Chart
A chart is a
graphical
presentation of
information. A
map
of part of the sea, or of the stars,
is called a chart.
In
descriptive
statistics,
charts are diagrams used to present statistical information. Diagrams used
to present statistical information include
graphs,
bar
charts, histograms, and
pie charts.
Bar Chart, Bar Graph A bar
chart
or
graph
uses rectangles (bars) to represent different
amounts.
Histogram A histogram is a
bar
chart
with no spaces between bars.
Pie Chart A pie
chart
is in the shape of a
circle, divided into slices like the slices of a pie. Each slice represents
a share of the whole, and the bigger the slice, the bigger the share.


Pie
charts were invented by Florence Nightingale during the
Crimean War, to
support her argument that more soldiers died from disease than in battle.
Diagram
A diagram is a drawing used to explain or prove something. Often it
will be just an outline. It may be a figure drawn roughly to show how
objects relate, a finely designed outline of an object and its parts, or a
fully coloured
model
of an object with the parts labelled. Diagrams
(perhaps called
charts)
can also be drawn to illustrate
statistical
data, or to summarise
scientific observations.
In
geometry,
diagrams
(
figures)
made of lines are used to prove theorems as
well as to illustrate definitions. Diagrams can be used in a similar way in
economics and other subjects.
Draw
In computer art, drawing programs are ones that produce images by drawing
lines according to a mathematical formula. The graphics they produce are
called vectors. Unlike the images produced by
Paint programs, vector
images keep their smooth edges when enlarged.
Corel Draw
is an example
of a Drawing program.
Figure
To figure something out is to work it out. This is because figure is
a word we use for the symbols (1,2,3, etc) that we use to represent
numbers.
In a book (or a dissertation or report) a figure is a drawing or
diagram, and a table of figures is a list or the drawings and
diagrams in the book.
In geometry, a figure is the word used for shapes and solids. Examples of
geometrical figures are triangles, circles, squares, cones, spheres and
cubes. A geometrical figure is either a two
dimensional space enclosed by a
line (e.g. a circle) or lines (e.g. a triangle), or a three dimensional
space enclosed by a surface (e.g. a sphere) or surfaces (e.g. a cone).
To figurate is to form, fashion or shape. A figuration is
when you draw the form, shape, outline, or contour of a thing.
Figurational sociology traces the shape of society by tracing the
links between individuals to show how they fit into
networks. (See
Wikipedia
figurational sociology)
Flow Chart
A graph is a diagram to
shows the relationship between two quantities
that vary with one another (variables). For example, people change height
as they grow older. A graph can be drawn to show the relationship
between age and height. A similar graphing of something that changes with
time is the graph of the
British balance of trade.
A graph is usually based on two lines, called axes, drawn at right
angles. If only positive quantities are being graphed, the two lines will
form a capital L shape. A horizontal straight line, called the
horizontal axis will run along the bottom. This is also called the
x axis. A vertical straight line vertical axis goes up at a
right angle from the left end of it. This is called the y axis.
The two lines (axes) are labelled in words and numbers, so that we know
what each stands for. Lines upwards from each point on the x axis will cut
through horizontal lines from each point on the y axis. The points of
intersection are called coordinates. Any point on the graph is
identified by the quantity of x and y values corresponding to that
coordinate.
We could draw a child's years of age along the page (horizontally, x axis)
and height measures up the page (vertically on the y axis). Then, measuring
the child on each birthday, we could mark the coordinate at which year and
height intersect. A line (called a curve) drawn through these
coordinates would graphically represent the child's growth.
If positive and negative quantities of x and y are being graphed, the y
axis will need to continue down the page below the x axis, and the x axis
will need to continue across the y axis, leftwards. To the left of the the
y axis gives negative values of x, below the x axis gives negative values
of y.
The graph below of the equation
y equals x squared
has negative values of x, but not of y.


The reason for this is that
a minus number
squared makes a plus, so
minus x times minus x = plus y

The graph below of the equation
y equals x cubed
has negative values
of x and y.


The reason for this is that
a minus number cubed makes a minus,
so
minus x times minus x times minus x = plus y

Graphic, Graphical
A graphic is a
picture
or visual representation.
Computer graphics are
pictures,
graphs
and
diagrams
produced on a computer.

Icon
This holy picture of the Orthodox Christian Church is called an icon.
Icon
just means an
image or likeness
In computing, icon is used to describe a small picture on the screen that
you click on (usually twice) to start something on the computer. If you
double click (respectfully) the holy icon of the mother of God, she will
take you to the dictionary entry for analogy and symbol.

Iso means equal, morph means form. Isomorphic means having a
shape that is equal, or a similar form.
When each of two
structures
has corresponding parts that play similar roles
within the structure, they are isomorphic.
If something is a
model
of
something else, the two may well be isomorphic. If, for example, a social
theorist says that the
family is a model for
political society, he or she
may be arguing that the family structure contains elements (parents,
children etc) which relate to each other in the same way as elements within
the political structure such as rulers and ruled.
In this case 'model' is an example of a process or system used in
comparison with other systems because they share similarities.
John Stuart Mill, for example, discusses the hierarchical family
(father at the top, mother and children underneath) as a model of (similar
to) the form of a hierarchical political society (political ruler at the
top, the
people underneath). He contrasts this with a democratic family in which the
processes within the family are similar to those within a democratic
political system.
However, the concept of model as
isomorphism (similar shape) does not
include the idea of an ideal shape on which the other is "modelled"
(as
with a fashion model) which is also an aspect of John Stuart
Mill's thinking.
Above includes contributions from Seana Graham
Logo
The word logogram was invented in the early 19th century from the
Greek words for word (logos) and written (gramma). It was used for a single
sign or symbol representing a whole word  such as you might have in a
shorthand system, or in some of the world's oldest writing systems.

In the mid 20th century, its abbreviated form logo was used for a
simple picture that symbolises a whole organisation, an object or a
concept. The
1992 logo of Middlesex University is used on this site as an icon that you click on


The
2003 logo was designed to express a flexible and responsive
approach
to the needs of students

Map
On a table napkin you can draw an outline of the surface of the world
around you showing where the different parts are. Your napkin can then be
used by other people to find their way around. "Map" comes from the Latin
for table napkin. As rich Romans ate their sumptuous meals, perhaps they
amused themselves by drawing maps of their houses or cities to guide their
guests. "The public baths are around this corner, but if you want to see
lions eating Christians you have to go up here".
A map is a representation of the surface of the earth, part of it or
another planet, usually made on a flat surface. Making such a map is called
mapping. Mapping links the features of the real earth to a symbolic
representation of them on the map we are making. This process gives its
name to an activity in mathematics.
In mathematics, a map is a linking of the elements (parts) of one
set (group) of things
with the elements of another set. For example, your fingers are a set of
things and so are the numbers one to ten. When you count your fingers, you
map the numbers onto your fingers:
Number One > Thumb on left hand
Number Two > Forefinger on left hand
Number Three > Middle finger on left hand
Number Four > Ring finger on left hand
Number Five > Little finger on left hand
Paint
In computer art, paint programs are ones that produce images by turning on
or off an individual
pixel. The graphics they
produce are called bitmaps.
What is happening can be seen by enlarging one of these graphics. For
example,
This little green button: measures
14
pixels
across and 14 high, including its background.



The pixels are squares of one colour, but, because they are so small, you
do not see them.
By enlarging the button ten times, you can see the squares. The picture in
the middle is just the button enlarged ten times by the browser. The
diagram on the right shows the structure of the graphic, including the
background. It shows the fourteen pixels across and down.


Corel Paint
is an
example of a Paint program.
Pattern
Pattern comes from the same word as the Latin for father (pater). In
patriarchal societies the father is the head of the household and the
model
(or pattern) for everyone to imitate. As one thing imitates another it
produces a repeat of the first thing, and a series of repeats is also
called a pattern.
"All the children,
In the houses,
They go to the University,
And they all live in little boxes,
In little boxes, just the same"
Pattern is thus used in two senses:
A model or original to be copied, or to serve as a guide in making
something.
Something that is regular and repeated, such as a
pattern
of behaviour or a
pattern of roses on a dress.
Picture
"Picture" came from the Latin word for painting, but it is now used for
most visual creations, including paintings and drawings, film (the
"pictures") and photographs, and images in our minds ("picture this"). It
can even be used for words that summons visual images to our minds (a word
picture").
A picture on a computer is usually called a graphic
Pixel
Short for Picture element
Behind the computer screen in front of you, there is an electron gun that
sprays patterns of energy on the back of the screen. As each electron in
the energy pattern strikes, it lights up part of a coating made of
phosphor, a chemical that emits light when agitated. The amount of screen
lit up by each electron bullet is tightly controlled, very small, shaped in
a square, and called a pixel. The screen consists of a grid of these
pixels, like minutely divided graph paper. The patterns you see on the
screen depend on which of the pixels are lit and which are off. Originally
this meant screens were black and white (pixels on and off). Colour is now
produced by having different layers of phosphor for each of the three
primary colours, and three electron guns (one for each colour) instead of
one.
Rhythm
Rhythm is a regular
pattern of sounds or movements.
In his Music for the Multitude (1939/1947, page 10), Sidney Harrison
says it is:
"a quality that pervades the ceaseless process of change going on around us
and in ourselves...
It is the to and fro alternation between activity and rest, between
departing and returning, between light and darkness, between growth and
decay. The stars move rhythmically, the seasons recur rhythmically, we
breathe and walk, sleep and wake, are born and die  making endless time
patterns...
And when primitive men found that they themselves could set rhythms in
motion ... they may well have felt they possessed some of the creative
magic that belonged to the spirits. This, maybe, is why, whenever they
approached the gods ... they came with dancing and beating of drums and
loud cries."
Rhythm of poems

Eurhythmy  therapeutic rhythms

dimensions
Table
Originally a slab (of clay or stone for example) with writing or an
inscription. From this applied to the contents of the slab (the writing).
Tables played an important part in the early history of science. Some
of the
oldest surviving mathematics
is written on
tablets of clay and
laws that laid the foundations of
jurisprudence
were written on tablets of stone. Tablet is a French word for a small
table.
Now, a table is a list of numbers, references, or other items arranged
systematically. The items may just be listed (as in a Table of
Contents), but are more often arranged in columns, as in the
following example.
Age Groups 
Numbers 
Percentages 
15 to 29 
109 
18 
30 to 44 
218 
35 
45 to 59 
242 
40 
60 to 74 
46 
7 
Total 
615 
100 
Statistics in the nineteenth century made a great use of
tables.
See, for example, William Farr's
Life Tables and the tables
(1 and
2 and
3)
used by
Emile Durkheim in his book on suicide
Mathematical tables (like
multiplication
tables) are lists of operations and results the you either
memorise, or look up. Such tables were used much more before electronic
devices, such as calculators and computers, enabled people to find answers
by typing a question.
A matrix is the mathematical term for a table of numbers (called
elements of the matrix) arranged in columns and rows.
A computer table consists of rows and columns used for arranging
material
in rectangular spaces. Often, it can also be used as a
spreadsheet for
mathematical calculations.
Timetables help us to organise
time
