torture that accused persons were forced to undergo in order to extract confessions from them.


    Germany Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Pure Reason social science history

    1782: Newgate reconstructed. It was demolished in 1903.


    Germany Immanuel Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

    From 1785 to 1788, Jeremy Bentham travelled the Continent, including Russia. It was here that he developed his idea of a model institution: the "Panopticon". He developed the idea in a series of letters from Russia to a friend in England, in 1787. These were published in 1791

    30.11.1786 Tuscany's reformed penal code officially abolished the death penalty, ordered the destruction of the instruments of execution, and banned torture.

    1787 transportation from Britain to Australia began


    Germany Immanuel Kant's The Critique of Practical Reason

    1788 France: Royal Oridinance of Louise 16th abolished the "preliminary question" (question préalable) - a form of torture designed to obtain from those who had been convicted the names of their accomplices

    1788 London: The Philanthropic Society started "over a cup of coffee".

    "The Philanthropic Society was the second children's charity to be set up, following the Thomas Coram Foundation, but it was the first with the aim of preventing children from committing crimes. At that time, children could be sent to the gallows and many were sent to prison for minor crimes. The Society opened homes to feed and care for the children and also to train them in cottage industries such as printing, shoemaking and twinespinning often going on to be apprenticed to local craftsmen." (source)

    The end of the eighteenth century saw the end of some gruesome displays. Notable was the end of publicly burning the (dead) body of people convicted of petty treason (notably husband murder) and the end of the public exhibition of lunatics at Bethlem Hospital.

    May 1789: Start of the French Revolution

    "Let penalties be regulated and proportional to the offences, let the death sentence be passed only on those convicted of murder, and let tortures that revolt humanity be abolished"

    Britain Jeremy Bentham's An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation published


    Social Science History 1791 Britain Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon; or, the Inspection-House: Containing the Idea of a New Principle of Construction Applicable to Any Sort of Establishment, in which Persons of Any Description Are to Be Kept Under Inspection Mental Health History
    Bentham and intervention 1794: The British Parliament backed Bentham's Panopticon as the plan for a new Prison. Bentham was to run it under contract. Foundations were laid. But, in January 1803, Bentham was told the Government could not find the funds

    France: Code pénal du 25 septembre -6 octobre 1791 - see dictionary

    External link: The French Revolution and the organisation of justice

    John Lewis Gillin says that, following the French Revolution, Beccaria's principles were used as the basis for the French Code of 1791. Beccaria had said

    "crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society. ... They err ... who imagine that a crime is greater or less according to the intention of the person by whom it is committed."

    So the French code said exactly what the penalty for every crime should be. Individual circumstances were not taken into account. In practice, this caused problems and modifications were introduced. Gillin says that these modifications "are the essence of the so-called neoclassical school".

    "In 1791, when Louis-Michel Le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau (1760- 1793) presented the newly drafted criminal code to the National Constituent Assembly, he explained that it outlawed only "true crimes" and not "phoney offenses, created by superstition, feudalism, the tax system, and [royal] despotism." He did not list the crimes "created by superstition" (meaning the Christian religion), but these certainly included blasphemy, heresy, sacrilege, and witchcraft, and most probably also incest, bestiality, and same-sex sexual acts, none of which was mentioned in the new Penal Code (promulgated September 26-October 6, 1791). All these former offenses were thus decriminalised." Michael D. Sibalis

    See 1810 Code

    Age of consent (applied to boys as well as girls) established at age of 11 years. Increased to 13 years in 1863. (Stephen Robertson, "Age of Consent Laws," in Children and Youth in History, Item #230, http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/teaching-modules/230

    Gloucester Gaol Acts: 1781 and 1785
    About 1792 (Other dates are given) A prison in Northleach, Gloucestershire, built at the instigation of Sir George Onesiphorus Paul, High Sheriff of Gloucestershire. Conceived as a model prison. The Prison is variously known as Gloucester Penitentiary, Gloucester Gaol or Gloucester Prison. [Gloucester County Lunatic Asylum was originally planned in 1793 and eventually opened in 1823] Some features of the prison were later copied in Cherry Hill Penitentiary, Philadelphia in 1829, and London's Pentonville Prison in 1844

    1793-1794 Goya's Prison Interior and Yard with Lunatics paintings


    Germany Immanuel Kant's The Metaphysics of Morals

    France: Codes of 1808 and 1810

    The Code d'instruction criminelle of 1808 set out the procedures for investigating and judging. See Wikipedia

    Code pénal de 1810 - a translation into English - see dictionary

    Established by Napoleon Bonaparte on 12.2.1810. It was later revised, but remained into force until replaced by a new Penal code on 1.3.1994. John Lewis Gillin says that, The Code of 1810 permitted some discretion on the part of the judges. (See 1791 Code)

    Revised in 1832 and 1863. Another major reform in 1885 introduced conditional release, deportation for recidivists, and suspended sentences for first-time offenders.

    Britain 1813 Elizabeth Fry's first visit to the women in Newgate

    Britain 1815 Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline and Reformation of Juvenile Offenders formed. William Crawford (1788-1847) was a founder member and secretary. See 1833

    Britain 1817 Monday morning 24.2.1817: just another mother hanging outside Newgate

    France: 1818 (Alphonse) Thomas Bérenger published La Justice criminelle en France, criticising special tribunals, provosts' courts and military commissions, used under the Bourbon restoration. According the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, Bérenger "advocated a return to the old common law and trial by jury".


    Newgate "now the general felons' prison for the City of London and the County of Middlesex" (James Elmes in A Topographical Description of London (1831). The largest number of prisoners were there for theft, robbery or fraud. Many were children. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who was a prisoner from 1827 to 1830, described it as "not a house of correction or penitentiary, but merely a prison of detention - a sort of metropolitan watch-house for the secure custody of persons about to be tried or executed...the great mass of prisoners... are persons awaiting trial". The prisoners, like Wakefield, who were there for punishment, were not subject to a regime to make them "penitent". Wakefield, being a gentleman, had quite a commodious cell with a maid-of-all-work to look after him. His two children visited him regularly in his cell where he gave them there lessons. Wakefield was even allowed to carry out social investigations, including interviewing other prisoners. [An early example of field work or participant observation]. Less fortunate prisoners than Wakefield were locked, two or even three together, in cells eight foot by six. Men and women were in different parts of the prison and boys under fourteen were kept in a part of the prison known as the school - unless they were considered hardened offenders. Prisoners sentenced to death were kept in solitary confinement. Wakefield said that, on average, twenty prisoners would be waiting death at any one time. At the most, there were fifty nine. Some of these would be reprieved. There average stay between sentence and reprieve or execution was six weeks. (Bloomfield, P. 1961, chapter 5)

    Newcastle Jane Jameson tried and executed for the murder (whilst drunk) of her mother. Compare Mary Lamb in 1796 who murdered her mother in a fit of insanity and was not sent for trial. 2.1.1829 the murder 5.3.1829 the trial (external link) 7.3.1829 the execution (external link). A sketch was made at her trial (external link)

    France: 1832 8 avril: réforme du Code pénal et création de la détention (art. 7 & 20). La déportation est remplacée transitoirement par la détention perpétuelle (article 17). - (external source) - see dictionary

    See Foucault on the 1832 Code

    1832 The Philanthropic Society opened the Philanthropic School at Redhill opens. With the belief that their work would be more successful away from the streets of London, out in the clean country air. In "1839 A school was established in Mettray near Tours in France and a European movement was begun."

    Britain 1833 William Crawford sent on a tour of United States prisons.

    "Crawford found two systems in transatlantic prisons: on one hand there was the Auburn 'silent system' which allowed associated labour and dining, but prevented contamination by silence enforced by flogging; on the other hand was the Philadelphia 'separate system' which combined cellular confinement throughout sentence with visits from a battery of reformatory personnel, such as chaplains, teachers, and trade instructors, whose message of forgiveness would hopefully be well-received by prisoners softened by enforced solitude. Crawford was entranced by what he saw as the perfect prison system, and criticized the silent system which, in his view, led to vengefulness and hatred among prisoners. Separation alone, in his view, could deter by its awesome severity and reform by its irresistible impact on the individual conscience." (Bill Forsythe, Dictionary of National Biography)

    "The first attempts to tackle the problem of crime scientifically were social rather than biological. The transition between classicism and positivism was largely effected by the 'moral statisticians'" New Criminology p.37

    Moral statistics just means statistics about the human as distinct from the physical or natural. Examples of its use are the titles of Bisset Hawkins book on Germany in 1838 - von Oettingen's book relating to social ethics in 1868 - and Morselli's book on Suicide in 1879. Nowadays we are more likely to call such statistics: social statistics


    Belgium and France Adolphe Quetelet's Sur l'homme et le dévelopment de ses facultés ou Essai de physique sociale published in Paris. It was translated into English and published in 1842 as A Treatise on Man and the Development of his Faculties. Quetelet put forward the concept of the "average man".

    physique sociale is translated in New Criminolgy as "social physics"

    1835 Prisons Act appointed Prison Inspectors.
    These favoured the "Separate System" of
    stopping prisoners having a bad influence
    on one another, rather than the "Silent System".
    Pentonville (below) used the separate system.
    Victoria Olesen finds marked similarities between Bentham's panopticon plans and the Philadelphia Separate system. Does anyone know of relationships?


    France Jean Étienne Dominique Esquirol's Des maladies mentales, considées sous les rapports medédical, hygienique et médico-légal published in Paris. Translated into English as Mental Maladies. A Treatise on Insanity in 1845 (Philadelphia)

    1839 The first completely separate institution for women and girls in the United States appears to have been established at Mount Pleasant - later known as Ossining - New York, near the Sing Sing male prison in 1835" [1839]. "All other states followed with facilities for women and others for girls" (Norman Johnston 2009) America

    1840 Insane Prisoners Act

    France: Colonie pénitentiaire de Mettray opened 1840.
    Norman Johnston (2009) says "reformers, shocked by the plight of children housed in adult prisons, established a minimum security agricultural facility, the Mettray Colony.... Cottages were arranged on a campus without walls, a layout that later became a template for American youth and women's facilities into the 21st century. The individual cottage was intended to be run as a family unit. Separate institutions for boys and girls were later opened in most American states, particularly from the 1850s on."

    (Wikipedia - another link)

    Religion and reformation

    From the end of July to early October 1841: Elizabeth Fry accompanied her brother and others on a tour of Holland, Germany, Prussia and Denmark. She carried with her a letter of introduction from Prince Albert (Queen Victoria's husband) to the King of Prussia. Their meeting was friendly and concluded with Elizabeth urging the king to mark his reign by "the prisons being so reformed that punishment might become the reformation of criminals; by the lower classes being religiously educated; and by the slaves in their colonies being liberated". (Whitney, J. 1937 p.229)

    She visited Copenhagen in August 1841. At this time the Danish Prison Commission of 1840 had come to the conclusion that the Auburn (Silent) model was preferable to the Pensylvania (Separate) system for Denmark. Elizabeth Fry campaigned on the importance of religion to changing criminal behaviour and, as a result of her effort, Denmark built one Auburn model prison (Horsens tugthus - opened in 1853) and one Pennsylvania model (vridsløselille - opened in 1859. [Two other Danish prisons: Blegdammens fængsel opened in 1848, Vestre Fængsel in 1895] (Information from Victoria Olesen, history student, Roskilde University in Denmark)


    Pentonville prison, London - 1842 Act
    (Constructed on the separate system plan - But notice that it is sometimes also called a silent system)

    Isometrical perspective of Pentonville Prison, 1840-1842. Engineer Joshua Jebb (8 May 1793 ? 26 June 1863). Report of the Surveyor-General of Prisons, London, 1844. Image reproduced in Mayhew, Criminal Prisons of London, London, 1862 Joshua Jebb, from Derbyshire, was a military engineer and the British Surveyor-General. He also designed Broadmoor Hospital. (Wikipedia Commons) - See Criminology and Penology logo 2011

    In the six years after the opening of Pentonville, 54 prisons were built on the same plan. Altogether they provided 11,000 separate cells.
    External link on heating and ventilation of Pentonville (scroll down) - system used at Derby - Illustrated London News - history and hanging - Jebb papers


    Germany Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England

    I have given this a red border in deference to The New Criminology, which starts a new theoretical thread (chapter seven) on Marx, Engels and Bonger. Notice, however, Engels use of criminal statistics.

    external link to John Lea on Frederich Engels and the Crime Question

    "Some years ago (Young 1975, p. 78) Jock Young summarised Engels' views on crime as amounting to four alternatives facing the impoverished worker.

    [First] He "... can become so brutalised as to be, in effect, a determined creature."
    [See Engels 1845]
    Secondly he can "accept the prevalent mores of capitalist society, and enter into the war of all against all."
    [See Engels 1845]
    Thirdly, he can steal the property of the rich.
    [See Engels 1845]
    Finally he can struggle for socialism
    [See Engels 1845]

    This classification provides a very useful starting point for an investigation of Engels' treatment of crime."

    You may also like to read John on The return of the dangerous classes

    In 1845, Tawell, a murderer, escaped the police.. and travelled to London by train. The police... telegraphed to Paddington, where he was arrested as he got off the train. The public interest made the electric telegraph a commercial success. See 1910

    Britain 1847 "Before the 1840s children received the same treatment in the courts as adults. Changes began tentatively in 1847 when the Juvenile Offenders Act permitted children, not over the age of 14, and charged with simple larceny, to be tried and sentenced by two lay justices of the peace or one stipendiary magistrate. This was an alternative to the usual full court hearing by indictment before a jury." source

    1847 Aylesbury prison opened as the county gaol for Buckinghamshire. In 1890 it ceased being the county gaol and became a women's prison.

    29.11.1847 Sir George Grey introduced the Crime and Outrage Bill (Ireland) bill because of nationalist agitation that was giving the British government misgivings about a possible violent rebellion against British rule in Ireland. The Act (Royal assent December 1847) gave the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland the power to organize districts and bring police into them at the district's expense. It limited who could own guns and required all men between age 16 and 60 in a district to help catch murderers when killings took place or else be guilty of a misdemeanor. See 1850


    Germany Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: The Communist Manifesto

    "The "dangerous class," the social scum (Lumpenproletariat), that passively rotting mass thrown off by the lowest layers of old society, may here and there be swept into the movement by a proletarian revolution; its conditions of life, however, prepare it far more for the part of a bribed tool of reactionary intrigue. "

    1848 Portland Prison

    1850 12.8.1850 In debate on the Crime and Outrage Act (Ireland) Continuance (No. 2) Bill, Sir Andrew Armstrong said:

    "What Ireland required was commerce and manufactures to afford remunerative employment to the people, and a home market for its agricultural produce. It was the duty of statesmen to open up the sources of industry and beneficial employment for the people. "The good shepherd would lead his flock." Were the Government prepared with some great and comprehensive measure for placing remunerative employment within the reach of the Irish people? Were they prepared to do battle with the cotton millionaires and the merchant princes of England for a fair share of the commerce and manufactures of the united kingdom for Ireland? Were they prepared to contend against the tyranny of overwhelming capital? Ireland ought to be placed in a state of perfect civil, religious, political, commercial, and manufacturing equality with England. Let the Government charter for a limited term a company of cotton spinners and a company of woolstaplers for each of the three Irish provinces that had no manufactures deserving the name. Let a Royal dockyard be established for building ships for Her Majesty's Navy. Let Ireland have a fair number of representatives in that House. Let the anomaly of the Protestant Church Establishment be abated. With measures like these, the foundation of Ireland's prosperity would be laid, and there would he no need for Coercion Bills." (Hansard 12.8.1850)

    1854 An Act of Parliament allowed the court to refer young offenders to the Philanthropic Society Reformatory as an alternative to prison. Reformation was added to the Society's aims along with prevention and the Society goes into partnership with the Government who gave money for the boys placed at the school.

    Britain 1857 Prison Hulks cease being used. The Penal Servitude Act 1853 (16 & 17 Vict. c.99) substituted penal servitude for transportation, except in cases where a person could be sentenced to transportation for life or for a term not less than fourteen years. Section 2 of the Penal Servitude Act 1857 (20 & 21 Vict. c.3) abolished the sentence of transportation in all cases and provided that in all cases a person who would otherwise have been liable to transportation would be liable to penal servitude instead. (Wikipedia)


    France A. M. Guerry Statistique Morale de l'Anglettere compareé avec la statistique morale de la France (The moral statistics of England compared to those of France)

    1863 to 1869 Parkhurst was an all women prison. In 1869 prisoners and staff were moved to the newly built women's prison at Woking

    1868 End to public hangings

    5.5.1869 Woking Women's Prison opened with 100 prisoners transferred from Parkhurst. Woking Women's Prison closed in October 1895 when the last women were moved to Holloway.


    Biological Positivism


    Italy Cesare Lombroso's L'uomo delinquente published in Milan (See Cesare Beccaria). By 1896-1897, when it reached its 5th edition it had three volumes. It was partially translated into English in 1911 as Criminal Man. Lombroso is taken by many as the founder of positive criminology (See dictionary), but the moral statisticians were also seeking ways in which human behaviour is determined - but by society rather than biology.

    See Atavism

    See 1884 - 1893 - 1895 - 1901 - 1903 - 1911 - 1911 -

    Lombroso's books - weblinks - extracts

    1876 Frederic Rainer a journeyman printer, and a volunteer with the Church of England Temperance Society wrote to the Society of his concern about the lack of help and hope for those who come before the courts. He gives five shillings and starts the London Police Court Mission. See 1907

    Neo-classical criminology

    Neo-classical criminology adapts classical criminology in the light of positivist thought. It might, for example, argue that most crimes are the result of rational choice, but that an exception must be made for people who are mentally ill. On this distinction, it has been argued that the French Penal Code of 1791 was a strictly classical one, but that subsequent revisions were neo- classical. Others argue that the neo-classical school of thought "emerged between 1880 and 1920, and is still with us today" (external source). Authors who have been identified as neo-classical include

    James Anson Farrer, Crimes and Punishments, including a new translation of Beccaria's "Dei Delitti e delle Pene.". Published: London : Chatto and Windus, 1880.

    Henri Joly, Le Crime. Etude sociale. Published: Paris, Versailles [printed], 1888.

    Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) and his pupil Raymond Saleilles (1898).

    Italy Raffaele Garofalo: Di un criterio positivo della penalità (Of a positive policy of penalties), Napoli: Leonardo Vallardi

    Enrico Ferri's Criminal Sociology published in Italian.

    1885 [March or earlier]
    Enrico Ferri - La scuola criminale positiva: conferenza del prof. Enrico Ferri nell'Universit… di Napoli (1885). In his lecture, Enrico Ferri compares and contrasts the "classical criminal school", starting with Beccaria, with the "positive school", starting with Lombroso and Garofalo. The classical school used an "a priori" method (il metodo aprioristico) of abstract reasoning to relate the offence to the penalty. It did not deal with the real offender as such. The positive school began with the study of facts and was concerned to find the "natural causes" of crime as well as effective remedies "natural and legal" for it. See 1901

    Italy 1885 Raffaele Garofalo: Criminologia: studio sul delitto, sulle sue cause e sui mezzi di repressione (Criminology: Study of crime, on its causes and the means of repression) Torino, Fratelli Bocca. - Translated into French 1887 (Preface, Naples 1.12.1887) La Criminologie: Étude sur la nature du crime et la théorie de la pénalité - Translated into English by Robert Wyness Millar as Criminology by Baron Raffaele Garofalo, with an introduction by E. Ray Stevens, Boston, Little, Brown and company, 1914. xl and 478 pages.


    1890 Aylesbury became a women's prison. "Two new wings were added in 1902" [see Holloway 1902] "serving initially as an Inebriates Centre. A youth prison for 16 to 21 year olds was established in 1909. In the 1930s this became the first (and only pre-war) girls' borstal. In 1949 it was "Aylesbury Prison for Women and Borstal Institution for Girls". In 1959, the prison was converted to house adult male prisoners.

    Sociology - 1893

    From Spencer to Durkheim: Herbert Spencer's The Principles of Sociology (1876 on) is in the utilitarian tradition. In industrial society, he argues, a network of individual contracts spontaneously organises society. Individuals seeking their own happiness leads to the good of the whole society and the role of government is restricted to deterring self interest from paths that would harm others. Emile Durkheim's The Division of Labour in Society (1893) argued against Spencer that government (especially its legal aspects) would grow in proportion to the increase in the division of labour. They are inter-dependent and the function of both is not greater happiness, but solidarity.


    France Emile Durkheim, in The Division of Labour in Society, provides his sociological definition of crime:

    "crime is ... an act which offends strong and defined states of the collective conscience"

    Read Durkheim's explanation of what he means by collective conscience.
    You could compare this to Rousseau's General Will.

    In The Rules of Sociological Method (1895), he elaborates on this:

    "There cannot be a society in which the individuals do not differ more or less from the collective type", but what confers the character of criminal on deviants "is not the intrinsic quality of a given act but that definition which the collective conscience lends them".

    The more powerful the collective conscience, the more it will suppress divergence. But this does not mean crime will be abolished. Instead, the energy of the collective conscience will be exercised against lesser offence against it. Offenses not previously crimes will become crimes.

    Society needs to penalise acts in order to give more energy to the collective sentiments that they offend. This dialogue between crime and society is necessary to maintain the solidarity of the society. But this is not the only function of crime. Crime is also needed in the evolution of society.

    "Law and morality vary from one social type to the next" and "they change within the same type if the conditions of life are modified". For this to be possible "the collective sentiments at the basis of morality must not be hostile to change". If they are too strong, they will not be plastic enough to be modified. For change to be possible, the collective sentiments must have only moderate energy.

    What Durkheim (probably) did not say:

    I do not think that Durkheim argued crime is a result of the disintegration of society as it moves from a state of togetherness (e.g. mechanical or traditional society) to a state of untogetherness (e.g. organic or market society). This argument is central to Engels' theory of crime. A creative synthesis of the two theories might be very interesting.

    I have not found Durkheim relating anomie to any "crime" except suicide, and suicide, although a crime in England until 1961, had not been a crime in France since the eighteenth century.

    I would like to hear from any reader of Durkheim who can point me to passages suggesting he did argue these positions - (Thank you)

    See below 1920: Fauconnet - A Durkheimian? criminology

    La donna delinquente la prostituta e la donna normale (Criminal Woman, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman) by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero published.

    France 1894-1898 Construction of Fresnes Prison on the outskirts of Paris. Designed by architect Henri Poussin, it was built under the 1875 Act on solitary confinement. The prison broke from the star-shaped design. It consisted of longitudinal buildings, placed parallel to each other and separated by spaces 50 meters wide. The design sought to facilitate separation of various categories of prisoners and was suitable for large multi-purpose prisons. It was opened on 19.7.1898. (source). See D'Escrivain 1972

    Britain 1895 The Gladstone Report on Prisons:

    "We start from the principle that prison treatment should have as its primary and concurrent objects, deterrence and reformation"

    22.8.1898 Hooligans A Daily Graphic (newspaper) report wrote of "The avalanche of brutality which, under the name of 'Hooliganism' ... has cast such a dire slur on the social records of South London"." See Michael Quinion and Geoffrey Pearson


    22.4.1901 - 23.4.1901 - 24.4.1901 The Positive School of Criminology Three Lectures given at the University of Naples, Italy by Enrico Ferri in the same hall where he had lectured in 1885. They were translated into English by Ernest Untermann and published in Chicago in 1908.

    February 1903 The 1782 Newgate demolished. It was replaced by the Old Bailey.

      1903 George Griffith's Sidelights on Convict Life said that
    "the criminal is... not really a member of the human family. He is a sort of by-product which is not only waste, but worse: he is a moral bacillus and ought to be sterilised" (page 241)
    "If Society itself were to become quite sane it would recognise that crime and insanity are practically the same thing, and it would treat them in the same way... at Broadmoor... there is no punishment, but there is also no hope of release..." (page 238)

    ... it has been proved in every country that punishment does not deter from crime...

    [If the criminal] "were treated as what he really is he would be eliminated. the shortest and most merciful way would be a painless exit from the world through the lethal chamber; but as a hard-hearted and soft- headed generation would probably object to this on the ground of inhumanity, the next best thing would be isolation for life, say, after three convictions. (page 239)

    1907 The London Police Court Mission staff become 'officers of the court' becoming the national Probation Service in 1938.

    In 1910, wife-murderer, Dr Crippen, failed to escape from England to Canada because the police were alerted by the ship's radio. (See 1845)

    1913 Charles Buckman Goring (1870-1919) The English Convict. A statistical study.

    "Criminology, as it is understood to-day, consists of the doctrines of ... three Schools of criminology .... The Classical School, after Beccaria, taught that all criminals were equally responsible in the eyes of the law ; that they should be punished according to the crimes they had committed; but that, despite their wrong-doing, they retained a natural right, common to all men, to be humanely treated. The Correctionist School, improving upon its predecessor, established the relative responsibility of lunatics and juvenile offenders, and led the way to our modern reformatory system. Finally the School of Lombroso, more humane still, declared it was the criminal and not the crime who ought to be studied and punished, and expounded a doctrine known as the new science of criminal anthropology. p.12 "

    George Herbert Mead was a lecturer at Chicago University from 1894 until his death in 1931. Robert E. Park taught there from 1914 to 1936. His students included Herbert Blumer. After the second world war, Chicago students included Howard Becker and Erving Goffman.

    The New Criminology identifies "The Chicago School" as a "legacy of positivism. In this, it is speaking of the urban ecology of Robert Park and his colleagues.

    "prior to his appointment as lecturer in the Department of Sociology in 1914, Robert Ezra Park had spent some twenty-five years as a journalist... In the following twenty years, a mass of research was carried out by Park's colleagues and students into what they came to call the social ecology of the city: research into the distribution of areas of work and residence, places of public intervention and private retreat, the extent of illness and health, and the urban concentrations of conformity and deviance. The Chicago School of Sociology, motivated by the journalist's campaigning and documentary concerns, was the example par excellence of determined and detailed empirical social research: a tradition which, for good or ill, is extremely resilient still in most departments of sociology on the north American continent" (Young 1973, p. 110)

    France 1920: Fauconnet - A Durkheimian? criminology

    In 1920, Paul Fauconnet, a colleague of Mauss, Durkheim's nephew, completed his thesis for the University of Paris. This was published as La Responsabilité, Etude de Sociologie [Responsibility. A sociological study] This argued that, historically, it had always been important that someone, or some thing, be held responsible for a crime and punished. If the person who did it could not be clearly identified, someone (or something) else was, and the punishment was carried out. In modern times, criminal responsibility in terms of both intention and of being shown to have committed the act were held to be essential, but the older ideas reveal (Fauconnet argued) the sociological function of punishment.

    In 1925 wrote the forward to Durkheim's posthumously published lectures (from 1902) L'éducation morale, and in 1932 both books were the focus of discussion and development in Jean Piaget's Le jugement moral chez l'enfant (The Moral Judgement of the Child)


    Chicago, USA Introduction to the Science of Sociology by Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess


    Chicago, USA The City by Robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess, Roderick D. McKenzie and Louis Wirth. published by University of Chicago Press.

    1931 George Bernard Shaw published an essay on "Crude Criminology". Does anyone know what he said?

    July 1931 London, England Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals set up, by the Tavistock Clinic.

    First Annual Report (1932) stated aims as:

    To initiate and promote scientific research into the causes and prevention of crime.

    To establish observation centres and clinics for diagnosis and treatment of delinquency and crime

    To coordinate and consolidate existing scientific work in the prevention of delinquency and crime.

    To secure cooperation between all bodies engaged in similar work in all parts of the world, and ultimately to promote an international organisation.

    To assist and advise through the medium of scientific experts the judicial and magisterial bench, the hospitals and government departments in the investigation, diagnosis and treatment of suitable cases.

    To promote and assist in promoting educational and training facilities for students in the scientific study of delinquency and crime.

    To promote discussion and to educate the opinion of the general public on these subjects by publications and by other means.


    Chicago, USA. 1934 Mind, Self and Society, from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviourist, lectures and articles by George Herbert Mead, published by his students.

    San Francisco, USA. August 1934 Alcatraz became a civilian prison.


    Chicago, USA Robert E. Park's "Human ecology" published in the American Journal of Sociology


    Chicago, USA Herbert Blumer coined the term symbolic interactionist for theories developed from Mead.


    USA Robert King Merton's "Social Structure and Anomie" published in the American Sociological Review

    1938 Britain: National Probation Service - See London Police Court Mission

    Britain Leon Radzinowicz established a "Department of Criminal Science" in the Faculty of Law at Cambridge University during World War Two. (source)


    USA Robert King Merton's Social Theory and Social Structure. Towards the codification of theory and research published in United States. Using the 1957 edition, The New Criminology (1973) drew heavily on Merton's idea of anomie. New Criminology says:

    "American society... for Merton, has in practice placed undue emphasis on the goals behind the game, and has neglected ... the necessity for making appropriate means universally available. More specifically, Merton argued that normatively legitimate means have been replaced by (and confused with) technically efficient means, and, in particular, money has been consecrated as a value in itself, over and above its use simply for legitimate consumption. The desire to make money, without regard to the means in which one sets about doing it, is symptomatic of the malintegration at the heart of American society." (page 93)


    USA Talcott Parson's The Social System published in United States. This included Parson's description of the sick role as, in important respects, "deviant"

    Parsons' system appears an important theoretical background to "deviancy theory", but he is not indexed in The Drugtakers and mentioned almost in passing in The New Criminology

    1958 George Vold's Theoretical Criminology was, according to The New Criminology (page 238) "the first criminological textbook to accord a significant place to crime as a product of social conflict".

    "This book deals with the explanations that contemporary society has given itself in the past, and continues to give today, to the enigmatic question of why there is so much crime.Except for purposes of background and perspective, this book deals only with those areas of theory that fall within the intellectual orientation usually called 'positivistic' or 'scientific. ' Only within this orientation are hypotheses and propositions so formulated that it is possible to examine them in the light of available information."

    Britain 1959 Leon Radzinowicz founded the "Institute of Criminology", and became the first Wolfson Professor of Criminology. The first Professorship in Criminology in the United Kingdom. (source)


    USA Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin's Delinquency and Opportunity: a Theory of Delinquent Gangs

    New Criminology describes Cloward and Ohlin as theorists of subcultures:

    "The subculture theorists, following Merton [considered] the existence of anomie implied that cultural goals were widely diffused and internalised, but there was no corresponding internalisation (or institutionalisation) of the means of achieving them" (page 133)


    Britain Hans Jürgen Eysenck: Crime and Personality

    "in analysing the mechanisms by which genetic potentialities are translated into criminal behaviour in particular and, and social action in general, and in fully acknowledging the interplay of environmental factors, Hans Eysenck's formulations have a distinct advantage over other biological interpretations of society" (New Criminology p.47)

    18.5.1964 "Mods and Rockers jailed after seaside riots" (BBC On this day)

    Criminology for Criminals

    In the 1960s and 1970s, deviancy theory took a special interest in looking at the world through the eyes of the deviant.

    "To live outside the law you must be honest
    I know you always say that you agree
    Alright, so where are you tonight...?"
    Bob Dylan: "Absolutely Sweet Marie" quoted as the frontispiece to The New Criminology


    USA Howard Becker's "Whose Side are We On?" published in Social Problems

    July 1968 United Kingdom National Deviancy Symposium formed - See Wikipedia

    1968 Rebuilding of Holloway Prison announced


    Reconstruction of Holloway Prison began. Completed 1985.

    1971 United Kingdom Jock Young The Drugtakers. The Social Meaning of Drug Use published as a Paladin paperback. Jock Young was "Senior lecturer in sociology at Enfield College of Technology and a member of the National Symposium in Deviancy, a radical group of criminologists" [Yes... It does say "in deviancy"]


    United Kingdom Daily Mail 17.8.1972 "As Crimes of Violence Escalate, a word Common in the United States Enters the British Headlines: Mugging. To our Police, it's a frightening new strain of crime". (quoted Hall and others 1978, p.3)

    United Kingdom 5.11.1972 Unprovoked attack on Robert Keenan by Paul Storey, James Duignan and Mustafa Fuat in Handsworth, Birmingham. Attacks repeated over a period of over two hours. The attackers were aged 15 to 16. ( Hall and others 1978, pp 81 following)

    Moral panic theory

    Britain 1972 Stanley Cohen's Folk Devils and Moral Panics: the creation of the Mods and Rockers - See mods and rockers

    "Societies appear to be subject, every now and then, to periods of moral panic. A condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests; its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media; the moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians and other right thinking people; socially accredited experts pronounce their diagnoses and solutions, ways of coping are evolved" (p.9)


    United Kingdom 19.3.1973 Paul Storey pleaded guilty to attempted murder and robbery; James Duignan and Mustafa Fuat to wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm and robbery. Paul Storey was sentenced to twenty years and the other two to twenty years. This case was the stimulus and major case study content of Policing the Crisis in 1978. ( Hall and others 1978, pp 81 following and p.viii)

    United Kingdom Ian Taylor, Paul Walton and Jock Young published The New Criminology: For a Social Theory of Deviance . Acknowledgements: "This book is fundamentally the product of discussions and developments in and around the National Deviancy Conference, a growing body of sociologists and individuals involved in social action in the United Kingdom"

    Critical Criminology: External link: Dave Harris . This includes links to notes on some of The New Criminology and on some of Critical Criminology. (archive)


    United Kingdom New directions in sub-cultural theory, by Jock Young, published in John Rex's introduction to major trends in British sociology


    France (English Translation 1977:) Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison

    United Kingdom
    Critical Criminology by Taylor, Walton and Young,


    Friday 1.4.1977 - Sunday 3.4.1977 National Deviancy Conference, Sheffield.
    Frank Pearce on ontological insecurity in relation to sexual relations between adults and children.

    19.9.1977: Paedophile


    United Kingdom
    Policing the Crisis: "Mugging" the State and Law and Order by Stuart Hall, Chas Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke and Brian Roberts

    Emma Dowling 2013: "It provided the analytical tools to interpret how a social phenomenon was objectified and transformed into a moral panic, ultimately becoming a pressing issue of the day. Its authors sought to unearth the relations of social forces that were obscured by portrayals of urban streets 'infested with violent hoodlums' that dominated the public eye and constructed an ideology of crisis in which the police force turned into the only bulwark against the breakdown of social order. 'Aggro Britain', as it was described in the 1970s, referred to a constructed social crisis centred on street crime, although the call for 'policing the crisis', in fact, derived from the anxiety caused by growing political, economic and racial conflict."

    What is to Be Done?

    1979: Beyond left idealism

    1981: Swamp 81.

    1982: Paul Gilroy "Police and thieves"

    1984: What is to be Done About Law and Order - Crisis in the Eighties by John Lea and Jock Young


    United Kingdom Free-market/Authoritarian Right win control of UK Government. (See social science timeline)

    Jock Young "Left idealism, reformism and beyond: from new criminology to Marxism" - Criticised by Paul Gilroy in Police and thieves in 1982.

    "critical criminology ... 'left idealists'... proposes that crime is defined in terms of the concept of oppression". Some groups "are seen to be the most likely to suffer oppressive social relations based upon class division, sexism and racism" (Hopkins Burke, R. 2009 p. 345)


    United Kingdom Saturday 11.4.1981: Swamp 81 against black crime in Brixton began. Serious riot followed. Start of the "worst civil unrest seen on British streets this century." During the summer the rioting spread to Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds.


    Early 1982 The Empire Strikes Back contains "Police and thieves" by Paul Gilroy.

    United Kingdom Ian Taylor's Law and Order: Arguments for Socialism


    Lee Bridges "Extended Views; The British Left and Law and Order", Sage Race Relations Abstracts volume eight, pages 19-26 was summarised in What is to be Done About Law and Order as "the most clear exposition" of the "politics" of Paul Gilroy and Lee Bridges

    USA 1983: Murder of prison officers followed by "permanent lockdown" at Marion, Illinois.


    United Kingdom What is to be Done About Law and Order - Crisis in the Eighties by John Lea and Jock Young published as a Penguin paperback. Chapter 8 A Realistic Approach to Law and Order spoke about

    "a schizophrenia about crime on the left where crimes against women and immigrant groups were quite rightly an object of concern, but other types of crime were regarded as being of little interest or somehow excusable."

    January 1984 UK Home Office Circular 8/84:

    "A primary objective of the police has always been the prevention of crime. However, since some of the factors affecting crime lie outside the control or direct influence of the police, crime prevention can not be left to them alone. Every individual citizen and all those agencies whose policies and practices can influence the extent of crime should make their contribution. Preventing crime is a task for the whole community."


    1985 Work completed on the new Holloway Prison. This had been constructed as the old one was demolished. "The new prison was built as a secure hospital for 500 women. It is of red brick with projecting windows and flat roofs. Communal facilities include an education centre, workshops, gymnasium, swimming pool and chapel. A 'trolley walk' on level two runs around the site, linking all the main buildings and administration is located in the gatehouse complex. Inmate accommodation is in four and five storey cell blocks." (source)


    United Kingdom 1986: Centre for Criminology established at Middlesex Polytechnic (later University) to develop interdisciplinary research into crime and the criminal justice system


    United Kingdom The increase in crime in England and Wales during the present government 1979-1986 with comparisons with the 1975-1978 period by Jock Young, Middlesex Polytechnic Centre for Criminology

    John Lea: Left Realism: A Defence

    Cultural Critiques: Once Durkheim asks the question "what is crime", and answers it in relation to the whole society, there is the possibility that the study of crime will become a study of society. John Lea finds the same possibility in Marx and Engels. The scope of criminology becomes global: Frank Pearce analyses concepts of socialism in the light of durkheimian and marxist approaches to crime. Jayne Mooney and Jock Young discuss celebrity culture and the celebration of crime. Ian Taylor puts "crime in context" in "A Critical Criminology of Market Societies". John Lea's talk to the Middlesex University Criminology Society is given here as an example of criminology analysing a global issue.


    Frank Pearce's The Radical Durkheim analysed the crime theories of Engels and Marx and their followers along with those of Durkheim and Jock Young and his colleagues in relation to the theoretical possibility that crime might be eliminated under socialism.


    November 1990 United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher replaced by John Major as Conservative Prime Minister.

    Roger Matthews and Jock Young Issues in Realist Criminology and Rethinking Criminology: The Realist Debate "A companion volume to Issues in realist criminology edited by Roger Matthews and Jock Young". Sage Contemporary Criminology series. London: Sage


    John Lea: Criminology and postmodernity What is postmodernity?
    "How are ruling and subordinate groups and classes in society actually deploying criminal law and criminalisation?"


    May 1997 United Kingdom New Labour Prime Minister elected to be "tough on crime and tough on the causes of crime"

    John Lea: From integration to exclusion: the development of crime prevention policy in the United Kingdom


    United Kingdom The New Criminology Revisited: A collection of articles edited by Paul Walton and Jock Young.


    United Kingdom Ian Taylor's Crime in Context. A Critical Criminology of Market Societies

    United Kingdom Jock Young's The Exclusive Society: Social Exclusion, Crime and Difference in Late Modernity


    United Kingdom

    July 2000 News of the World "name and shame" campaign respecting alleged paedophiles provoked vigilante violence.

    19.1.2001 Death of Ian Taylor [external link to Jock Young's memorial of Ian in The Guardian]

    March 2001 Symposium held in honour of Leon Radzinowicz at Cambridge University. The subsequent book (Bottoms and Tonry 2002) included an appreciation, by Anthony Bottoms, recollections by Roger Hood, (Theory:) "Ideology and crime - a further chapter" by David Garland, "Morality, crime, compliance and public policy" by Anthony Bottoms, (History:) "Gentlemen convicts, dynamitards and paramilitaries: the limits of criminal justice", by Sean McConville, "The English police: a unique development" by Clive Emsley, (Prisons) "A 'liberal regime within a secure perimeter'?: dispersal prisons and penal practice in the late twentieth century" by Alison Liebling, (Policy) "Criminology and penal policy: the vital role of empirical research" by Roger Hood and a Radzinowicz bibliography

    Peter Kennison, Policing Black People: A Study of Ethnic Relations as Seen Through the Police Complaints System Middlesex University, 2001 PhD thesis.

    12.11.2002-16.11.2002 The 2002 American Society of Criminology Conference at The University of Pennsylvania included Critical Criminology in the Twenty First Century: Critique, Irony and the Always Unfinished by Jock Young


    Critical Criminology is the criminology of the late modernity in that it arose at the cusp of change in the last third of the twentieth century and that its sensitivity to the social construction of reality and the blurring, pluralism and contested nature of norms best fits the grain of every day life today. The development within critical criminology of ten key ironies as a sustained challenge to the taken for granted assumptions about crime and the criminal justice system has even more relevance at the beginning of the twenty first century as it did in the 1970's. A critique of the revisionist history of critical criminology as presented in the work of David Garland with its emphasis on the past and momentary nature of the critical tradition. Instead an examination of the flourishing of critical criminology and its position as the major opponent of neo-liberalism. The need to develop a criminology which despite scepticism about meta- narratives of progress does not lapse into a postmodernist nihilism but tackles full on the problems of social transformation amid an open-ended narrative ever aware of the changing and contested nature of social justice A discussion of the of the work of Nancy Fraser and Zygmunt Bauman in this respect

    and Celebrity, Late Modernity and the Celebration of Crime by Jayne Mooney and Jock Young.


    The economic and social changes concomitant with globalisation give rise to the identity crises of late modernity. The shift occurs from the politics of class to the identity politics and the stratifications of status and celebrity, witness the work of Nancy Fraser and Lawrence Friedman. The uncertainties of identity leads to the seeking out of both positive and negative points of orientation: bright and dark stars of fixed position. Thus at the same time as we have a demonisation (othering) of the underclass we have the idealisation of the celebrity. Both crime and celebrity become the basic commodities of the spectaclre [spectacle?]. Contradictions and crossover in the discourses of success and failure give rise to the nemesis and cronus effects. The detachment of vocabularies of motive from fixed structural position in late modernity results in free floating, mediated discourses which both shape crime and evoke celebrity; the Mafia and images of Serial Killers are used as examples.


    Peter Kennison and David Swinden, Behind the Blue Lamp: Policing North and East London

    2004 Nils Christie A Suitable Amount of Crime London: Routledge:

    "Crime does not exist. Only acts exist, acts often given different meanings within various social frameworks. Acts and the meanings given to them are our data. Our challenge is to follow the destiny of acts through the universe of meanings. Particularly, what are the social conditions that encourage or prevent giving the acts the meaning of being crime?" (Christie, 2004: p.3)
    "crimes are in endless supply. Acts with the potentiality of being seen as crimes are like an unlimited natural resource. We can take out a little in the form of crime-or a lot". (Christie, 2004: p.10)
    2004: Criminology and History John Lea's internet guide.

    12.4.2005 Terrorism, Crime and the collapse of Civil Liberties: John Lea's address to the Criminology Society at Middlesex University.

    Better than the Albert Hall

    "I could not be happier with an audience of thousands in the Albert Hall", John Lea told the Middlesex University Criminology Society in the Lecture Theatre on Enfield Campus in April 2005.

    John Lea

    Students and staff were equally pleased to listen to one the world's most cited criminologists make every part of his lecture clear and fascinating - Just as he has at every lecture since I first heard him thirty five years ago.

    John's topic, "Terrorism, Crime and the Collapse of Civil Liberties" began with an exposition of one law. He explained clearly the constitutional arguments against the United Kingdom's 2005 Prevention of Terrorism Act.

    Although it "might be argued that terrorism is a special case and requires special measures", John outlined other erosions of established legal safeguards in a succession of United Kingdom criminal laws.

    By now anxious about the open, legal state, we slipped into a greater state of anxiety as John explored law's intersection with the global secret state. He talked about "the formation of a new type of globalised system of coercive information extraction" since the destruction of the World Trade Centre in September 2001 and the subsequent war to control Afghanistan. The first stage was establishing Guantánamo Bay in Cuba for the reception of those to be interrogated - And claiming it as an area of United States administration outside the protection of United States law and, in certain respects, outside of international law. The secret state seeks to be secret, but John claimed enough has been revealed about Guantánamo to recognise it as intersecting with UK law and security, and not just the responsibility of the United States. British citizens recently released from Guantánamo have said that they were interviewed by British security service (MI6) officers whilst they were there.

    Since the US legal system has asserted its jurisdiction over any territory administered by the United States, Guantánamo's usefulness has declined and has been replaced by a system of truly international interrogation. John documented reports of large numbers of people who "disappear" and are sent for interrogation in countries where the US courts cannot reach them.

    "There are now possibly up to 10,000 ghost detainees in this new global system of incarceration and interrogation and permanent detention without trial".

    This secret international system intersects with the provisions of national law openly debated and processed through Parliament. The 2005 Prevention of Terrorism Act allows the Home Secretary to issue a control order on the basis of "reasonable suspicion" that someone is involved in terrorist activity. John argued that "some of the evidence" leading to this suspicion may come, via the UK security services, from the USA. "In short, evidence extracted by coercive interrogation may find itself into the working of the new British anti-terror regime".

    By focusing on one law and its inter-relationships, John sought to show that the threat to civilised, liberal, society is much much wider than one law.

    Part of his argument, somewhat mysteriously called "trickle up", is that "anti-terrorist" developments are not a simple response to terrorism, but a single feature of a general turning away from the "steady growth in the stability of international legality" since the second world war. They are just one element in the move towards what international lawyer Philip Sands has called "A Lawless World" (Sands 2005). The dirty water also "trickles down", contaminating public standards and expectations of the rule of law, and undermining liberty in areas unrelated to terrorism. What we are looking at, according to John's title, is a "collapse of civil liberties".

    Our pond of national law now sloshes about in a global ocean. Placing UK law in the context of the global secret state was a strength of John's analysis. Its inevitable weakness was not having time to place that in the context of a changing world political structure. What began as criticism of a single national law, ended, for me, with unanswered questions about the fate of liberty in a post-national world and what international measures might defend it.

    "Terrorism, Crime and the Collapse of Civil Liberties" is available as work in progress at http://www.bunker8.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/misc/terror.htm.

    John Lea's talk was the third in a series of well-attended events organised by Middlesex University Criminological Society this year. Student organiser Fitzroy Maxwell (Max), who has himself given enormous enthusiasm and energy to organising the events, credited their success to team work.

    29.11.2005 Crime and the Community


    Crime and Conflict Research Centre developed by sociologists and criminologists at Middlesex University

    Monday 6.3.2006: Crime and Conflict Research Centre website live at http://www.mdx.ac.uk/hssc/research/csccc/index.htm

    7.12.2010 Breaking the Cycle:Effective Punishment, Rehabilitation and Sentencing of Offenders Green paper. cm 7972 available for download at hhtp://www.official-documents.gov.uk and hhtp://www.justice.gov.uk

    home page for 
society and science

    Common Law and medieval prisons

    Gruesome Displays

    Felonies and the death penalty

    Humiliation punishments 1351

    1487: Hammer of the Witches

    1562/1563: Witchcraft Acts

    1614: Transportation

    1660: John Bunyan in prison

    1670 Ordinance

    1674: Old Bailey Proceedings

    Classical Criminology

    English Conservatism

    Maison de Force, Ghent

    Bentham's Utilitarianism

    Modern Prisons

    Kant's critique

    Philanthropic Society

    Code pénal 1791

    Silent System

    Separate System

    1823 Prisons Act

    1829 Police Act

    Moral Statistics

    1832: Philanthropic School

    1839: Mount Pleasant Women's Prison

    1840: Mettray

    Religion and reformation

    1842 Pentonville

    1845 Telegraph

    1847 Juvenile Offenders Act

    Engels' and Marx's positivism?

    1849 Winson Green

    1851 Wandsworth

    1852 Holloway

    1853 Penal Servitude

    1861 Death Penalty restriction

    1863 Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum and Parkhurst Women's Prison

    1869 Woking Women's Prison

    Biological Positivism

    London Police Court Mission


    1890 Aylesbury Women's Prison

    1893: Sociology

    1898: Hooligans

    1902 Holloway Women's Prison

    Chicago Connections

    Structure and Function

    1938: National Probation Service

    SubCulture Theory

    Hans Eysenck 1964

    Mods and Rockers

    Criminology for Criminals

    National Deviancy Symposium

    1972: mugging

    Moral panic theory 1972

    What is to Be Done?

    1985: New Holloway Prison

    Cultural Critiques

    2000: Prison websites


    Cesare Beccaria

    Jeremy Bentham

    Emile Durkheim

    Friedrich Engels

    Hans Eysenck

    Immanuel Kant

    Cesare Lombroso

    Robert Merton

    Talcott Parsons

    sociologist on crime in
classical fiction

    See John Lea's Criminology and History

    Chart copied from Berman 2012 - See also subject index Prison

    30.6.2011 Making the Case for the Social Sciences No. 4 - Crime. Acadamy of Social Science, the British Psychological Society and the British Society of Criminology. Booklet

    20.7.2011 A new template for Wikipedia's Criminology and Penology featured the plan for Pentonville prison as it logo instead of the previous scales of justice

    6.8.2011 Riots in Tottenham after Mark Duggan shooting protest

    Letter on guardian.co.uk UK Wednesday 10.8.2011
    Jock Young
    Professor of criminal justice, City University, New York.

    The surprising thing was it took so long: the tinderbox was dry and the spark of alienation everywhere. The background of urban riots is almost formulaic. A substantial section of the population who are economically excluded, a situation of political marginalisation where there is no party or politician to speak for them and, then, the final straw, an act of police injustice - real or perceived. This was the background to the Rodney King riots in LA in 1992, to the Brixton riots of the 1980s, to the disturbances in the French banlieues in 2005, and to the 1985 riot in Broadwater Farm, Tottenham, where I was a lead investigator for the subsequent Gifford inquiry. And the media and political response is similarly predictable. The right blame race, ignoring the fact that many of the kids are white; the centre-left "sympathise" with the predicament of the oppressed but wish they would channel their dissatisfactions in the appropriate political places.

    There is a tautology of blame: there is no political representation of the disaffected, that is precisely why there was a riot, people have waited for years for things to get better, but their economic situation gets worse - indeed the kids grew up waiting - that is why there is such anger. It is an irrational situation; do not expect the targets of riots always to be rational, fair and progressive. It is impossible in a liberal democracy to exclude a substantial and increasing section of the population for any length of time without widespread disturbances.

    Politicians who haughtily proclaim "that unacceptable behaviour will not be tolerated" should dwell on the fact that they have been party to unacceptable economic and social policies, which gave rise to the riots in the first place.

    11.8.2011 John Brewer (President) and Howard Wollman (Vice-chair) of the British Sociological Association argue on guardian.co.uk that Sociology is relevant to the riots because of its knowledge of crowd behaviour.

    12.8.2011 Jonathan Rutherford interviewd by Edward Lewis in New Left Project about "The Life of the People" added an "Afterword on the riots"


    Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community by Tony Goodman

    1788: Philanthropic Society prevention

    1832 Philanthropic School - 1840 Mettray

    1847 Juvenile Offenders Act - 1854 rehabilitation

    1876 London Police Court Mission

    1938 National Probation Service -



    Emma Dowling: "Thirty-five years on, with anxieties spreading across the world, the notion of 'policing the crisis' is still among us, although those being policed are not those who caused the present crisis."

    Introduction by Emma Dowling (Middlesex University)

    Tony Jefferson (co-author) Policing the Crisis: Thirty-Five Years On

    David Miller (University of Bath) Moral Panic, Class Power and Media Power

    Estelle du Boulay (Newham Monitoring Project and Network for Police Monitoring) Activism and the Politics of Policing.

    Wayne Morrison (Queen Mary's University of London) Leviathan, Liberalism and Globalisation.

    Stafford Scott (Tottenham Rights) Everything Is Different, but Has Anything Changed?

    Joshua Castellino (Middlesex University) International Legal Responses to Uprisings in the Middle East.

    Panel: Anthony Goodman, Jon Mulholland, Lucy Neville, David Porteous, Erin Sanders-McDonagh, Keir Sothcott (Middlesex University)

    Early 2013 Restorative Justice Today: Practical applications edited by Katherine S. van Wormer and Lorenn Walker. Los Angeles, California and London: SAGE Publications. xx and 255 pages 9781452219912 (pbk.) 1452219915 (pbk.)

    28.4.2015 Is this the worst graph of the election?


    © Andrew Roberts 7.3.2000 -

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    Roberts, Andrew 7.3.2000/crimeline -
    Crimtim: A criminology and deviancy theory history timeline

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    (7.3.2000/crimeline date).

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