Chronological and alphabetical bibliographies of lunacy
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    Chronological and alphabetical bibliographies of lunacy


    1754 1763 1773, 1774, 1800, 1801, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1816, 1817, 1818, 1819, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 1855, 1856, 1858, 1859, 1861, 1861, 1867, 1868, 1870, 1872, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1880, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1892, 1895, 1905, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923,

    1957, 1966, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1990, 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


    Until the fire of 1834, the two Houses of Parliament (Lords and Commons) met in the medieval Palace of Westminster, a group of buildings that stood on the same site as the present Houses of Parliament. From the 14th century to 1800 the Lords sat in the White Chamber. In 1801 the Lords moved into the building of the Court of Requests. From about 1547 to 1834 the House of Commons met in the Royal Chapel of St Stephen.

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1763 mental health

    JHC 27.1.1763 p.413. 91 name list of Select Committee members.

    1763 SCHC: Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed 27.1.1763 to inquire into the state of the private madhouses in this Kingdom In JHC 22.2. pp 486-9 (see below) and in Hansard (Parliamentary History) Vol.15 cols 1283-91. A published version in Lambert Vol 25 and at Goldsmith's library, London University.

    JHC 22.2.1763 pp 486-9. Report delivered by Townshend (Snr) on Select Committee's directions. He read it: "in his place; and afterwards delivered it to the Clerk's Table" (Report follows). The Select Committee's opinion "that the present state of the private madhouses in this kingdom, requires the interposition of the legislature" was put to the House of Commons and agreed. The report and House of Commons proceedings were to be printed under the direction of Mr Speaker. Ordered that: Townshend (Snr) and Messrs Rigby, Sergeant Hewitt, Eliah Harvey, Peter Burrell, Wilbraham, and Townshend Jnr (1) should prepare and bring in a Bill: for the regulation of Private Madhouses in this Kingdom" (2)

    (1) All except Townshend Jnr had been members of the Select Committee.

    (2) Edward Moore's index to the JHC stated (under: "House appoints Select Committee Madhouses. Private") that this bill was "not brought in".

    JHC 11.2.1773 p.120. Report of 1763 Select Committee read. Townshend Jnr, Mr (Geo. Venables) Vernon, Capt Phipps and Mr Hotham to prepare and bring in a Bill.

    Hansard (Parliamentary History vol.17) 11.2.1773, cols 696-7. Debate on leave to bring in. Townshend, seconded by Mackworth. Endnote: "The Bill passed the Commons, but was rejected by the Lords".

    JHC 6.4.1773 p.262. Townshend brought in. 1st Reading. Ordered to be printed.

    BILL (Printed 8.4.1773) Bills Public 1773, Vol.7, Bill no 231. Also in Lambert Vol.23

    Hansard (Parliamentary History vol.17) 22.4.1773, cols 837-8. Debate on 2nd Reading.

    JHC 4.5.1773 p.298 Amendments made at committee stage agreed by House of Commons. Bill with amendments to be engrossed. (No printing ordered)

    JHC 10.5.1773 p.305 3rd Reading. Townshend to carry to House of Lords.

    JHL 22.6.1773 p.686b. Ordered report of committee on bill to be received on this day three weeks.

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1774 mental health

    JHC 24.2.1774 p.492 Townshend Jnr, Phipps, Mr Ward, Vernon and Mr Hotham to prepare and bring in a Madhouses Bill. 2.3.1774 p.526 Townshend brought in. 1st Reading. Bill to be printed.

    BILL For Regulating Private Madhouses (Printed 4.3.1774) Bills Public 1774-6, Vol.8, Bill no 257. Also in Lambert Vol.24

    JHC 25.3, p.## Amendments made at the committee stage agreed by House of Commons. Bill engrossed (no printing ordered)

    House of Lords DIVISION JHL 21.4.1774 p.138b.

    House of Lords AMENDMENTS JHL 6.5.1774 p.169a. Also JHC 10.5.1774 pp.733-4

    1774 Madhouses Act
    Royal Assent 20.5.1774.

Panic and the Treatment of the Insane: 1800 1800 mental health

    [John Scott, Lord Eldon, was first Lord Chancellor from March 1801 to February 1806]

    From Wynn's statement in Hansard 23.1.1807 below it would seem it was in the summer or 1805 that he first raised in the Commons the subject of lunatics in gaols and poor houses.

    [Thomas Erskine, Lord Erskine was Lord Chancellor from February 1806 to March 1807]

    JHC 20.1.1807 p.72 Wynn (6BIOH10) presented to the House "An account of the number of Lunatics and insane person now confined and under custody, in the different gaols, houses of correction, poor houses and houses of industry, in England and Wales, taken from returns received from several counties, so far as the same can be made." ACCOUNT printed as Appendix 13 p. 444.

    Hansard (Cobbett's and Hansard) 23.1.1807 cols 514-515. Wynn moving for a Select Committee. "It was a year and a half since he had first called the attention of the House to this subject, which required immediate interference." Sturges Bourne asked a question.

    JHC 23.1.1807 p.76 Select Committee Membership: Wynn, (William) Wilberforce, (William) Morton Pitt, Mr (William?) Dickenson (Dickinson?), Rose , Charles Dundas, Sir W. Wynn (See 6BIOH10), Francis Burton, Mr Bathurst, (Samuel) Whitbread, Shaw Lefevre, Sir Henry Paulet, St John Mildmay, Mr Attorney General (Sir Arthur Piggot to March and then Sir Vicary Gibbs), Mr Solicitor General (Sir Samuel Romilly to March, then Sir Thomas Plummer) and (Nathaniel?) Bond. 27.1.1807 Mr John Fane added.

    [Eldon was Lord Chancellor from March 1807 to April 1827]

    JHC 1.7.1807 Select Committee re-ordered as above but without Bond and with Sturges Bourne (see 3.1.2) and Mr Patten added.

    JHC 15.7.1807 p. 715 Wynn delivered the report. To be printed.

    1807 SCHC: Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons ordered 23.1.1807 (Re-ordered 1.7.1807) "to inquire into the state of the criminal and pauper lunatics in England and Wales, and the laws relating thereto. ### page report accompanied by selected evidence, the main item of which was a letter from G.O. Paul dated 1.10.1806. The Select Committee's recommendations were very close to G. O. Paul's suggestions.
    To be printed 15.7.1807 PP 1807 (39) vol 2, p.69

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1808 mental health

    JHC 6.4.1808, p. ### Moved report of 15.7.1807 to be read. Ordered leave to bring in "Bill for the better care and maintenance of Pauper and Criminal Lunatics." Wynn, Pitt, Burton, Rose, Dickinson and Sturges Bourne to prepare and bring in.

    1808 County Asylums Act
    Royal Assent 23.6.1808

    13.11.1812 Report of the Inspector of Naval Hospitals - Remarks on the Management of Sick Officers, Seamen and Marines belonging to Her Majesty's Naval Service and of Such Prisoners of War as are committed to the House of Messrs Miles and Co of Hoxton for the Cure of Mental Derangement quoted in Papers Relating to Management of Insane Officers and Seamen in HM Naval Service, PP 1813-1814 (346) 12. 365. (Bibliography to Murphy, E. 2001a)

    JHC 7.7.1813 p. 647 ordered leave to bring in a "Bill to repeal Act 14 Geo. 3 for Regulating Madhouses, and for making other provisions in lieu thereof". Rose, William Smith and James Abercromby to prepare and bring in.

    JHC 10.7.1813 p.657 Rose presented. 12.7.1813 p. 659 2nd Reading. 14.7.1813 p.665 Mr Lushington reported from committee. Bill as amended to be printed. (BILL in PP 1812-1813, vol.2 pp 1391-1408) No further JHC entries indexed.

    Hansard 5.4.1814 cols 416-417 Rose seeking leave to bring in Bill to repeal and make more effectual the 1774 Act.

    JHC 5.4.1814 Rose and the Attorney General (Sir William Garrow) to bring in.

    JHC 28.4.1814 p.217 Select Committee of Rose, (Richard) Hart Davis, (Samuel) Whitbread, Pitt, W. Smith, Lefevre, Mr Manning, (George) Tierney, Mr (Robert) Peel (Secretary for Ireland), William (Vesey) Fitzgerald, Alderman (Harvey Christian) Combe, Lord Advocate for Scotland (Archibald Colquhoun), Sir John Newport, Mr Lockhart, (George) Holme Sumner, Sir William Curtis.

    Hansard 14.6.1814 cols 88-90 Discussion of possible deferment. Rose, Bennet, Wilberforce, Thompson, (Samuel) Whitbread, Levevre, W. Smith, Curtis and Sumner spoke. Wilberforce regretted his inability to attend the committee.

    Hansard 11.7.18141 cols 662-663 Debate on 3rd Reading (passed). A speech by R. Seymour recorded. Mr Alderman Smith (not W.Smith), Bennet, Sir James Shaw, Mr P. Carew and Rose "expressed their opinions also in its favour".

    LORDS CALENDAR p. 106 12.7.1814, First reading. 18.7.1814 Petition against from Governors of York Lunatic Asylum read, to lie on the table. 26.7.1814 Petition in favour from Godfrey Higgins, Esq, acting Magistrate of the W. Riding, read and to lie on the table. No further proceeding.

    BILL Nos 108, 204 and 267 in PP 1813-1814 pp 369, 411 and 439.

    Hansard 22.7.1814 cols 859-860. Rose moving for returns on Madhouses. His intention to expose facts he had hitherto kept back, next session.

    Papers Relating to Management of Insane Officers and Seamen in HM Naval Service ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 25.7.1814 (cited footnote 29 Morris, A.D. 1958)

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1815 mental health

    Hansard Friday 28.4.1815 col. 954 Rose moving for a select Committee

    JHC 28.4.1815 p.253. Membership: Rose, Wynn, W. Smith, (Samuel) Whitbread, R. Seymour, Sir Thomas Baring, Mr Peel, Curtis, Tierney, Shaw, Mr Vessey Fitzgerald, Mr Lockhart, Lord Advocate for Scotland (Archibald Colquhoun), Mr Thompson, Sumner, Mr Hart Davis, Sir John Newport, Manning, Bennet, Levevre, Mr Frankland Lewis, Mr Tomline, Sturges Bourne,

    [The 1816 Select Committee was as above minus Whitbread (who had committed suicide) and plus Lord Viscount Milton, Admiral Frank, Mr Western, Lord Viscount Lascelles, Mr Duncombe and the Earl Compton. (JHC 8.2.1816 p.16). Fane, Mr Waldegrave, Sir Geo. Clerk, Lord Binning and Mr William Dundas were added on 23.2.1816 (JHC p.72). Sir Charles Pole, Admiral A.J. Markham and Mr Croker were added on 15.3.1816 (JHC p. 204) Wynn (sic) was added on 28.3.1816 (JHC p.251) Binning (sic) was added 10.6.1816 (JHC p.##)]

    1815 SCHC: Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Madhouses in England
    To be printed 11.7.1815.
    PP 1814-1815 (296) Vol 4, pp 801-1034
    Includes lists of madhouses in London and Counties, signed by R. Powell MD, Secretary, 7.6.1815 [Powell's 7.6.1815 List]

    Hansard 11.7.1815 cols 114-115 Rose moving for report to be printed

    James Birch Sharpe "Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, etc, etc" of "5 Myrtle Street, Hoxton, London" re-published the report and evidence with "Each subject of Evidence arranged under its distinct head". His preface is dated 24.9.1815. Published by Baldwin, Craddock and Joy, London, 1815. The headings are: The Report, p.1 - York Asylum, p.11 - Bethlem Hospital, p.44 - Nottingham Asylum, p.152 - Retreat at York, p.160 - St Lukes Hospital, p.163 - Naval maniacs at Hoxton, p.178 - Powers of Commissioners, etc, p. 233 - Private Houses, etc, p.290 - Mr J. Bevans, Architect: Evidence and Papers, p.357 - Appendix, p.371.

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1816 mental health

    Hansard 8.2.1816 cols 344-345. Rose explaining that as chairman of the Select Committee of the last session he had been instructed to seek leave to bring in a Bill, but a minority of the committee being desirous of further investigation he had acceded to their wish and would move for a Select Committee instead of a Bill. [Membership of the committee given above under 1815 Select Committee]

    1816 SCHC: [Three] Reports from the Committee appointed to consider of Provision being made for the better Regulation of Madhouses in England. To be printed: 1) 26.4.1816 2) 28.5.1816 (One page) 3) 11.6.1816 (With an appendix on Scotland). PP 1816 (227) (398) (451) Vol.6 pp 249-402.

    Also published in 1816: "Observations of the Physician (Dr Monro) and Apothecary (Mr Haslam) of Bethlem Hospital, upon the evidence taken before the Committee of the House of Commons for regulating madhouses", H. Bryer: London, 1816. 55 pages.

    Hansard 28.5.1816 cols 859-860. Rose bringing up report, obtaining leave for a Bill and outlining the bill. Binning and Mr Lyttelton also spoke.

    JHC 28.5.1816 p.407 Rose, Mr Holford and Binning to prepare and bring in.

    Hansard 17.6.1816 cols 1126-1128 Debate. Rose, R. Seymour, Wynn and Binning spoke.

    LORDS CALENDAR p.120. 26.6.1816. 1st reading - to be printed. No further proceeding.

    BILL Nos 407, 420 and 493 PP 1816 Vol.2 pp 493, 515, 537.

    JHC 5.2.1817 p.31 Rose, Holford, Binning, R. Seymour, Bennet, Wynn and W. Smith to prepare and bring in a Madhouse Bill.

    LORDS CALENDAR p.122. 21.3.1817. 1st reading - to be printed. "No further proceeding".

    BILL No. 30 PP 1817 Vol.1 p.33

    June 1817 bopcris (Ireland) "Report from the [House of Commons] Select Committee on Lunacy "To inquire into the expediency of making further provision for the relief of the lunatic poor" 1817, volume 8, paper number 430, 56 pages.

    Hansard 3.2.1818 cols 142-143 Debate on a Scottish Lunatics Asylums Bill in the course of which Wynn said that as Rose had died someone else ought to take up the issue of the English Madhouses Bill and that if no one else would he would.

    Hansard 10.3.1819 cols 971-974. Wynn obtained leave to bring in a "Madhouses Regulation Bill". He spoke about the House of Lords rejection of previous bills.

    JHC 10.3.1819 p.210 Wynn, R. Seymour, Binning, Holford and Bennet to prepare and bring in.

    Hansard (House of Lords) 24.6.1819 cols 1344-1348 Marquis of Lansdowne moved 2nd reading. Lord Chancellor Eldon opposed. Division (No names): For the Bill: 14. Against 35. Majority against the Bill: 21

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1827 mental health

    [George Canning was Prime Minister from 10.4.1827 to 8.8.1827
    John Singleton Copley,
    Lyndhurst Lord Chancellor 10.4.1827 to November 1830
    Lansdowne Home Secretary July 1827 to January 1828]

    Hansard 13.6.1827 cols 1262-5. Debate on motion of Gordon for a Select Committee to inquire into the treatment of pauper lunatics in Middlesex, to consider the propriety of extending the provisions of the 1774 Madhouses Act to pauper lunatics, consolidating all Acts relative to lunatics and lunatic asylums, and of making further provisions. Gordon, Spring Rice (Under Secretary of State at the Home Office 16.7.1827- 22.1.1828), Alderman William Thompson (MP City of London), Ridley Colborne, M.A. Taylor, Mr Estcourt and Sir F. Burdett spoke.

    JHC 13.6.1827 p. 556; 14.6.1827 p. 561; 19.6.1827 p. 578. Membership of the Select Committee: Gordon, Bourne (Home Secretary), M.A. Taylor, (Middlesex JP), Wynn, Thomas Wood (Middlesex JP), Althorpe (See h.10 ###), Geo. Dawson (Under Secretary of State at the Home Office 18.1.1822- 30.4.1827), (Ridley) Colborne, (Sir John) Newport, Thompson (MP City of London), Pallmer, Rice (Under Secretary of State at the Home Office 16.7.1827-22.1.1828), (John Cam.) Hobhouse (Westminster MP), Charles Wood, Calthorpe (probably H2), G.H. Rose, (William)) Ord, (John Nicholas) Fazakerley, (Charles Edmund) Rumbold, Stuart Wortley, Ashley, Perceval (Under Secretary of State at the Home Office 30.4.1827 to 16.7.1827), Somerset, Lennard, Villiers, Francis Baring, (E.) Protheroe, Wodehouse, Henry H. Liddell. Added 16.6.1827: Peter Du Cane, Added 19.6.1827: Byng.

    1827 SCHC: Report from the Select Committee on Pauper Lunatics in the County of Middlesex and on Lunatic Asylums To be printed 29.6.1827. PP 1826-7 (557) Vol.6, pp 75-260.

    [Note: a double page reference, 41/116, in 2.6.1d, indicates double numbering of pages]

    JHC 29.6.1827 p. 605: Report delivered by Gordon.

    [Parliament prorogued 2.7.1827]

    [Viscount Goderich Prime Minister September 1827 to 8.1.1828. Parliament not in session during whole period]

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1828 mental health

    Hansard 19.2.1828 cols 575-585. Gordon moving, on Select Committee instructions, for leave to bring in a "Bill to Amend the Law for the Regulation of Lunatic Asylums". Gordon, Ashley (seconding), Peel (Home Secretary) and W. Smith spoke.

    Return ordered to be printed 3.4.1828. Sums of money expended by the counties and the College of Physicians in pursuance of the 1774 Madhouses Act. Return moved for 22.2.1828 and re-printed 5.2.1830. PP 1830 (238) pp 271-274/1-4. The return is dated "Whitehall 3.4.1828".

    JHL 29.4.1828 p.260. 2nd Reading "Pauper Lunatics" (CA) and "Lunatics Regulation" (M) Bill. Petition of Dr Edward Fox, Brislington House, Somerset, against Madhouse Bill.

    Select Committee to consider Bills. Membership of: Lord Dacre, Lord Gower, Lord Kenyon, Lord Calthorpe (Brother of (H2)) , Lord Rolle, Lord Lauderdale, Lord Colchester, Lord Bexley, Lord Farnborough, Lord Wharncliffe (father of the Stuart Wortley on the 1827 Commons Select Committee), Lord Durham, Marquis Lansdowne, Earl Shaftesbury (father of H3)), Earl Roseberg, Earl Talbot, Earl Malmesbury, Earl Rosslyn, Earl Eldon, Viscount Melville, Viscount Goderich, Lord Bishop of Landaff. Added 1.5.1828 (p.291): Bishop of Bath and Wells, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (Henry Ryder), Lord Mount Eagle , Lord Melrose and Lord Skelmersdale. Added 2.5.1828 (p.308): Marquis of Bute and Viscount Vincent.

    JHL 1.5.1828 p.291: Dr Bright (Physicians Commission Secretary) to attend and bring visitations book. Petitions respecting bills referred to Select Committee. Petitioners to be heard and evidence printed for use of the Select Committee. p.293: Petition of the Governors of St Luke's requesting "same footing as Bethlem Hospital in respect of Exemption".

    JHL 2.5.1828 p.308: Petition of Lincoln Hospital for exemption.

    JHL 8.5.1828 p.367: Dr Alexander Sutherland to attend

    JHL 9.5.1828 p.400: Dr John Willis to attend

    JHL 22.5.1828 p.471: Lord Kenyon reported that they had found the allegations (made?) of the Madhouse Bill to be true and made several amendments. Bill re-committed.

    JHL 2.6.1828 p.487: Madhouse Bill referred to a Committee of the Whole House.

    JHL 11.6.1828 p.529 and 12.6.1828 p.534: The Earl of Shaftesbury reported from the Committee of the Whole House, with amendments.

    1828 SCHL Minutes of Evidence to Select Committee of the House of Lords on the Bills relating to Lunatics and Lunatic Asylums. JHL 1828 Appendix 2, pp 710-745

    1828 Madhouses and County Asylums Acts
    Royal Assent 15.7.1828

    1829 Report To the Right Honourable Robert Peel, His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department ("From Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy") Date 1.7.1829. Ordered (House of Commons) to be printed 15.6.1830. "Whitehall, 12 June 1830 ----- S.M. Phillips". A 5 page Report and 2 page Appendix. PP 1830 (541) Vol. 30, pp 275-284.

    JHC 3.3.1829 p.99: Bill to amend the 1828 Madhouses Act to be brought in by Somerset, Gordon and Ross. 13.4.1829 p.225: Ross reported from Committee. 14.4.1829 p.229: 3rd Reading. Somerset to carry to House of Lords. (House of Lords agreed to without amendments)

    1829 Madhouses Law Amendment Act
    Royal Assent 14.5.1829

    Account 1829: "An account of all monies received for licences by the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy, and of all monies received and paid out of the consolidated fund to the said Clerk, from the 15th August 1828 to 1st August 1829; specifying the several Heads of Expenditure, as required by the Acts 9 Geo IV c.41, and 10 Geo IV c.18, s.9." Dated "Office of Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy, 19 Margaret-street, Cavendish-square, February 10th 1830". Signed "Robert Browne, Treasurer and Clerk". Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 19.2.1930. PP 1830 (67) Vol.30 pp 267-269.

    Hansard 9.2.1830 cols 266-267. Gordon: The 1828 Madhouse Act had omitted to say that licence fees should be paid into public funds. £1,000 had piled up in one county as a result. Leave to bring in a Bill. Seconded by Mr Lyttleton.

    Account 1830: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1829 to 1.8.1830, dated 14.3.1831. PP 1830-1831 (254) Vol.14 p.49.

    Account 1831: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1830 to 1.8.1831, dated 13.3.1832. PP 1831-1832 (266) Vol.35 p.229.

    Return of Licensed Houses by Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy for the Return of the Number of Lunatic Asylums in England and Wales 21.3.1831 [21.3.1831 List]

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1832 mental health

    JHC 2.2.1832 p.67 "A Bill for regulating the care and treatment of insane persons in England" ordered. Gordon, Somerset, Geo. Lamb and Rice to prepare and bring in. (With respect to Lamb and Rice see 3.5)

    There are no entries in Hansard relating specifically to the 1832 Madhouse Bill. The following entry indicates the problems Parliament was then having with respect to its work:

    Hansard 2.2.1832 col. 1198: Mr C.W. Wynn agreed with Lord Stormont

    "in thinking there should be a certain day in the week set apart for the furthering through their various stages the several measures before the Houses, in some of which the country were as much interested as it could possibly be in the Reform Bill"

    JHC 3.2.1832 p.70. Bill presented (No. 111) by Gordon.

    JHC 6.2.1832 p.75. 2nd Reading. Bill referred to a Select Committee: Gordon, The Solicitor General (William Horne), Lamb (Under Secretary of State at the Home Office), Somerset, Rice (Under Secretary of State at the Home Office 1827), Ross, G.H. Rose, Freemantle, Mr Kenyon, Mr Strickland, Mr Bonham Carter, Mr Briscoe, Geo. Dawson (Peel's Under Secretary of State at the Home Office 18.1.1822-30.4.1827), William Brougham (MP for Southwark and the Lord Chancellor's brother), Fazakerley, Ord, Protheroe, Wynn, Lord Porchester, Mr Pussey, Mr Wil (l?)braham, and (George?) Spence. 1.3.1832 p.157 Gordon reported. Re-committed. 2,3,1832 p. 161 Warburton (sic) reported.

    Members of the 1827 Select Committee also on the 1832 Committee: Gordon, Wynn, {CHECK Althorpe}, Geo. Dawson, Rice, G.H. Rose, William Ord, John Nicholas Fazakerley.

    JHL 6.7.1832 p.361 After 2nd Reading Bill referred to a "Private Committee" (quote marks in JHL).

    "Their Lordships, or any five of them, to meet on Monday next, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, in the Prince's Lodgings, near the House of Peers; and to adjourn as they please."

    All Lords who had been, were, or were to be present that session to be on the committee and the committee to appoint its own chairman.

    The Prince's Lodgings was a building in the old Palace of Westminster that had once belonged to the heir to the throne. It lay to the south of the buildings used as the main chamber for the House of Lords. I have been advised by David Prior, of the House of Lords Record Office, that the term 'private committee' indicates that the Bill was considered by a committee that sat away from the floor of the House, and that the Prince's Lodgings was used for committees such as this.

    BILL No. 648 Amendments made by House of Lords to the Bill for Regulating the Treatment of Insane Persons in England.

    1832 Madhouses Act
    Royal Assent 11.8.1832

    1833 Chancery Lunatics Act
    Royal Assent 24.7.1833.

    1832/1833 Accounts. Two accounts of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy printed together. 1) from 1.8.1831 to 1.8.1832 (no date to account) 2) from 1.8.1832 to 3.7.1833 (no date to account). Ordered to be printed 21.8.1833. PP 1833 (704) Vol.34 p.65.

    The content of the 1832/1833 Accounts suggests that the delay in preparing and presenting accounts was due to the death of the first Clerk-Treasurer. However, no accounts appear to have been printed for years ending August 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 or 1838. Some aspects of the Accounts for 1837 and 1838 (with 1839, 1840 and 1841) were used in the Return ordered to be printed 3.2.1842

    1833 Madhouses Law Amendment Act
    Royal Assent 28.8.1833.

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1834 mental health

    House of Commons Report from the Select Committee on Medical Education. Three parts: first on the Royal College of Physicians, second on the Royal College of Surgeons, third on the Society of Apothecaries. PP 1834 vol. 13.

    1834 Poor Law Report Report from His Majesty's Commissioners for inquiring into the Administration and Practical Operation of the Poor Laws. Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, 21 February 1834. [With Appendixes A- F.]
    By the Commissioners for Inquiring into the Administration and Practical Operation of the Poor Laws. [1832-1834]
    PP 1834 vol 27-39. 13 volumes

    Mott, C. 1834 Examination of Mr Charles Mott, Contractor for the Maintenance of the Poor of Lambeth by E. Chadwick, Esq. in 1834 Poor Law Report, Appendix A, pp 192A to 209A. PP 1834 vol 29.

    [Viscount Melbourne Prime Minister 16.7.1834 to 14.11.1834
    Viscount Duncannon Home Secretary 19.7.1834 to 15.12.1834]

    1834 Poor Law Amendment Act
    Royal Assent 23.8.1834.

    The three Commissioners who could be appointed under the Act, formally entered office on the day the Act received the Royal Assent. They were the Right Honourable Thomas Frankland Lewis; John George Shaw Lefevre, esquire; and George Nicholls. They and the Secretary, Edwin Chadwick, began to select the assistant commissioners who were to be the agents of the Commission's policies. George Coode was appointed Assistant Secretary on the same day as Chadwick. Amongst the Assistant Commissioners appointed were Charles Mott and James Philips Kay

    Thursday 16.10.1834 - Friday 17.10.1834. Both Houses of Parliament were destroyed in a fire. Temporary accommodation for the House of Lords (from February 1835) was created by roofing the Painted Chamber within the old Palace of Westminster. The Commons was temporarily housed in the old Lords Chamber (Court of Requests) with a temporary roof. The new House of Lords was opened in 1847, the new House of Commons in 1851. The new Commons was destroyed by bombing in the second world war, but reconstructed much as it was in 1851.

    [Duke of Wellington Prime Minister 17.11.1834-9.12.1834
    Sir Robert Peel Prime Minister 10.12.1834-8.4.1835
    Lyndhurst, Lord Chancellor 21.11.1834 to 23.4.1835
    Henry Goulburn Home Secretary 15.12.1834 to 18.4.1835]

    [Viscount Melbourne Prime Minister 18.4.1835-30.8.1841
    Lord Chancellorship in commission 23.4.1835 to 16.1.1836
    Lord John Russell Home Secretary 18.4.1835 to 30.8.1839]

    PP 1835 (500) Vol.35 First Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    [Sir C. Pepys, Lord Cottenham, Lord Chancellor 16.1.1836 to 3.9.1841]

    1836-1841 Reports: Copies of the Annual Reports made by the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, from 1835 to 1841, Both Inclusive. Ordered (House of Commons) to be printed 6.10.1841 (On Ashley's motion). Six reports occupying only 11 pages in all. The title is incorrect as the first report is that made in 1836 (for the period 1.6.1835 to 3.5.1836) not one made in 1835. PP 1841 Session 2 (56) Vol.6 pp 235-245.

    PP 1836 (595) Vol.29 Second Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners With appendices A, B, C, D and E.

    PP 1837 (546-1) Vol.31 [127] Third Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    20.6.1837 Victoria Queeen on the death of her uncle, William 4th. [statutes]

    21.10.1837 London Medical Gazette editorial speaks of discussion in House of Commons "shortly before the close of the last session" suggesting "lunatic asylums will engage the attention which they deserve during the ensuing one".

    PP 1837-1838 (147) Vol.28 [145] Fourth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners (Appendix D. PP 1840 (147) vol.18 [1])

    1838 Select Committee of the House of Commons Poor Law Asylum Act needs entering

    Mott, C. 1838 Report from the Poor Law Commissioners for England and Wales to The Right Hon. Lord John Russell ... Relative to certain statements concerning the internal management of the workhouse at eye, in the Hartismere Union, Suffolk William Clowes. 38 pages. [Mott's Report pp 3-18 is dated Eye, Suffolk, 22.6.1838. Covering letter to Russell from T. Frankland Lewis and J.G.S. Lefevre is dated 25.6.1838. This refers to a Times report of 16.6.1838]

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1839 mental health

    Select Committee of the House of Commons Hereford Lunatic Asylum . Ordered 7.3.1839 "to inquire into the manner in which the house kept by Mr John Gilliard, for the reception of insane patients, at Hereford, has been conducted. Membership: Barneby, Ashley, Gordon, Somerset, Lord Seymour, Mr Gally Knight, R.V. Smith, Mr William Miles (replaced by Sir Edward Knatchbull 22.4.1839), Benjamin Hawes, Thomas G.B. Estcourt, Bolton Clive, John S. Pakington, [Henry George?] Ward, Milnes Gaskell, Henry Warburton, (replaced by Thomas Wakley, 22.4.1839). Committee reported 27.6.1839. (Irish University Press edition frontispiece)

    PP 1839 (239) Vol.20 Fifth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners With appendices. (Appendix E. PP 1840 (249) vol. 17 [367])

    Account 1839: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1838 to 1.8.1839. Ordered to be printed 13.5.1840. PP 1840 (298) Vol.35 p.259. This seems to be the first account printed since 1833. It was re-printed in The Lancet on 6.6.1840 with the comment:

    "We print the above Annual Return by the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy. They expend £3,000 a year. This is, no doubt, an important fact. It would be interesting to know what they do for the money. This would be still more important; for it is a curious fact, that they obtain invaluable returns, at considerable expense, and have never contributed a single item to our knowledge of insanity. The paid Commissioners should draw up an Annual Report, and should only receive their salaries when the report is delivered. Why pay men who neglect, or half discharge, their duty?"

    PP 1840 (245) Vol.17 [397] Sixth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    PP 1840 Vol.39 pages 272 following

    Account 1840: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1839 to 1.8.1840. Ordered to be printed 10.5.1841. PP 1841 (300) Vol.20 p.515.

    Week ending 7.8.1841 Punch mocked Robert Peel's election victory as the victory of a Dr Pill who would not prescribe his policy. In the next issue, "Sir Rhubarb Peel" was presented as a hypnotist who had "mesmerised" the electorate. The phrenologist Combe (Punch reported) had said that it would take less than a hundred years for politics to be carried out by the principles of phrenology (at least in America), so why not mesmerism?

    From Tuesday 24.8.1841 to Friday 27.8.1841, the Commons debated a motion of no confidence in the Whig Ministry, moved by a back-bench Tory MP (Stuart Wortley, Anti-Poor Law Tory elected for the West Riding). It was carried, and Robert Peel became Prime Minister. However, the debate was a back-bench one and there was much speculation and debate about what the Tory policies actually were. (Hansard: 24.8.1841, 25.8.1841, 26.8.1841, 27.8.1841)

    [Sir Robert Peel Prime Minister 30.8.1841-27.6.1846
    Lyndhurst Lord Chancellor 3.9.1841 to 6.7.1846
    Sir James Graham Home Secretary 3.9.1841 to 6.7.1846]

    16.9.1841: Peel announced that, apart from urgent action to make possible a modern system of heating in the new Houses of Parliament, his government needed time to think about legislation. He would give his opinions when Parliament resumed in the spring. The Poor Law, in particular, would be renewed for just one year, in order to give the government time for thought. (Hansard: 16.9.1841)

    17.9.1841: Debate on the motion to go into supply. This was taken by MPs as an opportunity to debate Peel's statement. (Hansard: 17.9.1841)

    20.9.1841: Debate between the Radicals. For a brief period, Thomas Wakley sat with the Tories whilst his radical colleagues sat with the Whigs. This was because Wakley misunderstood Peel's policy on the Poor Law. (Hansard: 20.9.1841)

    21.9.1841: Debate on leave to bring in
    Madhouses Law Continuation Act
    history of the 
lunacy commission mental health
timeline 1841
    Hansard: 21.9.1841
    Thomas Wakley attacks the commission

    22.9.1841: Debate on he second reading of the Poor Law Continuation Act. (Hansard: 22.9.1841)

    27.9.1841: Debate in which Peel was challenged to dissociate himself from the interpretation of his Poor Law policy held by Wakley and by anti-Poor Law Tories. (Hansard: 27.9.1841)

    28.9.1841: Debate on a motion of Crawford and Ferrand intended to prevent Poor Law Commissioners establishing new unions.
    Hansard: 28.9.1841
    The Home Secretary responded that the Government was taking control of the Poor Law Commissioners, and Thomas Wakley proposed his alternative poor law

    1841 Madhouses Law Continuation Act
    Royal Assent 5.10.1841

    5.10.1841 Granville Somerset moved for returns relating the fees paid to the individual medical and legal Metropolitan Commissioners, and the general finances of the Commission. And for returns relating to County administrations: licensed houses in each county; finances of county administration; visits to houses; cases of licences refused to be renewed, suspended or revoked. All returns for a five year period. Ordered to be printed 3.2.1842. (PP 1842 (468) vol.34 pp 3-39/1-37. In this case I have referenced the paper numbers).

    PP 1841 (327) Vol.11 [201] Seventh Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners With Appendices.

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1842 mental health

    Return ordered to be printed 3.2.1842. Somerset's returns moved for 5.10.1841 (which see) PP 1842 (468) vol.34 pp 3-39/1-37. In this case I have referenced the paper numbers.

    Poor Law Commission. Printed Directions on Lunatics in Workhouses 5.2.1842, quoted Metropolitan Commission's 1844 report pp 95-96.

    8.3.1842 House of Lords debate on 1st Reading of the Chancery Lunatics Bill Hansard: 8.3.1842 cols 203-208.

    17.3.1842: Debate on leave to bring in the
    Licensed Lunatic Asylums Bill:
    history of the 
lunacy commission mental health
timeline 1842
    Hansard 17.3.1842 cols 797-807;
    There is another account of this debate in The Lancet 23.4.1842 pp 134-137.

    LICENSED LUNATIC ASYLUMS BILL: "Bill for amending the laws relating to Houses licensed by the Metropolitan Commissioners and Justices of the Peace for the Reception of Insane Persons". Bills Public 1842 vol.3, pp 101-112, Bill no. 114 (?) dated 18.3.1842.

    For the (then) British Medical Association's response to the debate and the Bill see The Lancet 2.4.1842 pp 29-30 and 23.4.1842 pp 137-138.

    20.4.1842: Licensed Lunatic Asylums Bill
    in committee on Wakley's amendment
    history of the 
lunacy commission mental health
timeline 1842
    Hansard: 20.4.1842: cols 885-890.
    There is another account of this debate in The Lancet 23.4.1842 pp 134-137.

    Hansard 3.5.1842 Debate on the Charter, to be listed

    INQUIRY BILL. Bill as amended. Bills Public 1842, vol.3, pp 113-126 (following 18.3.1842 Bill). Bill dated 23.5.1842. This amended bill differs so markedly from the 18.3.1842 Bill that I have given it a separate name.

    Bill considered in committee, and amended, Bill reported and as amended to be printed (JHC 23.5.1842 pp 298-299)

    16.7.1842 short debate:
    Hansard: 16.7.1842 col. 223.

    22.7.1842: House of Commons debate on 1st Reading of the Chancery Lunatics Bill Hansard 22.7.1842 cols 492-493.

    1842 Lunacy Inquiry Act
    Royal Assent 5.8.1842.

    Account 1841: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1840 to 1.8.1841. Ordered to be printed 19.7.1842. PP 1842 (468) Vol.34 p.1.

    PP 1842 (389) Vol.19 [1] Eighth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    Edwin Chadwick

    Chadwick, E. 1842 Report to Her Majesty's Principle Secretary of State for the Home Office from the Poor Law Commissioners, on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain..

    Available as Chadwick, E. 1842/1965 Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain. Edited by M. W. Flinn, 1965. Edinburgh University Press.

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1843 mental health

    Account 1842: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1841 to 1.8.1842. Ordered to be printed 21.6.1843. PP 1843 (368) Vol.48 p.13.

    28.2.1843 Ashley's address on the diffusion of moral and religious education among the working classes. Condition and Education of the Poor. Hansard: 28.2.1843 cols 47-104. extracts from

    Monday 6.3.1843: Lord Brougham's announcement on crime and insanity. Hansard 6.3.1843

    Tuesday 7.3.1843:

    1. Mr Mackinnon's question to the Home Secretary on insanity and crime. Hansard 7.3.1843 cols 353- 354

    2. Sir V. Blake's proposed bill to limit the plea of insanity. Hansard 7.3.1843 col. 424 [just after midnight on 7.3.1843/8.3.1843]

    Monday 13.3.1843: Lord Chancellor's statement on the trial of McNaughton. Hansard 13.3.1843 cols 714-744

    Friday 7.4.1843: Votes on Supply: Expense of criminal lunatics at Bethlem Hospital. Hansard 7.4.1843 col.687

    Tuesday 25.4.1843:

    1. Lord Monteagle's motion for returns of Irish Pauper Lunatics. (House of Lords) Hansard 25.4.1843 cols 885-887

    2. Lord Campbell's question to the Lord Chancellor on crime and insanity Hansard 25.4.1843 cols 888-889

    20.7.1843: Ashley draws Home Secretary's attention to the detention of lunatics in workhouses. Hansard 20.7.1843 cols 1283-1284

    PP 1843 (468) Vol.21 [1] Ninth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1844 mental health

    London newspapers from Mogg's New Picture of London and Visitor's Guide to it Sights, 1844: "we subjoin a list of the principal. ... the Times takes decidedly the lead... The Morning Herald is also conducted in a style of great excellence. The Morning Post is more limited ... its circulation being chiefly confined to the leaders of fashion. ... through strictly speaking independent, [they] are the staunch advocates of Conservatism.   The Morning Chronicle ... enjoys, from its advocacy of Whig principles, a very extensive sale; as does the Morning Advertiser, the property of the Society of Licensed Victuallers.       The Standard, an evening paper... enjoys... a very extensive circulation. The Globe and the Sun are the evening advocates of the Whigs       the Age, the John Bull, the Spectator, the Examiner, the Satirist, the Sunday Times, the Weekly Times, the Observer, the Court Journal, the Dispatch, the Atlas, the Pictorial Times, Punch, and London Illustrated News ... complete the catalogue of the weekly papers.

    Account 1843: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1842 to 1.8.1843. Ordered to be printed 25.4.1844. The first Account showing Inquiry expenses. PP 1844 (325) Vol.32 p.305.

    Monday 25.3.1844: The Bishop of Exeter moves for the correspondence respecting the suicide of Mary Miller in Penzanze workhouse . (House of Lords) Hansard 25.3.1844

    [Early July 1844] 1844 Report Report of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor 1844 - Presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty - Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars. 291 pages including appendices. The appendices include lists of asylums [1.1.1844 Lists]

    Tuesday 2.7.1844: Mr Mackinnon moved:

    "That a Select Committee be appointed to consider the Report of the Inspectors of Prisons, and the state of discipline in the Gaols for the adoption of an uniform system of punishment, with such improvements in the management as can be safely adopted" Hansard 2.7.1844 cols 259-272

    Thursday 11.7.1844: Lord Monteagle's motion for an address to the crown respecting Irish Pauper Lunatics. (House of Lords) Hansard 11.7.1844 cols 619-622

    Friday 12.7.1844: Debate in Committee on the Poor Law Amendment Act on the detention of Lunatics in workhouses. Hansard 12.7.1844 cols 743-7. For another account see The Lancet 20.7.1844 p 584.

    Tuesday 16.7.1844: Motion of Captain Pechell respecting the pensions of naval officers in Haslar Naval Asylum. Hansard 16.7.1844 cols 967-968

    history of the 
lunacy commission Tuesday 23.7.1844: Debate on Ashley's motion for an address to the crown praying Her Majesty to take into consideration the 1844 Report. Hansard 23.7.1844 cols 1257-1288
    Hansard title Treatment of Lunatics. Title used in
    Shaftesbury's Speeches

    31.7.1844: relating to the Poor Law in Scotland and pauper lunatics on the Isle of Arran. Hansard 31.7.1844

    1844 Welsh Report Supplemental Report of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy Relative to the General Condition of the Insane in Wales...August 25th 1844. Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars. 62 pages including appendices and corrections to the early copies of the General Report.

    The Lancet 14.9.1844, pp 763-765, meetings of the Governors of the Northampton Lunatic Asylum

    PP 1844 (560) Vol.19 Tenth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners With Appendices.

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1845 mental health

    The Lancet 18.1.1845: Editorial announcing (commencing that issue) serial publication of two courses of lectures by M. Baillarger (physician, Salpetriere, Paris) to be succeded by serial publication of lectures by John Conolly. The lectures by Conolly began to be published on 4.10.1845.

    Jules-Gabriel-François Baillarger (1815-1890) (external link) founded Annales médico-psychologiques du système nerveux in 1843

    The Lancet 18.1.1845: Editorial criticising 1844 Report for comments on Hanwell not being willing to return patients to St Marylebone to make room for "urgent" cases and for its comments on non-restraint. The editorial drew on the pamphlet published by John Adams. The editorial mentions that a copy of the 1844 Report was sent to the Hanwell Magistrates by the Home Secretary (Sir James Graham).

    The Lancet 15.2.1845: Editorial comparing Bethlem unfavourably with Paris

    Account 1844: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1843 to 1.8.1844. Ordered to be printed 4.3.1845. PP 1845 (91) Vol.28 p.331.
    Hansard 19.5.1845 "LUNATICS (IRELAND): Sir T. Freemantle then rose to move for leave to bring in a Bill for establishing a central asylum for criminal lunatics, and to amend the Acts relating to Lunatic Asylums in Ireland. The right hon. Baronet stated that a Committee of the House of Commons had sat some years ago on this subject, which had drawn up a very elaborate Report, and made many important suggestions and recommendations upon it. These recommendations had been embodied in the Bill he proposed to introduce, the principle one being that it was inexpedient to confine criminal lunatics in gaols and other places as at present, and that it would be infinitely preferable to build a special asylum for that class of persons. The hon. Baronet, after a few words on the minor provisions of the measure, moved for leave to introduce his Bill. Leave given, the Bill brought in, and read a first time. House adjourned at half-past twelve." The Bill became the 1845 Irish Lunatics Asylums Act

    JHC Friday 6.6.1845 Lunacy and Lunatic Asylums Bills Ordered. Lord Ashley, Sir James Graham and Mr Vernon Smith to prepare and bring in. Lunatic Asylums Bill presented by Ashley. 1st Reading (LA Bill).

    history of the 
lunacy commission Hansard Friday 6.6.1845 cols 180-202 Debate on Ashley's motion to bring in two bills on the treatment of insane persons in England and Wales
    Hansard title Regulation of Lunatic Asylums. Title used in
    Shaftesbury's Speeches. There is another account of this debate in The Lancet Saturday 14?.6.1845 pp 19-21

    JHC Friday 13.6.1845 1st Reading Lunacy Bill.

    JHC Monday 23.6.1845 2nd Reading Lunacy and Lunatic Asylums Bills

    JHC Wednesday 25.6.1845 Committee Lunacy and Lunatic Asylums Bills

    history of the 
lunacy commission JHC 1.7.1845 pp 666-667 Petition of John Thomas Perceval.
    Click on the book for an account and extracts

    Votes and Proceedings and JHC 1.7.1845 p. 669. Motion of Mr Christie in the Votes (order in JHC) for a return of licensed houses in jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Commission, Expenses of the Commission for past five years (with names and amounts to each person), Sums dispensed under the 1833 and 1842 Chancery Lunatics Act (with names and amounts to each person).

    JHC 1.7.1845 p. 669. Rest of above Order was not in Mr Christie's motion in the Votes: for a return (distinguishing males from females) of admissions, cures and deaths in each county asylum and licensed house for each year sine 1833, and the number remaining in the house on January 1st each year.

    history of the 
lunacy commission JHC Wednesday 2.7.1845 Report of the Committee: Commissioners' Salaries.

    Hansard Wednesday 2.7.1845 cols 1414-1417 Debate on Report of the Committee on the Lunacy Salaries and Expenses.

    JHC Thursday 3.7.1845 Lunacy. Petitions of Lewis Phillips; - Joseph Digby, Esquire, Captain in Her Majesty's Navy; - and William Bailey; praying that previous to any further legislation on the subject of Lunacy a Committee may be appointed to investigate the operations of the present laws and the conduct of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy, with the view of ensuring that no Englishman be deprived of his liberty without full and sufficient cause.

    Hansard Wednesday 9.7.1845 cols 226-227 Debate on motion to go into Committee on the Lunatic Asylum's Bill.

    Hansard Friday 11.7.1845 cols 395-418 Debate on motion to go into, and debate in the Committee on the Lunatics' Bill.

    JHC Tuesday 15.7.1845 Committee Lunacy Bill. Negatived amendments.

    Hansard Tuesday 15.7.1845 cols 525-530 Debate in the Committee on the Lunatics' Bill. [see Turner's pension]

    JHC Wed 16.7.1845 Committee Lunacy Bill.

    Hansard Wednesday 16.7.1845 cols 614-615 Debate on motion to go into, and debate in the Committee on the Lunatics' Bill.

    JHC Fri 16.7.1845 Committee Lunacy Bill Reported.

    JHC Tue 22.7.1845 3rd Reading Lunacy Bill adjourned.

    Hansard Tuesday 22.7.1845 cols 891-892 Debate on 3rd Reading of the Lunatics' Bill.

    JHC Wed 23.7.1845 3rd Reading Lunacy Bill.

    Hansard: House of Lords debate on aborted 2nd Reading of the Lunatic Asylums Bill 24.7.1845 cols 1035-1036.

    Hansard: House of Lords debate on 2nd Reading of the Lunatic Asylums Bill 25.7.1845 col.1085

    Hansard (House of Lords) Tue 29.7.1845 cols 1186-1193 Outline by Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst of the nature and objects of the Lunacy Bill (Hansard says Lunatic Asylums Bill)

    1845 Lunacy Act
    Royal Assent 4.8.1845.

    1845 Lunatic Asylum's Act
    Royal Assent 8.8.1845.

    PP 1845 (624)(660) Vol.27 [247][279] Eleventh Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    history of the 
lunacy commission 1846 mental health

    From 31.1.1846 to 30.7.1847, Lord Ashley was not a Member of Parliament, and Lord Seymour represented the Lunacy Commission in the House of Commons
    Haydock Lodge: see trade in pauper luncy
    Chronological index for Haydock Lodge

    Account 1845: Account of the Clerk of the Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy from 1.8.1844 to 1.8.1845. Ordered to be printed 13.5.1846. PP 1846 (303) Vol.33 p.457.

    Account 1845 Expenses: Account of commissioner's expenses. PP 1846, vol.33, p.407 [Return of 28.2.1846]

    Petition 12.6.1846 of Owen Owen Roberts. Votes and Proceedings 1846. Vo. 2 pp 1077-1079, dated 12 die Junii 1846. [Full text of petition]. The petiton was reprinted in The Times on 17.6.1846 and quoted extensively in the Commons on 26.8.1846

    The Times Wednesday 17.6.1846 page 6: Editorial "some few years ago a person bearing the name of Mott..." "acts of misconduct... have been complained of in a petition that has just been presented to the House of Commons, and which we print elsewhere.

    The Times Thursday 18.6.1846 page 8: To the editor of The Times: Letter from George Coode dated 17.6.1846

    The Times Friday 19.6.1846 page 5: Editorial "Mr George Coode, the assistant secretary to the Poor Law Commission, deserves a few lines in answer to his blustering letter..."

    Hansard (House of Commons) Friday 19.6.1846 cols 685-688 Mr W.O. Stanley's question to the Home Secretary (Sir James Graham) respecting allegations of a connection between the Poor Law Commissioners and Haydock Lodge Lunatic Asylum

    The Times Saturday 20.6.1846 see below.

    The Times Monday 22.6.1846 page 4: Editorial "It will be seen by the Parliamentary report in our paper on Saturday, that Mr Coode has been summarily dismissed..."

    HLP 22.6.1846 Report. (First) Report of the Lunacy Commission to the Home Secretary. PP 1846 vol. 33 p. 459. This was a letter from the Secretary, Lutwidge, in reply to a letter from Sir James Graham of 13.6.1846. It is in the form of a diary of the Lunacy Commission's involvement, and was summarised in Hansard 26.8.1846 cols 1028 to 1033.

    On 6.7.1846, Sir George Grey (Whig) replaced Sir James Graham (Conservative) as Home Secretary. He remained Home Secretary to 23.2.1852 and served again from 1855 to 1858

    [Cottenham Lord Chancellor 6.7.1846 to 19.6.1850]

    HLP 31.7.1846 Report. (Second) Report of the Lunacy Commission to the Home Secretary. Ordered to be printed 3.8.1846. PP 1846 vol. 33 p. 459 [same as above?] [Report follows the examination of witnesses in July 1847. The Lunacy Board held a meeting to settle the Report on 23.7.1846. It was signed "Seymour, Chairman, pro.tem". On 30.7.1846 Seymour had to leave a Board meeting to see the Home Secretary about Haydock Lodge and on 31.7.1846 the Report was presented to the House of Commons. It was summarised in Hansard 26.8.1846 cols 1033 to 1036.

    Return ordered to be printed 4.8.1846 Return of name and date of appointment of each Assistant Commissioner acting in the years from 1840 to 1846, and of amount paid to each; of services not connected with the Poor Law in which they may have been employed; the date of any resignation or removal, similar returns as to Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries. Names, dates of, nature of Assistant Commissioners conducting special enquiries. PP 1846 (572) vol.36, p.5

    Moved for by Mr Arkwright, 25.6.1846. Return made by W.G. Lumley, Assistant Secretary to the Poor Law Commissioners. There were accusations that commissioners were preventing this return (Brougham: House of Lords Hansard 13.8.1846 col.646, accusation withdrawn? 14.8.1846 col.703) On 3.8.1846 "Mr Austin, from the Office of the Poor Law Commissioners, was called in; and at the bar presented, pursuant to order" (House of Commons Journals)

    Return ordered to be printed 8.8.1846 Number of patients at Haydock Lodge on 1.1.1846 and places from which paupers were received. Called for by Mr W.O. Stanley. Discussed in Hansard 26.8.1846 cols 1036 following.

    Hansard (House of Commons) Wednesday 26.8.1846 cols 1023-1056 Motion of Mr Wakley for a Commission of Inquiry respecting Haydock Lodge

    PP 1846 (704)(745) Vol.19 [1][33] Twelfth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    From 31.1.1846 to 30.7.1847, Lord Ashley was not a Member of Parliament, and Lord Seymour represented the Lunacy Commission in the House of Commons
    Haydock Lodge: see trade in pauper luncy
    Chronological index for Haydock Lodge

    1847 Report (A) Copy of the Second Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor dated 30th June 1847 Ordered by H of C to be printed 15/12/1847. 1.5 pages of report with 4 page list of asylums. [30.6.1847 List] Also Visits, patients, miles for 6 months ended 4.8.1847. PP 1847-8, vol 26 pp 225-231.

    1847 Report (B) Further Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor PP 1847-8. vol 32 p 371 [858 of 1847 session] - dated (I think) 24.6.1847
    [This a further report to the Annual Report and not to be confused with the further report to the Home Secretary on Haydock Lodge (below)]

    HLP 20.1.1847 Report. A Copy of a Further Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Secretary of State for the Home Department, relative to Haydock Lodge Lunatic Asylum. Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 8.3.1847. 119 pages. PP 1847 vol 49 pp 1 to 119. This was a return to a House of Commons address of 15.2.1847. It is dated 20 January 1847 and signed (On behalf of the Board) Ashley.

    [This report has beeen reprinted in the Irish University Press series of British Parliamentary papers: Health. Mental. no. 6.
    See also bopcris abstract]

    Contains several distinct items, including:
    Page 16 Letter 23.1.1847 from Lutwidge to Phillips, forwarding Report
    Pages 17 to 36 are an appendage to the Report containing:
    Instructions for the Commissioners visiting Haydock Lodge Asylum with an suggestion from the Home Secretary (24.9.1846) that they should ascertain "whether Mr Whelan has the sole responsibility of the superintendence of the asylum, and whether Mr Mott's connection with it has been completely dissolved."
    Surveyor's Report on the Sanitary Condition of Haydock Lodge, October 1846, signed Samuel Saunders, Surveyor.
    Report made by Dr John Conolly to Mr Coode, as to the Condition of Haydock Lodge, dated Hanwell, 10.9.1846
    Diet Tables: Returns from Books and Accounts kept at Haydock Lodge
    Appendix A (pp 37-44) Report made to the Board by the Commissioners who conducted the Inquiry into the State and Management of the Lunatic Asylum at Haydock Lodge (in explanation of the Mode in which the Inquiry was carried on), dated London 30.12.1846 and signed J.W. Mylne, J.R. Hume, J.C.Prichard W.G.Campbell.
    Appendix B (pp 44-119) Separate Report on the Mortality at Haydock Lodge, made to the Board by the commissioners who conducted the Inquiry into the Condition and Management of the Asylum [same signatures as Appendix A.] Pages 57 to 117 of the Report on Mortality is an appendix to the appendix which documents from the records of the asylum the details of 148 deaths.

    Hansard (House of Commons) Monday 1.2.1847 cols 614-615 Mr W.O. Stanley requests the Home Secretary (Sir George Grey) to publish the Lunacy Commissioners' Report on Haydock Lodge and a question respecting loans for the construction of lunatic asylums.

    Hansard (House of Commons) 31.3.1847 cols 675-676 Mr Nicholl asks the Home Secretary (Sir George Grey) if he intends to enforce the construction of lunatic asylums.

    PP 1847 (816)(873) Vol.28 [1][35] Thirteenth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    1848 Report Third Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 30 June 1848 Presented to the House of Commons by command [22.2.1849 by Cornewll Lewis. JHC p.86]
    5 pages of Report. 7 pages of appendices: Appendix 1: Lists of Asylums; Appendix 2: Lists of workhouses visited..4.2.1847 to 30.6.1848; Appendix 3: a summary of progress since last report in providing new asylums, or increased accommodation for pauper lunatics, unions of counties etc and contracts with proprietors of licensed houses. PP 1849, [1028] vol 22 pp 383-393.

    PP 1847/1848 (960) Vol.33 [1] Fourteenth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners

    1849 Report Fourth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 30 June 1849 Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 1.5.1850
    14 pages of Report. 12 pages of appendices: Appendix A: Number of Insane Persons confined in Asylums and Licensed Houses 1.1.1849 [i.e. the asylums list with different information]. [1.1.1849 List] Appendix B: Progress in provision for pauper lunatics. Appendix C: Workhouses visited 30.6.1848 to 30.6.1849
    PP 1850, [291] vol 23 pp 365-390.

    1850 Report Fifth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 30 June 1850 "Return to an Order of the Honourable The House of Commons, dated 10 August 1850..." "(Mr Bouverie)". Ordered to be printed 15.8.1850
    16 pages of Report. 31 pages of appendices: Appendix A: [asylums]; Appendix B: [workhouses] [as previously]. Appendix C is a three part report on Cholera (21 pages). There is no progress in provision report. PP 1850, [735] vol 23 pp 395-441 (where it follows the fourth report above).

    1851 Report Sixth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 30 June 1851 Ordered by House of Commons to be printed 8.8.1851. 20 pages of report 24 page appendices. Appendix B is a summary of the progress in providing for paupers since the Acts of 1845.

    [Hunter and MacAlpine 1963 p.1020 say that "the Commissioners in Lunacy... gained entry for the first time" [to Bethlem] in 1851 on a Secretary of State's warrant to investigate complaints of maltreatment which had been laid before them"]

    The Who? Who? Ministry
    [Sir Edward Sugden, Lord St Leonards, Lord Chancellor 27.2.1852 to 28.12.1852.
    Sir R.M. Rolfe, Lord Cranworth, Lord Chancellor 28.12.1852 to 26.2.1858]
    His appointments included...]
    Spencer Walpole Home Secretary 27.2.1852 - 19.12.1852. Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston Home Secretary 28.12.1852 - 6.2.1855

    1852 Report Seventh Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor 30.6.1852
    PP 1852-1853, vol 49

    [Above includes the critical report on Bethlem - Hunter and MacAlpine 1963 p.1020]

    The observations of the governors upon the report of the Commissioners in Lunacy ... on Bethlem Hospital 1852 [Hunter and MacAlpine 1963 p.1020]

    Return to an address of the honourable the House of Commons, dated 9 December 1852, for, copies of all reports of the Commissioners in Lunacy, and the evidence ... as to the state and management of Bethlehem Hospital, and of all correspondence thereon; and, of the observations of the governors of Bethlehem Hospital upon the report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Secretary of State. Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, 14 December 1852. [London, 1852]. [Hunter and MacAlpine 1963 p.1020. Irish University Press reprint]

    1853 Chancery Lunatics Act

    1853 Lunacy Amendment Act

    1853 County Asylums Act

    1853 Report Eighth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor
    PP 1854, vol 29

    George Grey Home Secretary 8.2.1855 - 26.2.1858

    1855 Report Ninth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 31st March 1855
    PP 1854-1855, vol 17

    1856 Report Tenth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 31st March 1856
    PP 1856, vol 18

    1856 Asylum Reports: "Annual Reports of County Lunatic Asylums and Hospitals of the Insane in England and Wales. Published during the year 1856." Journal of Mental Science July 1857 (offline)

    1857 Report Eleventh Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 31st March 1857
    PP 1857, vol - Ordered to be printed 7.7.1858 (Colonel Clifford requested 23.6.1857)

    [Earl of Derby, Conservative Prime Minister 21.2.1858-11.6.1859
    Sir Frederick Thesiger, Lord Chelmsford, Lord Chancellor 26.2.1858 to 18.6.1859
    (no appointments to Lunacy Commission, but appointments of Masters
    Benjamin Disraeli Leader of Commons and Chancellor of Exchequer 26.2.1858-11.6.1859
    Spencer Walpole Home Secretary 1858 - 1859
    Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Colonial Secretary from 5.6.1858]

    1858 Report Twelth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor, 31st March 1858
    PP 1858, vol - Ordered to be printed 15.6.1858 (Colonel Clifford requested 11.6.1858)

    April 1858 Asylum Journal of Mental Science includes "The Custody of the Insane Poor" by J.C.B. (offline)

    "The poor-law board returns for last year shew that there are no less than 8,600 insane paupers at present confined in union houses, being more than one-half as many as the pauper inmates of county and borough asylums".
    "To the insane pauper, the run of the union house in place of care and treat ment in an asylum, is a thorough denial of his rights ; rights to which he has a claim, as well-founded as the clergyman has to his tythes, or the landlord to his rent, or the tenant to the usufruct of his land." (p.462)

    Hansard 22.6.1858 William Tite moving for a committee "that a Select Committee be appointed to inquire into the Laws relating to Lunatics under the care of the Court of Chancery". Motion withdrawn but to be put again later. (online):

    "It appeared from recent returns that there were now 29,000 lunatics in England, the increase last year having been 1,000. There were 15,054 in the county asylums, and 7,000 pauper lunatics in the workhouses. The number of county asylums was thirty-eight, and it was gratifying to learn that last year the cures in them were fourteen per cent. There were 551 lunatics under the control of the Court of Chancery"

    Alcock's Returns 31.5.1858 "Lunatic Asylums in England and Wales, with date of establishment; showing respectively, population of counties to which each asylum belongs, amount of land attached to each asylum, and how used; cost of land or rent, expense of buildings up to last year; average number of patients, distingushing males and females, on the 1st day of January 1858; total annual expense, per head; expense of medical staff; percentage of cure; comparative number of curable and incurable; cost of the building per head, of thevfour last asylums erected, and estimated cost of four asylums now being erected, stating where they are, the quanity of land attached to them, and the number of patienst the are intended for" (Requested 19.4.1858) and "Number of licensed house in England and Wales for the care of lunatic, number of patients on the 1st day of January last, with the amount of land attached to each, and how approriated" (Requested 21.4.1858) (offline)

    My original notes, incompetently referenced, just say "Alcock's return 1858". The last date of opening is Essex on 23.9.1853. (See timeline 1853) Durham "not yet opened". Four asylums now being erected: the joint Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Huntigdonshire at Arlsey - Cumberland and Westmoreland near Carlisle - Sussex, Haywards Heath - Northumberland at East Cottingwood.

    20.8.1858 "The increase of lunacy in Great Britain" New-York Daily Tribune reporter Karl Marx:

    1857/1858 Asylum Reports: "Annual Reports of County Lunatic Asylums and Hospitals of the Insane in England and Wales. Published during the years 1857 and 1858" Journal of Mental Science January 1859 (offline)

      mental health

    15.2.1859 Committee moved for by William Tite (Bath) (1798-1873). Response from the Home Secretary, Spencer Walpole. Tuke says the committee was occasioned by a "wave of suspicion and excitement" passing "over the public mind in regard to the custody of the insane" in 1858 (Tuke, D.H. 1882 p.191)

    1859-1860 SCHC: [Three] Reports from the Select Committee of the House of Commons "on the operation of the Acts and Regulations for the care and treatment of lunatics and their property.
    April - August 1859 and July 1860
    I have referenced to the date that evidence was given and the question number.

    The members of the Select Committee, appointed 28.2.1859 were William Tite, George Grey, Spencer Walpole, Whitbread, Drummond, Thomas Erskine Perry, Henry Morgan Clifford, Briscoe, Kendall, Rolt, Richard Monckton Milnes, Nisbet, Coningham, and Kekewich.

    Evidence was given by Shaftesbury (10.3.1859), C.N. Wilde and Francis Barlow (21.3.1859), Henry Herbert Southey (21.3.1859), Samuel Gaskell and H.B. Farnall (Inspector of the Poor Metropolitan District) (24.3.1859), John Edward Johnson (Surrey magistrate) (24.3.1859, John Conolly (28.3.1859), Alexander John Sutherland (28.3.1859), Richard Monckton Milnes (himself a committee member) (31.3.1859), Charles Hood (31.3.1859), Gilbert Bolden (solicitor) and Richard Saumarez (chair) of the Alleged Lunatics Friend Society (31.3.1859). Alexander Spearman, Charles Herbert Cottrell and Charles Woodward in relation to the management of the Middlesex asylums at Hanwell and Colney Hatch (4.4.1859). Richard Saumarez and Gilbert Bolden specifically on the subject of chancery lunatics (4.4.1859). Gilbert Bolden (7.4.1859). Joshua Jebb about the Broadmoor proposal (7.4.1859). George Everest, Home Office clerk (7.4.1849). Charles Hood again (7.4.1859). George Robinson, Northampton Asylum (7.4.1859). [BREAK]. Richard Saumarez followed by (Miss) Ann Tottenham (11.7.1859). John Thomas Perceval honorary Secretary of the Alleged Lunatics Friend Society [Gilbert Bolden was present] (11.7.1859). Richard Saumarez again [Gilbert Bolden was present] (14.7.1859). John Thomas Perceval again: This time on measures to prevent cruelty. (14.7.1849) William George Campbell, generally confirming Perceval's account respecting cruelty (14.7.1859 and 18.7.1859). John Bright, confirming Saumarez's allegations that the medical reports were altered (18.7.1859), Henry Enfield (21.7.1859), John Charles Bucknill (21.7.1859), Bransby Purnell, Gloucester magistrate, handing in suggestions (21.7.1859). James Coxe Scottish Lunacy Commissioner (25.7.1859). Bransby Purnell being questioned about his suggestions. Andrew Doyle, Poor Law Inspector 28.7.1859 and 1.8.1859). Robert Wilfred Skeffington Lutwidge (1.8.1859 and 4.8.1859). George Webster Camberwell workhouse (4.8.1859). Henry Morgan Clifford (a member of the committee) handing in suggestions for amendment of the law from the Lunacy Commission and a circular about attendants. [BREAK] Joseph Elmer Clerk Masters in Lunacy (17.4.1860). Gilbert Bolden again. Charles Hood again (23.4.1860). John Thomas Perceval again (23.4.1860) {Perceval was present during Hood's evidence and made a point at the end of it}. Shaftesbury 25.5.1860.

    Commissioners in Lunacy: Supplement to 12th Report 1859: "The Conditions, Character and Treatment of Lunatics in Workhouses"

    Thirteenth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor
    PP 1859, 2, vol 14, p.529 has London licensed houses and number of patients on 1.1.1859 [1.1.1859 List]

    4.7.1861 Law of Lunacy - Question

    Report of H.B. Farnall, Esquire, Poor Law Inspector, on the Infirmary Wards of the several Metropolitan Workhouses, and their existing Arrangements
    PP 1866, (387) vol 61.

    Report of The Lancet Sanitary Commission for Investigating the State of the Infirmaries of Workhouses

    Report of Dr Edward Smith, Medical Officer to the Poor Law Board, on the sufficiency of the existing Arrangements for the Care and Treatment of the Sick Poor in 48 Provincial Workhouses in England and Wales
    PP 1867-1868, (4), vol 60.

    Twenty Second Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor PP 1867/1868 Vol 31 pp 1-301 [Asylums List on Rossbret site] [1867 List] also comments on houses

    [Benjamin Disraeli Conservative Prime Minister 27.2.1868 to 3.12.1868.
    Hugh MacCalmont Cairns (1819-1885) Conservative MP since 1852, became Lord Cairns and Lord Chancellor 29.2.1868 to 9.12.1868

    1870 Education Act

    [Roundell Palmer, Lord Selbourne, Lord Chancellor 15.10.1872 to 21.2.1874
    His appointments included Howard]

    [Benjamin Disreali Conservative Prime Minister 20.2.1874 to 23.4.1880. He was created First Earl of Beaconsfield in 1876
    Cairns, Lord Chancellor 21.2.1874 to 28.4.1880
    His appointments included Bagot, Frere and Rhys Williams]
    In Chancery, he appointed James Crichton-Browne as medical visitor, William Norris Nicholson as Master, Edward Charles Russell Ross as legal visitor and, possibly, Henry Shore Lowndes Graham as Master

    Twenty ninth Annual Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy to the Lord Chancellor 31.3.1875
    PP Reports xxxiii 1875, has London licensed houses and number of patients on 1.1.1874 [1.1.1874 List]

    1876 Education Act

      mental health

    1877-1878 SCHC: Reports from the Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed 12.2.1877 under the chairmanship of Thomas Dillwyn "to inquire into the operations of Lunacy Law so far as regards security afforded by it against violations of personal liberty".
    Reports in 1877 and 1878

    Report of The Lancet fact-finding commission on "The Care and Cure of the Insane", under the direction of Dr Mortimer Grenville.

    5.2.1880 Queen's speech "Bills will be laid before you, for enlarging the powers of owners of Settled Land, for consolidating and amending the Lunacy Laws, and for simplifying the practice of Conveyancing."

    Liberal Government under Gladstone 23.4.1880-9.6.1885

    [Selbourne, Lord Chancellor 28.4.1880 to 24.6.1885
    His appointments included Reginald Southey and Thomas Salt]

    1880 Elementary Education Act

    social science history timeline mental health

    25.4.1882 House of Commons debate: "Mr Stanley Leighton, in rising to call attention to the impropriety and danger of permitting private persons to make pecuniary profit by keeping in their custody lunatics of the wealthier classes; and to the unfairness of requiring the ratepayers to maintain lunatics of the middle and lower classes; and to move, 'That all lunatics ought to be committed to the keeping of the State', said, the Lunacy Laws were in such an anomalous state that the very gravest abuses were possible under them-abuses which, if these laws did not actually encourage, they certainly permitted. The present system, if system it could be called, had grown up during 40 years without revision or re-consideration."

    23.6.1882 Lunacy Regulation Amendment Bill [H.L. No. 160] A Bill for amending the Lunacy Regulation Acts was presented by the Lord Chancellor: First Reading. [Bill proposed reducing visits to licensed houses with a view to increasing visits to Chancery lunatics]

    5.8.1882 House of Commons Committee Lunacy Regulation Amendment Bill.

    1882 Lunacy Regulation Amendment Act

      mental health

    "In 1883, even before the publicity accorded to the Weldon case, Selbourne had introduced a Lunacy Bill in the House of Lords. This was withdrawn owing to lack of support" Jones, K. 1960 p.30

    1883 Trial of Lunatics Act

      mental health

    1884 Criminal Lunatics Act

    social science history timeline mental health

    26.3.1885 Lord Chancellor presents a Bill to amend the Acts relating to lunatics

    Conservative Government under Salisbury 23.6.1885-18.1.1886

    Marquis of Salisbury Conservative Prime Minister 23.6.1885 to 1.2.1886 [Sir Hardinge Gifford, Lord Halsbury, Lord Chancellor 24.6.1885 to 6.2.1886

    22.7.1885 House of Commons ordered first reading Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill [244].

    1885 Lunacy Act - Passed Lords 3.8.1885

    The Earl of Shaftesbury, Chairman of the Lunacy Commission. died 1.10.1885

    The Lord Chancellor's Department was founded in 1885 by the creation of the post of Permanent Secretary.
      mental health

    Liberal Government under Gladstone 1.2.1886-20.7.1886

    1.3.1886 Second Reading in the Lords of the Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill. "The measure in its essential features was the same as that which had been laid before their Lordships last year by his noble and learned Predecessor in Office (Lord Halsbury)."

    18.3.1886 Lords Committee on Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill.

    23.3.1886 "A Bill for giving facilities for the care, education, and training of Idiots and Imbeciles - Was presented by The Lord Chancellor".

    1886 Idiots Act [Royal Assent 25.6.1886]

    Conservative Government under Salisbury 25.7.1886-11.8.1892

    Marquis of Salisbury Conservative Prime Minister 25.7.1886 to 15.8.1892
    [Halsbury, Lord Chancellor 3.8.1886 - 18.8.1892
    Emlyn was appointed in 1886, so it is not clear which Lord Chancellor appointed him
    Halsbury's appointments included Allbutt, secretary Urmson, Miltown, Davenport Hatherton and Needham]

      mental health

    31.1.1887 First Reading - Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill ( 7) and Lunacy Bill (8).

    Jones, K. 1960:

    31.1.1887 Two bills introduced into the House of Lords by Halsbury:

    1887 Lunacy Bill
    Jones, K. 1960 lists as an unpassed bill
    It was a consolidating bill that passed its third reading in the House of Commons but went no further.

    1887 Lunacy Law Amendment Bill
    Jones, K. 1960 lists as an unpassed bill
    Included a number of points raised by the Dillwyn Committee and a clause requiring a magistrate's order in non-pauper cases. This bill withdrawn in August by the Solicitor General (after first reading).

    7.2.1887 Second reading Lords Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill (7)

    7.2.1887 Second reading Lords Lunacy Bill (8). "The Lord Chancellor (Lord Halsbury), in moving that the Bill be now read a second time, said, it was simply a Bill to codify the numerous Acts of Parliament - somewhere about a dozen in number - dealing with the subject of lunacy; and, in the event of the Bill which their Lordships had just read a second time going to the other House, it might be possible to refer both the codification of the existing law and the new Bill to a Committee together, so that the new Bill might be incorporated with the other measure, and the whole law in regard to lunacy be reduced to one Statute."

    21.2.1887 Committee Lords Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill.

      mental health

    Jones, K. 1960:

    February 1888 A Lunacy Acts Amendment Bill introduced in the Lords that included the consolidating clauses and (as summarised by Halsbury):

    • introduced judicial authority for ordering the detention of a person as a lunatic.

    • provided that all orders of detention should cease to have effect unless renewed at the stated time.

    • protected medical men and others "against vexatious actions where they had acted in good faith"

    • Put restrictions on the opening of new private asylums

    The Bill was withdrawn by common agreement in July and re-introduced in 1889

      mental health
    1889 Lunatics Law Amendment Act
    Royal Assent 26.8.1889

      mental health

    1890 Lunacy Act

    Wellcome SA/MAC/E.4/1 Memorandum of Agreement between the Corporation of Church House and Mental After Care Association (MACA) about the renting of office space. Date May 1891

    Liberal Government 15.8.1892-21.6.1895
    Gladstone to 9.3.1894 - Rosebery 5.3.1894-21.6.1895

    [Herschell, Lord Chancellor 18.8.1892 to 29.6.1895
    His appointments included Williamson and Wallis]

    textbooks Bucknill and Tuke's Manual of Psychological Medicine dominated the field (first edition 1858, fourth edition 1879), but a medical student in 1892 could have chosen from Charles Mercier's The Nervous System and the Mind: A Treatise on the Dynamics of the Human Organism (1888), the third edition of George Savage's Insanity and Allied Neuroses, Practical and Clinical (1891), Bevan-Lewis's A Textbook of Mental Diseases, with Special Reference to the Pathological Aspects of Insanity (1889), James Shaw's Epitome of Mental Diseases, the third edition of Thomas Clouston's Clinical Lectures on Mental Diseases, or the fourth edition of Blandford's Insanity and its Treatment 1892. There were also American textbooks and translations from other languages available. (Bynum, W.F. 1991 p.169)

    Conservative Government 25.6.1895-4.12.1895
    Salisbury to 11.7.1902 - Balfour 12.7.1902-4.12.1905

    Marquis of Salisbury Conservative Prime Minister 25.6.1895 to 12.7.1902
    [Halsbury, Lord Chancellor 29.6.1895 - 1905
    His appointments included (almost immediately) his nephew and private secretary, Hardinge Frank Giffard as secretary to the Lunacy Commission. Later, Cooke and Coupland, Waldegrave, his chief whip in the House of Lords as chairman, Shadwell, Inderwick and Trevor]

      1905 mental health

      1908 mental health

    Report of the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feeble- Minded [1904-1908] Chairman: The Marquis of Bath, succeeded by the Earl of Radnor. Cd.4202 HMSO 23 page introductory, 360 page report

    Minutes of evidence, appendices, and reports of the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Feeble-minded 7 volumes: illustrated; 33 cm HMSO Cd.4215 to Cd.4221
    volume 1: Cd.4215; volume 2: Cd.4216; volume 3: Cd.4217; volume 4: Cd.4218.
    Volumes 1 to 4: Minutes of evidence... with appendices and witnesses index (v.1. Questions 1 to 11021. - v.2. Questions 11022-20788.- v.3. Questions 20789-25072. -v.4. 25073 to 35004).
    Volume 5 (Cd.4219): Appendices to the Minutes of evidence
    Volume 6 (Cd.4220): Reports of the medical investigators, with memorandum thereon.
    Volume 7 (Cd.4221): Report of the members of the Royal Commission ... upon their visit to American institutions.


      1912 mental health

      1913 mental health

    1913 Mental Deficiency Act

      1914 mental health

    1914 Annual report of the Board of Control succeded the reports of the Lunacy Commission. Published each year until 1938. Wellcome Library Catalogue says 1st to 8th reports have title prefixed: Copy of the annual report of the Board of Control "Presented pursuant to Act of Parliament. Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be printed ... "

      1915 mental health

      1916 mental health

      1917 mental health

      1918 mental health

    1918 Representation of the People Act

    1918 Education Act

    Arthur Newsholme 1857-1943.
    Sydney Price James 1870-1946.
    Arthur Salusbury MacNalty 1880-1969.
    G. Marinesco,
    James McIntosh 1882-
    George Draper, 1880-
    Tom Carnwath
    Sydney Monckton Copeman, 1862-

    Report of an enquiry into an obscure disease, encephalitis lethargica Reports to the Local Government Board on public health and medical subjects; new series, no. 121. London : Printed under the authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office by Jas. Truscott and Son, 1918. 74 pages.
    1. General review by the Medical Officer of the Board.
    2. The material available and a statement of the methods of enquiry / by Dr S.P. James.
    3. An account of the disease and a clinical enquiry into its nature / by Dr A.S. MacNalty.--4. An epidemiological enquiry into the nature of the disease / by Dr S.P. James.
    5. A pathological enquiry into the nature of the disease. I / by Prof. G. Marinesco. II / by Dr James McIntosh.
    6. Reports of special enquiries in affected localities. I. Report by Dr George Draper (of the U.S. Army Medical Service) II. Extracts from a report by Dr Carnwath on cases of the disease observed in Tredegar. III. Extracts from a report by Dr S. Monckton Copeman on the disease as observed in Birmingham and Leicester. IV. Extracts from a report by Dr A.S. MacNalty on the disease as observed in Stoke-on-Trent.
    Appendix. Clinical notes of cases / by Dr A.S. MacNalty.

      1919 mental health

    1919 Ministry of Health Act

    1919 Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act

    1919 Mental Deficiency Act, 1913 : Suggestions and plans relating to the arrangement of institutions for mental defectives Board of Control. HMSO. 4 plates and 6 plans (1 folding).

    A review of the conditions of defectives and lunatics in poor law institutions Board of Control. 16 pages.

      1920 mental health

      1921 mental health

      1922 mental health

    Lunacy reform : report of the proceedings of the conference consider in what directions lunacy administration and the treatment of persons suffering from mental disease may be improved Board of Control. 119 pages.

    Hansard 15.2.1922 Robert Richardson referred to a "recent conference between the Lunacy Board of control and lunacy officials in regard to the administration of the Statute"

    Ministry of Health Departmental Committee on the Administration of Public Mental Hospitals Cmd. 1730. "To investigate and report on the charges made by Dr. Lomax in his book (The Experiences of an Asylum Doctor) and to make recommendations as to any medical or administrative improvements which may be necessary and practicable in respect of the matters referred to by Dr. Lomax without amendment of the existing Lunacy Laws." Appointed by the Minister of Health, Alfred Mond, in December 1921. Members: Sir Cyril Cobb (chairman), Dr Percy Smith, and Dr Bedford Pierce. Reported 31.7.1922. BOPCRIS summary - Report in the British Medical Journal 5.8.1922

      1923 mental health

      1924 mental health

    Branthwaite, R.W. 1924. Report of the departmental committee appointed to inquire into certain matters relating to the diet of patients in county and borough mental hospitals Board of Control committee on dietaries in mental hospitals, Chairman R.W. Branthwaite, HMSO. 130 pages: illustrated by plates and tables (1 folding) Some plates printed on both sides; 25 cm

    Bond, C.H. 1924 Report of the Departmental Committee appointed to inquire into the nursing service in county and borough mental hospitals Board of Control (England and Wales) Committee on Nursing in County and Borough Mental Hospitals Chairman: C. Hubert Bond. HMSO 51 pages; 25 cm

      1925 mental health

    1925 The provision of mental hospital accommodation: report of the proceedings of the conference consider in what ways the need for increasing mental hospital accommodation in England and Wales can best be met Frederick James Willis. Board of Control. HMSO 55 pages.

    The nursing service in mental hospitals : report of the proceedings of the conference convened by Sir Frederick Willis ... to the nursing service in mental hospitals, with special reference to the recommendations made in the report of the Departmental Committee ... 21.4.1925 Board of Control. HMSO 78 pages; 25 cm

      1926 mental health

    Report of the Royal Commission on Lunacy and Mental Disorder under Hugh Pattison Macmillan (Baron Macmillan), HMSO Cmd.2700. 12 page introduction plus 185 page report. 26 cm

    Minutes of evidence taken before the Royal Commission on Lunacy and Mental Disorder Three parts in one volume. 1,016 pages. Part 1. Minutes of evidence taken on days 1-20 (7.10.1924-10.2.1925), questions 1-11,834 -- Part 2. Minutes of evidence taken on days 21-42 (24.2.1925-11.12.1925), questions 11,835-21,659 -- Part 3. Index and appendices (Wellcome Library Catalogue)

      1927 mental health

    [1.1.1927 List] "County, District, and County Borough Mental Hospitals" The National Asylum-Workers' Magazine October 1927, p.7. The column for "Private" as distinct from "Rate-Aided" patients includes "all Criminal Patients". In most mental hospitals the number of male "private" patients (usually greatly) exceeds the number of female. In a few (only six out of the 72 County Mental Hospitals - See below), the number of females is greater. It could be that more females indicates a private patients unit, and that the others indicate "Service" patients - ex-service patients and criminal lunatics. Buckinghamshire and Brighton had equal or almost equal numbers of men and women. In Dorset, Lancaster, Horton (no males), Isle of Wight, Barnsley Hall and Scalebor Park, the number of females was notably larger than the number of males. Amongst "County Borough Mental Hospitals" there were seven (including Brighton above) out of 24 where the number of female "private" patients equalled or exceeded the number of male: Canterbury, Croydon, Derby, Exeter, London City and Portsmouth.

      1928 mental health

      1929 mental health

    Meagher, E. T. 1929 General paralysis and its treatment by induced malaria : report by E. T. Meagher. Board of Control HMSO 88 pages; 25 cm Includes bibliographic footnotes. There is an historical introduction. (Wellcome Library Catalogue)

    Wood. A.H. 1929 Report of the Mental Deficiency Committee, being a joint committee of the Board of Education and Board of Control Committee chairman: Arthur Henry Wood. HMSO Four volumes bound as one: Part 1 General - Part 2 The mentally defective child - Part 3 The adult defective - Part 4 Report on an investigation into the incidence of mental deficiency in six areas, 1925-1927, by Edmund Oliver Lewis. Folded form in pocket has title: Otis group intelligence scale. Devised by Arthur S. Otis. Primary examination form (revised) ... London, G. Harrap & Co. Ltd.

    Report of the proceedings of the (1929) Conference on Mental Health, Westminster

    Mental treatment: report of the proceedings of the conference between the Board of Control and visiting committees and medical superintendents of county and borough mental hospitals, representative of local authorities, medical superintendents of registered mental hospitals, and certain others: to consider the steps to be taken for bringing into effective operation the powers conferred by the Mental Treatment Act, 1930; held at the Central Hall, Westminster, on the 22d and 23d July, 1930 HMSO 131 pages

    Medical practitioners in England and Wales approved by the Board of Control for the purpose of makng recommendations under Section 1(3) and 5(3) of the Mental Treatment Act, 1930 Board of Control HMSO 150 pages; 22 cm

    Hedley, W. 1931 Colonies for mental defectives: a report Report of the Departmental Committee appointed by the Board of Control with the approval of the Minister of Health, to consider matters relating to the construction of colonies for mental defectives, Walter Hedley, Chairman. Board of Control Departmental Committee. Report 772857A of the Departmental Committee. HMSO 52 pages: plans; 24cm

    Brock, L.G. 1934 Report of the departmental committee on sterilisation .. Chaired by Laurence George Brock. Includes "Memorandum regarding foreign investigations into mental deficiency" (pages 131 to 134) and "Memorandum regarding foreign laws on the subject of sterilisation": both by L.G. Brock. HMSO Cmd. 4485. 137 pages including tables; 25 cm. Committee was either Joint Committee on Voluntary Sterilisation or Board of Control Committee on Sterilisation. There seems to have been a 64 page version published without appendices.

    Wilson, G.H. 1936 A study of hypoglycaemic shock treatment in schizophrenia by Isabel Grace Hood Wilson. Board of Control HMSO 74 pages including tables and form; 25 cm

    Wilson, I. and Rees-Thomas, W. 1938 Report on cardiazol treatment and on the present application of hypoglycaemic shock treatment in schizophrenia by Isabel Grace Hood Wilson and William Rees-Thomas. Board of Control HMSO 70 pages, illustrated; 25 cm

    26th-31st reports not published? 32nd report says that publication was discontinued in 1939, and contains a 1939-1945 retrospect (Wellcome Library Catalogue)

    Pre-frontal Leucotomy in a thousand cases by Isabel Wilson and E.H. Warland. Board of Control HMSO. 31p

    Annual report of the Board of Control to the Lord Chancellor resumed 1947 with 1946 report? At head of title: Lunacy and Mental Treatment Acts "Presented pursuant to Act of Parliament. Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be printed ..." (Wellcome Library Catalogue)

    Percy 1957: Report of the Royal Commission on the Law Relating to Mental Illness and Mental Deficiency. 1954-1957. Chairperson: Lord Percy. Cmnd 169. HMSO. May 1957

    Hospital Equipment Note 31 Psychiatric Ward Type 1 Department of Health and Social Security January 1966 (Reprinted 1972)

    Better Services 1971 Better Services for the Mentally Handicapped Cmnd 4683 (DHSS) HMSO. June 1971.

    Hospital Building Note 35 Department of Psychiatry (Mental Illness) for a District General Hospital Department of Health and Social Security December 1973

    January: Government announced intention to review the 1959 Mental Health Act

    Better Services 1975 Better Services for the Mentally Ill Cmnd 6233 (DHSS) HMSO. 16.10.1975. See below February 1976 and July 1976

    " Better Services for the Mentally Ill - A Briefing Paper from Mind" February 1976. 8 pages.

    Priorities 1976: Priorities for Health and Personal Social Services in England. A Consultative Document (DHSS) HMSO March 1976

    COPE July 1976 Castles in the Air. A Critique of the Recent Government White Paper 'Better Services for the Mentally Ill' October 1975 Produced for the EPOC Collective by Galactic Services, July 1976. EPOC Pamphlet No. 2. 30 pence - 55 pages.

    "EPOC COLLECTIVE c/o 111 Tavistock Cresecent, London, W11. Publishing collective loosely connected with COPE. Produces HEAVY DAZE - 30p + 10p post - a magazine that tries to deal with mental health and related issues in a lively radical way. Also produced the excellent pamphlet How to Cpe with the Mental health Act 1959. free to mental patients, 20p others, except 30p social workers, 50p shrinks + 8p post." (page 51)

    Review 5.8.1976: A Review of the Mental Health Act 1959 Department of Health and Social Security HMSO. The work of an inter- departmental committee. They considered suggestions for the amendment of the law "made in recent years" including a review (no details given) by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, A Human Condition (MIND) and the Butler Report

    Priorities 1977 Priorities in the Health and Social Services. The Way Forward. Further Discussion of the Government's national Strategy (Department of Health and Social Security) HMSO September 1977.

    Review 9.1978: Review of the Mental Health Act 1959 Department of Health and Social Security HMSO. Cmnd 7320

    Progress 1980 Mental Handicap; Progress, Problems and Priorities. A Review of Mental Handicap Services in England since the 1971 White Paper "Better Services for the Mentally Handicapped" Department of Health and Social Security. December 1980

    Care in the Community. A Consultative Document on Moving Resources for Care in England July 1981 was an enclosure to HC(8l)9 from the Department of Health and Social Security.

    Reform11.81 Reform of Mental Health Legislation Department of Health and Social Security HMSO Cmnd 8405 November 1981

    SSC 1985 Community Care with special reference to adult mentally ill and mentally handicapped people Second Report from the Social Services Committee, 1984-1985 session. Chair: Renée Short. Volume 1: Report together with the proceedings of the committee. Volume 2: Minutes of Evidence (4.4.1984-3.7.1984). Volume 3: Minutes of Evidence (4.7.1984-21.11.1984) and appendices. HMSO 1985 "Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 30 January 1985".

    Government Response to the Second Report from the Second Report from the Social Services Committee, 1984-1985 session. Department of Health and Social Security. HMSO

    Working for patients. Department of Health. London: HMSO.

    1.1.1998 Health Research: What's in it for Consumers? 1st Report of the Standing Advisory Group on Consumer Involvement in the NHS R&D Programme to the Central Research and Development Committee 1996/1997. NHS Executive (external weblink)

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    DOH 8.12.1998 Modernising Mental Health Services: Safe, Sound and Supportive. Department of Health - See Internet Archive - Offline copy in parts: 1 - 2 - 3

    DOH 9.1999ES National Service Framework for Mental Health. Modern Standards and Service Models. Executive Summary. Department of Health

    DOH 9.1999 National Service Framework for Mental Health. Modern Standards and Service Models. Department of Health

    See Mental Health Foundation statistics 2007

    A Middlesex University resource provided by Andrew Roberts

    7.3. Alphabetical bibliography and bibliographical abbreviations

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

    Abel-Smith, B. 1964 The Hospitals 1800-1946. Heinemann

    Accounts: Financial Acounts of the Metropolitan and Lunacy Commissions are referenced : "Account Date". e.g. (Account 1829). The indiviual Accounts are listed in the chronological bibliography under their date of printing, which is sometimes a year later. See 1829   1830   1831   1832/1833 (and note on missing)   1839   1840   1841   1842   1843   1844   1845   Expenses  

    Erwin Heinz Ackernecht (MD) (1906-1988) Professor of the History of Medicine, University of Zurich.

    Ackernecht, E. H. 1959 (2nd edition revised 1968) A Short History of Psychiatry Translated by Dr Sula Wolff. Hafner, New York. First published in German in 1957 [I started my "earthcore" webpage with extracts from the English edition]

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    John Adams

    Adams, J. 1844 Extract from the seventy-second report of the committee of visiting justices of... Hanwell... relative to the report of the metropolitan commissioners in lunacy. With remarks [November 1844. See Hunter and MacAlpine's Conolly, vol 3, page xviii

    Patricia Alderidge MA (Cambridge). Archivist to The Bethlem Royal Hospital and The Maudsley Hospital sine 1967

    Alderidge, P. 1985 Bedlam: fact or fanstasy?. Bynum, Porter and Shepherd 1985/2 pp 17-33

    Alderidge, P. 1990 The foundation of the Maudsley Hospital in Berrios and Freeman 1991 pp 79-88

    Franz G. Alexander
    Sheldon T. Selesnick

    Alexander, F.G. and Selesnick, S.T. 1966 The History of Psychiatry. An Evaluation of Psychiatric Thought and Practice from Prehistoric Times to the Present. Harper and Row. New York. [See Shorter, E. 1997]

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    Archibald Alison 1792-1867 external link

    Alison, A. 1840 The Principles of Population and Their Connection with Human Happiness Two volumes. Edinburgh: Blackwood

    The Alleged Lunatic's Friend Society

    ALFS 1845 The Alleged Lunatic's Friend Society, 36, Coleman Street, City : First report; shewing the origin, progress and expenditure of the Society, &c. / with its laws and regulations : 7th July, 1845 to 7th January, 1846 London: Printed by W. M'Dowall, 1846. 32 pages. Item no. 4 in volume Pam.6.83.28. Rare Room Cambridge University Libraries

    ALFS 1851 Report of the Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society London : The Society, 1851. 39 pages. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Vet. A7 d.502 Rare Books Post-1700.

    ALFS 1858 The Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society ... Report ... 1858. Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society (London). London, 1859. 60 pages. National Library of Scotland. North Reading Room (George 4th Bridge); stored in George 4th. 3.1534(1); Reference use in NLS.

    (Elizabeth) Ann Alty

    Ann Alty and Tom Mason 13.9.1950-18.6.2011

    Alty, A. and Mason, T. 1994 Seclusion and Mental Health: A break with the past London: Chapman and Hall. 201 pages.
    Contents: Introducing seclusion. History of the use of seclusion. Literature reviewed. Seclusion as therapy, containment, or punishment. Legal aspects and policy issues. Decision making process in seclusion. Non- seclusion policies. Seclusion and nurse education. Seclusion abuse. Ethical issues regarding seclusion. Patients view about seclusion.
    Summary: This work focuses on seclusion and the violent mentally ill. It also addresses: human rights issues and institutional constraints; the history of seclusion and seclusion abuse; the views of patients and staff; public concern; and current approaches to mental health care. The aim of the text is to explode myths and replace these with a logical, systematic and research based approach to practice. The authors do not call for a complete ban on seclusion but advocate better research, policies and approaches to this subject.

    (A.Ox.) Oxonienses Alumni compiled by J. Foster.
    (A.Ca.) Alumni Cantabrigienses compiled by J.A. Venn.
    Directories of former students (alumni) at Oxford University and Cambridge University respectively with short biographical details which are very short in the Oxford Directory, longer, and often very informative, in that for Cambridge.
    (A.Gl.) GLASGOW MATRICULATION ALBUMS. 1728-1858 Directory of all students who were entered at Glasgow University during this period. One of the most useful of the university directories

    Jill Anderson, Bob Sapey and Helen Spandler

    Anderson, J.; Sapey, B. and Spandler, H. 2012 Distress or Disability? Proceedings of a symposium held at Lancaster University, 15-16 November 2011 Centre for Disability Research, Bowland North, Lancaster University, LA1 4YN, UK

    Introduction by Jill Anderson, Bob Sapey and Helen Spandler 1
    Part one ...distress or disability? by Anne Plumb (1994) 4
    Part two
    Symposium Papers - Day One
    "Setting the scene" by Helen Spandler 14
    "Incorporation, or not, of MH survivors into the disability movement" by Anne Plumb 18
    "Psycho-emotional disablism in the lives of people experiencing mental distress" by Donna Reeve 24
    "Disability and distress: towards understanding the vulnerable body- subject" by Floris Tomasini 30
    Recovery Theme
    "Recovery as a process of decolonisation? History, politics and experience" by Brigit Morris Colton 33
    "Sorting trucks and going forth: Service provider and service user discourses of recovery." by Tony Sparkes 34
    "Three relapses in one year: My story of recovery with bipolar disorder" Kirsty Stevenson-Turner and Debbie Mayes 39
    Trauma Theme
    "Complex trauma: A composite case study exploring responses to complex trauma across a lifespan" by Shelly Briggs and Fiona Cameron 43
    "Which model of disability can include voice hearing experiences?" by Bob Sapey 49
    "Diagnosed victims, survivors or disabled women? Exploring pathology and the uses of selfidentity at the intra- and inter-sections after disablist hate crime and rape" by Susie Balderston 52
    "Live and let die: Global mental health and critical disability studies" by China Mills 57
    part three
    Symposium Papers - Day Two
    Papers "Is disability theory ready to engage with the politics of mental health?" by Dan Goodley 63
    "The social re-framing of forms of mental disorder" by David Pilgrim and Floris Tomasini 68
    "Alliances and communicative action: one possibility for reframing theory and praxis" by Mick McKeown 71
    part four
    Responses to Symposium "Trauma and the origins of distress and disability: complex causes, mobile meanings, and a new social model?" by Alan Beattie 77
    "Some thoughts towards seeking a new service paradigm in the community" by Judy Hunt 91
    "A personal response" by Alison Young 94

    Jonathan Andrews external link

    Andrews, J. and Iain Smith 1993 Editors 'Let there be light again': A History of Gartnavel Royal Hospital from its beginnings to the present day : essays written to mark the 150th anniversary in 1993 of Gartnavel Royal Hospital's existence on its present site Glasgow: Gartnavel Royal Hospital

    Jonathan Andrews, Asa Briggs, Roy Porter, Penny Tucker, Keir Waddington

    Andrews, A.; Briggs, A.; Porter, R.; Tucker, P.; Waddington, K. 1997 The History of Bethlem London: Routledge. xiv and 752 pages.

    1. Introduction
    PART 1:
    1247- 1633
    2. Background
    3. The Foundation of the Priory of St Mary of Bethlehem
    4. The Development of the Bethlem Precinct
    5. Politics and Patronage
    6. Bethlem's Income
    7. From Bethlehem to Bedlam: Changing Roles and Personnel
    8. Medieval Attitudes Towards and Treatment of the Insane
    9. Institutional Care for the Insane in Medieval and Early Modern Times
    10. Images of Bedlam
    SECTION 2: 1633- 1783
    11. Background
    12. Charitable Persons
    13. Visiting
    14. The Discipline of the House
    15. The Architecture of Bethlem at Moorfields by Christine Stevenson
    16. Medicine, Medical Officers and Therapeutics
    17. The Rule of 'Sky-Colour'd Coats': Inferior Officers and Servants
    18. Admission and Discharge
    19. The Politics of Committal to Early Modern Bethlem
    SECTION 3:
    1783- 1900
    20. Panegyric
    21. Fact and Fancy
    22. A Change of Scene
    23. Attack
    24. Reform
    25. Investigating
    26. Classifying and Connecting
    27. A Victorian Institution
    28. Bethlem and the Twentieth Century
    29. A New Eden: Bethlem's Move to Monks Orchard
    30. New Beginnings: The Merger of Bethlem and the Maudsley
    31. Managing Millions: Administration and Finance: 1901-1982
    32. Serving Bethlem: Medical and Nursing Staff: 1901-1982
    33. In a Presumably Curable Condition - The Character of Admissions in the Twentieth Century
    34. Tempering Madness: Patients and the Treatment of Mental Illness in Twentieth Century Bethlem
    35. From SHA to NHS Trust: 1982 - 1994
    36. Conclusion

    Andrews, J. 1998 'They're in the trade _ of lunacy, they "cannot interfere" - they say': The Scottish Lunacy Commissioners and Lunacy Reform in Nineteenth-Century Scotland. Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine; Occasional Papers No. 8. London

    Andrews, J. and Scull, A. 2001 Undertaker of the Mind. John Monro and Mad-Doctoring in Eighteenth-Century England

    Andrews, J. and Scull, A. 2003 Customers and Patrons of the Mad- Trade: The Management of Lunacy in Eighteenth-Century London: with the complete text of John Monro's 1766 case book Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press

    Annual Register

    The Annual Register or a View of the History, Politics, and Literature, of the year ----

    I have made heavy use of the edition for 1820 which was given to me by my friend Kenneth Smith, bookseller. The contents include:

    Anonymous 1817 Memoirs 1817 A picture of the present state of the Royal College of Physicians of London; containing memoirs, biographical, critical, and literary, of all the resident members of that learned body, and of the heads of the medical boards; with some other distinguished professional characters: to which is subjoined, an appendix; or, account of the different medical institutions of the metropolis. Scientific and charitable, with their present establishments London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones

    Anonymous 1818 Memoirs 1818 Authentic memoirs, biographical, critical, and literary, of the most eminent physicians and surgeons of Great Britain. With a choice collection of their prescriptions, an account of the medical charities of the metropolis, &c &c London: Sherwood, Neely, & Jones, & J. Walker; Highley & Son. Second edition, enlarged.

    John Frederick Archbold 1785-1870
    William Cunningham Glen 1814-1892
    Alexander Glen 1850-1913
    Sydney George Lushington 1859-1909
    James William Grieg 1859-
    William Herbert Gattie

    Archbold, J.F. 1854 The New Statutes Relating to Lunacy: comprising the law relating to pauper lunatics, with the practice and practical forms, very fully given; also, the law respecting lunatic asylums, public and private, with the duties of the Commissioners in Lunacy and Visiting Justices London: Shaw and Sons. 478 pages

    Archbold and Glenn 1877 The Statutes Relating to Lunacy: comprising the law with respect to pauper lunatics, hospitals and licensed houses, inquisitions in lunacy and criminal lunatics Includes an appendix which is "extracted from the Report of the Metropolitan Commissioners in lunacy with respect to the different forms of the disease of insanity (1844)". Second edition, by William Cunningham Glen and Alexander Glen. London: Shaw & Sons. 735 pages

    Archbold and Lushington 1890 The Statutes Relating to Lunacy: comprising the law with respect to pauper lunatics, hospitals and licensed houses, inquisitions in lunacy and criminal lunatics Spine title: Archbold's Lunacy. Third edition, by Sydney George Lushington. London: Shaw & Sons. 660 pages

    Archbold and Lushington 1895 Archbold's Lunacy: comprising the Lunacy Acts, 1890 and 1891 : the Lancashire County (Lunatic Asylums and other powers) Act, 1891: and all the statutory rules, orders, and forms in force thereunder: also the statutes relating to criminal lunatics: the Lunacy (vacating of seats) Act, 1886: and the Idiots Act, 1886 Fourth edition, by Sydney George Lushington. London: Shaw & Sons. 950 pages.

    Archbold, Gattie and Grieg 1915 Archbold's Lunacy and Mental Deficiency: comprising the Lunacy Acts, 1890-1911, the Lancashire County (Lunatic Asylums and other powers) Acts, 1891 and 1902, The Mental Deficiency Act, 1913 and all the statutory rules, orders and forms in force thereunder, the statutes relating to criminal lunatics, the Lunacy (Vacating of Seats) Act, 1886, and The Asylums Officers' Super Annuation Act, 1899 Fifth edition, by James William Grieg and William Herbert Gattie. London: Butterworth & Co. 898 pages.

    John Thomas Arlidge 1822-1899

    Arlidge, J.T. 1859 On the state of lunacy and the legal provision for the insane : with observations on the construction and organisation of asylums London: J. Churchill

    David Grahame Armes

    Armes, D.G. 6.2000 "Enablement and Exploitation: The Contradictory Potential of Community Care Policy for Mental Health Service Users". Unpublished Paper presented to the Social Policy Association 33rd Annual Conference

    Armes, D. G. 2006 Enablement and exploitation: The contradictory potential of community care policy for mental health services user-survivor-led groups. University of Bedfordshire/Luton PhD thesis.

    Armes, D. G. 8.2009 "Mission informed discursive tactics of British mental health service-user/survivor movement (BSUSM) resistance to formalization pressures accompanying contractual relationships with purchasing authorities", Journal of Mental Health, August 2009; Volume 18, issue 4: pages 344-352

    Anthony Ashley Cooper 1801-1885
    Lord Ashley until 1851. 7th Earl of Shaftesbury from 1851

    Ashley Cooper 1868 Speeches of the Earl of Shaftesbury, upon subjects having relation chiefly to the claims and interests of the labouring class London : Chapman and Hall. Preface signed by 'S' Irish University Press reprint 1971

    Richard Willard Armour

    Armour, R.W. 1935 Barry Cornwall. A Biography of Bryan Waller Procter. With a selected collection of hitherto unpublished letters [Also portraits and bibliography] Meador Publishing Co., Boston.

    Archer, P. 1956 The Queen's Courts Penguin Books

    A. Lawrence Ashworth In 1991, Curator, Stephen G. Beaumont Museum, Stanley Royd Hospital.

    Ashworth, A.L. 1975 Stanley Royd Hospital, Wakefield, One Hundred and Fifty Years, A History. Wakefield District Health Authority.

    Asylum Journal (A.J.):

    Date, volume and number are given as I have found it indexed by volume and [number?] only in libraries [and in the index to AJ?]

    British Journal of Psychiatry (Monthly) Vol. 109 (1963)- Continues volume numbering of previous title.


    The Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists developed from a section of the Journal of Mental Science "which first took shape as far back as 1864". This became Notes and News. In 1936 "it was decided to issue this section as a separate Supplement". It became The Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in June 1977 and later the Psychiatric Bulletin

    Available free online at

    Asylum - a magazine for democratic psychiatry, 1986 onwards, Sheffield: The Asylum Collective. 2010 onwards, Ross on Wye, Herefordshire: PCCS Books. ISSN 0955 2030

    [Link to box of more information including weblinks and index]

    Laurence Baldwin

    Baldwin, L. 2008 The discourse of professional identity in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy June 2008. Available at - offline

    Thomas A. Ban

    Ban, T.A. 2007 "Fifty Years Chlorpromazine: A Historical Perspective". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 3.4 (2007): pp 495-500. Available at

    See Subject Index Mental Disorder Treatments

    Frank Bangay 1951-

    Bangay, F. Summer 1988 "Pieces of Ourselves - A Tribute To Eric" [Irwin], Aslum - a magazine for democratic psychiatry volume three, number 1.

    Bangay, F. 1999 Naked Songs and Rhythms of Hope "An illustrated collection of poems from 1974 to 1999 by Frank Bangay" [with historical notes], London: Frank Bangay and Spare Change Books. - Poems and pictures : [1960s see "And We Can Learn" August 1996 and September 1997 notes] - 1974: Fear - Spring 1976: Spring is rising - August 1978: A love song from the wasteground - 1979: Park song - Pretty girl - September 1981: They say, they say - 1982: Woman on a park bench with birds - August 1982: Seeing and knowing - possibly Stigma no.3 - October 1982: Solidarity - Spring 1983: The road to our awakening - September 1984: When a man cries - 1985 pictures: The lonely city - People in hospital grounds - August 1985: Food and shelter - October 1985: He sees, he feels, it's just one of those things - March 1986: Which reality? - September 1986: Tonight faith won - December 1986: Voices of experience - May 1987: Pieces of ourselves (In solidarity) - Spring 1988: The laughing flowers - January 1990: The soul of a man - March 1990: Old time friends - August 1990: A journey through the psychiatric corridors - January 1992: Glimmers of light - March 1992: I'm dancing with damaged wings - January 1993: A river of tears - October 1993: And the walls they do listen ("I retreat to my bed with a book of poetry by William Blake. Nurses take it away") - August 1997: In this strange land - May 1993: In prayer - October 1993: And the walls do listen - February 1994: When words of friendship are spoken - May 1994: Mad? - June 1994: Love? - July 1994: A cosmic issue - August 1994: In loneliness - picture Autumn night - Vision part 1 - part 2 - November 1994: part 3 - Spring 1995: Shocked treatment - December 1996: story A fairy tale - February 1995: That place on the hill - late March/early April 1995: The gnomes in Battersea Park - May 1996: prose Old Poet ("The old poet rediscovers his youth, he learns from his wisdom") - April 1996: Pornography - August 1996: And We Can Learn - Sober - January/February 1997: Urban Muse - June 1997: Voices of Experience - September 1997: Tough guy gets sensitive - December 1997: A path to light [with a footnote on plants that store water] - [and more]

    Bangay, F. 2000 "An Uphill Struggle, But It's Been Worth It" in Curtis, Dellar, Leslie and Watson 2000

    Bangay, F. 2001 Frank Bangay - A True Voice Singing A Core CD recorded between 1998 and 1999

    Bangay, F. 2004 This Topsy Turvy Life CD

    Bangay, F. 8.2005 Jewels in the Pound Shop CD

    Bangay, F. 10.2005 "Moments in the Day" poem.

    summer 2007 See Summer 2009

    Bangay, F. 8.2007 - 2011 "'Punk Gardener' rambles" An Occasional Series by Frank Bangay .. The Punk Gardener .. in the Big Untidy Magazine (Internet blog).

    Bangay, F. 8.2007 Rambling Garden Blues no 1. The Big Untidy Magazine August 2007. internet archive Retrospective

    "Rambling Garden Blues 2" html. A copy or details wanted

    "Rambling Garden Blues 3" PDF file. A copy or details wanted

    "Rambling Garden Blues 4" PDF file. Frank and Clive visit Chelsea Physics Garden. A copy or details wanted

    "Rambling Garden Blues 5" [songs mentioned in article: Leadbelly and Odetta] PDF file. A copy or details wanted

    "Rambling Garden Blues 6" Frank and the London story of Haile Selassie. PDF file. A copy or details wanted

    "Rambling Garden Blues part 7" The Punk Gardener out and about in Cambridge and South London. I have a print out. - internet archive offline of PDF

    "Ramblin' Garden Blues Pt 8" The Punk Gardener finally returns, a victim of the Untidy computer virus but now fully restored with thanks and aplogies to the Bard of hackney, Frank Bangay". internet archive - offline of PDF

    Above probably completed by October 2011

    2009? A tribute to the Reverend Garry Davis By Frank Bangay. Published in Big Untidy but no longer available

    Bangay, F. Summer 2009 Songs, Poems and Prayers, performed with support from gospel singer Sophie Mirrel and other Core Arts artists. CD. Contains 1. Morning Prayer [with Sophie] - 2. Jack`s Blues - 3. Johnny Rocks On - 4. Stan In The Garden - 5. My Secret Garden - 6. The Dragons In Battersea Park - 7. Dear Lord [with Sophie] - 8. A Proud Rhythm - 9. The Song Has A Whole Lot Of Soul - 10. Those Shuffling Feet From The Past - 11. Are We Dreaming - 12. Travelling Prayer [with Sophie] - 13. He Was A Poet [with Sophie] - 14. This Autumn Evening - 15. The Sweetshop Of Childhood Surprises - 16. Evening Prayer [with Sophie]

    2. Jack`s Blues was "inspired by the unpredictable summer weather of 2007 and its effect on the garden" which "reminded me of the winters of my youth in the 1950s and 60s. In those days Battersea and Wandsworth where I grew up were polluted from the many factories in the area" - 4. Stan In The Garden "comes from the same pool of inspiration as Jacks Blues and in part is inspired by my early work experiences". Both poems refer to cigarettes. "... smoking was viewed in a different light". 5. My Secret Garden ". 5. My Secret Garden "was inspired by a conversation with my Dad who in his youth lived in Church Road Battersea, very close to Battersea Bridge. Opposite was the large Morgan's Carbon factory. Although the area was very polluted my Dad did manage to make the plants in his back garden flower. These conversations with my Dad inspired my love of plants too". 6. The Dragons In Battersea Park "was inspired by childhood memories of being taken to Battersea Park Fun Fair as a treat. It had been created along with the pleasure gardens in 1951 as part of the Festival of Britain. I remember it as a magical place with its tree walk and the magnificent Guiness Clock or the 'Crazy Clock' as it had to be seen to be believed. The clock was removed in 1966 and the fun fair closed in 1974 but lives on in my memories".

    Bangay, F. 1.2011 AB Normal - Frank Bangay and the Topsy Turvy Band Life and Living Records CD - Recordings made about five years before. - website - archive

    October 2011 "Edgar Broughton Peckham, London October 2011 Frank Bangay catches up with Edgar Broughton at a Mental Heealth Resistance Network benefit gig." internet archive

    Bangay, F. 2013 to 2016 Blog. Disability Arts Online includes Some Lesser Known Kevin Coyne Classics - "Known as the Bard of Hackney, Frank Bangay has been performing poetry and song for over 40 years on the London poetry scene. He writes about his two passions: music and gardening for various publications including The Big Untidy."

    Bangay, F. 6.2014 "Splitting in Two - Mad Pride and Punk Rock Oblivon" by Robert Dellar. A Review. Poetry Express Newsletter 46 (online)

    Appears in different forms: for example, Disability Arts Online and this site.

    Bangay, F. 10.2017 I Wonder Why CD

    Frank Bangay and Andrew Roberts 2019

    Bangay, F and Roberts, A. 2019 "Looking Back"

    Bangay, F 2019 "Looking Back and Learning"

    Bankes, F.R. 1958 The Penguin Guide to London

    Chris Barchard

    Barchard, C. 2008 (Editor) About National Perceptions Forum London: National Perceptions Forum, Rethink [DVD]

    Barchard, C. 2008/2009 "The National Perceptions Forum" (Three part series) National Unitarian Newsletter September/October 2008 - November/December 2008 - January/February 2009.

    Barchard, C. 2013 "Why National Perceptions Forum is needed" available at [A survey of what has and has not changed in mental health service for UK in-patients over the past decades]

    Also available on this website

    Peter Barham 1948-

    Barham, P. 1977 Thinking about schizophrenia, thinking about schizophrenic thinking and schizophrenic thinking - Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Durham 1977

    1979 to 1988: Robin Guthrie at Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust - funded research that led to Barham and Hayward 1991

    Barham, P. 1984 Schizophrenia and human value: chronic schizophrenia, science and society Oxford: Blackwell
    Contents: Contents: Introduction: The labours of schizohrenia - Part 1: Progressive deterioration and the progress of science - Chapter 1 The making of the chronic schizophrenic - Chapter 2 Schizophrenia and history - Part 2: The action of schizophrenic lives - Chapter 3 Selfhood, identity and narrative - Chapter 4 Chronic schizophrenics: Joseph and fellows - Chapter 5 The chronic schizophrenic as historical agent - Chapter 6 Psychology, social life and the schizophrenic - Part 3: Schizophrenia, community and welfare - Chapter 7 The problem of community - Afterword: The edge of the common

    Barham, P. and Robert Hayward 1991 From the mental patient to the person London: Routledge
    Contents: Introduction 1. The Person in Question 2. Community Mental Patients? 3.On the Edge of the Common 4. Battling on 5. Revaluations 6.Ben: One Person's Journey 7. The Person (Mental Patient) Predicament - (Google books) - Second edition published as Relocating madness: from the mental patient to the person in 1995

    Barham, P. 1992 Closing the asylum: The mental patient in modern society Harmondsworth: Penguin

    Barham, P. 2.1999 "Mental deficiency and the democratic subject" in History of the Human Sciences Vol. 12, no. 1 (February 1999) pages 111-114 (Essay review)

    Barham, P. 2004 Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press

    Barham, P. 2004 "Poetry, parsnips and schizophrenia"

    Barham, P. 2016 Peter Barham, review of The Man Who Closed the Asylums: Franco Basaglia and the Revolution in Mental Health Care by John Foot , Review number 1883 in "Reviews in History" at

    Peter Barham 1951-

    Barham, P. and Alan Hurndall 2006 The Invisible Girl: A father's moving story of the daughter he lost London: HarperElement

    Ingrid Barker and Edward Peck

    Barker, I. and Peck, E. 1987 (Editors) Power in Strange Places - User Empowerment in Mental Health Services. London, Good Practices in Mental Health. Preface signed by Judy Renshaw, Director, GPMH, in September 1987

    Philip Barker 1929-

    Phil Barker, Peter Campbell and Ben Davidson

    Barker, P. Campbell, P. and Davidson, B. 1999 (Editors) From the Ashes of Experience: Reflections on madness, survival and growth London: Whurr. xxiv and 192 pages
    Part 1 Narratives on the experience of "madness" and the receipt of psychiatric services:
    Madness and reality by Sally Clay
    The other world by Jan Holloway
    Fire and ice by Cathy Conroy
    The flight of the phoenix by Ed Manos
    Avalon by Liz Davies
    A most precious thread by Simon Champ
    Hope, humanity and voice in recovery from psychiatric disability by Dan Fisher;
    My three psychiatric careers by Rachel Perkin
    Que sera sera by Rose Snow
    The medical model and harm by
    Judi Chamberlin.
    Part 2 Conclusion: editors review of the narratives and a summary of their implications for psychiatric and psychological theory-building and the education of the major professional disciplines in mental health.

    Marian Barnes and Gerald Wistow

    Barnes, M. and Wistow, G. 1992 (Editors) Researching user involvement Nuffield Institute seminar series; 4. Nuffield Institute for Health Services Studies, University of Leeds. 105 pages. A collection based on papers and discussions from a workshop on researching user involvement, Nuffield Institute, October 1990.

    Marian Barnes and Ric Bowl

    Barnes, M. and Bowl, R. 2001 Taking Over the Asylum: empowerment and mental health, Basingstoke, Palgrave.

    Marian Barnes and Phil Cotterell

    Barnes, M. and Cotterell, P. 2011 (Editors) Critical Perspectives on User Involvement Bristol: Policy Press. 19.11.2011.
    Introduction: From margin to mainstream by Marian Barnes and Phil Cotterell;
    Part one: User movements:
    1. Survivors History Group takes a critical look at historians by the Survivors History Group
    2. The Nottingham Advocacy Group: A short history by Marian Barnes and Colin Gell
    3. Building solidarity, ensuring diversity: Lessons from service users and disabled people's movements by Peter Beresford and Fran Branfield
    4. Service users and the third sector: Opportunities, challenges and potentials in influencing the governance of public services by Graham P. Martin
    5. The capacity, impact and challenge of service user's experiential knowledge by Phil Cotterell and Carolyn Morris
    Part two: User involvement in services
    Introduction by Marian Barnes and Phil Cotterell
    6. Collaboration in the public services: Can service users and staff participate together? by Michelle Farr
    7. Changing patterns of service user involvement 1990-2010 by Clare Evans and Ray Jones
    8. Looking out from the middle: Influencing policy change through user involvement by Joe Duffy and Brendan McKeever
    9. Changing minds: Unleashing the potential of mental health service users - a critical perspective on current models of service user involvement and their impact on well-being and "recovery" by Stephanie McKinley and Sarah Yiannoullou
    10. Moving forward: Understanding the negative experiences and impacts of patient and public involvement in health service planning, development and evaluation by Sophie Staniszewska, Carole Mockford, Andy Gibson, Sandy Herron-Marx, Rebecca Putz
    Part three: User involvement in research:
    Introduction by Marian Barnes and Phil Cotterell
    11. Young mothers' experiential knowledge and the research process by Geraldine Brady, Geraldine Brown and Corinne Wilson
    12. Involving young people in research: making an impact in public health by Louca-Mai Brady with Ellie Davis, Amrita Ghosh, Bhavika Surti and Laura Wilson
    13. Projects through Partnership: Promoting participatory values throughout the research process by Rob Kirkwood
    14. Involving older people: empowering engagement? by Elizabeth Ward and Beatrice Gahagan
    15. "Still out there?" Is the service user voice becoming lost as user involvement moves into the mental health research mainstream? by Kati Turner and Steve Gillard
    16. Service user led research in the NHS: Wasting our time? by Patsy Staddon
    17. Should we? Could we? Measuring Involvement by Rachel Purtell, Wendy Rickard and Katrina Wyatt
    18. Evaluating the impact of public involvement on research by Rosemary Barber, Jonathan Boote, Glenys Parry, Cindy Cooper and Philippa Yeeles
    Conclusion: Critical and different perspectives on user involvement by Marian Barnes and Phil Cotterell.

    Mary Barnes 1923-2001

    Mary Barnes and Ronald David Laing

    Barnes, M. and Laing, R.D. 1969 Mary Barnes Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Camden Arts Centre, London, 11.4.1969-25.4.1969. Text by R.D. Laing and Mary Barnes. 2 pages. [Copy at Glasgow University]

    Mary Barnes and Joseph Berke

    Barnes, M. and Berke, J. 1971 Mary Barnes. Two Accounts of a Journey Through Madness by Mary Barnes and Joseph Berke. London : MacGibbon and Kee 1971. 351 pages with plates and portraits.

    [Pelican edition 1973: 378 pages. No plates or portrait]

    Mary Barnes with Ann Scott 1950-

    Barnes, M. and Scott, A. 1989 Something Sacred. Conversations, writings, painting London: Free Association. 192 pages. Includes 7 black and white illustrations and 12 coloured plates of her paintings

    Claire Baron
    Diana Claire Baron Anderson 1949 -

    Baron, C. 1984 The social organization of a therapeutic community : a contemporary case study: PhD Thesis: University of London, 1984.

    Baron, C. 1984 "The Paddington Day Hospital: Crisis and Control in a Therapeutic Institution", International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, 5, pp.157-170.

    Baron, C. 1985 "A Reply to Richard Crocket" International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, 6, pp.115-118.

    Baron, C. 1987 Asylum to Anarchy London: Free Association

    Peter Bartlett and David Wright

    Bartlett, P. and Wright, D. 1999 (Editors) Outside the walls of the asylum : the history of care in the community, 1750-2000 Linton: Athlone Press. Based on a conference. An "historical account of the care of insanity outside formal institutions"

    Russell Barton

    Barton, R. 1959 Institutional neurosis Bristol, 56 pages.

    Battiscombe, G. 1975 Shaftesbury, A biography of the 7th Earl: 1801-1885. Constable.

    Marion Beeforth 1936 -

    Marion Beeforth - Edna Conlan 1953-2010 - Vida Field - Brian Hoser - and Liz Sayce 1954-

    Beeforth, M., Conlan, E., Field, V., Hoser, B. and Sayce, L. 1990 (Editors) Whose Service is it Anyway? Users' views on co-ordinating community care London: Research and Development for Psychiatry (RDP).

    Marion Beeforth - Edna Conlan - and Roberta Graley 1955-

    Beeforth, M., Conlan, E. and Graley, R. 1994 Have We Got Views for You - User Evaluation of Case Management. London. Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.

    Clifford Whittingham Beers 30.3.1876-9.7.1943

    Beers, C.W. 1908 A Mind that Found Itself. This was published by Longmans Green in New York - But London, Calcutta and Bombay are also listed. The date is shown as 1908, but the copyright as Clifford Whittingham Beers 1907. The book was published in New York and London and reviewed in British papers.

    Clifford Beers

    Beers, C.W. 1908/ 1937 A Mind that Found Itself: an autobiography. 25th anniversary edition, with additions. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1937. 434 pages. Reprint. Originally issued: New York : Doubleday, 1935.

    Beers, C.W. 1908/ 1953 A Mind that Found Itself: an autobiography. Other titles: Mental hygiene movement. Garden City, N.Y : Doubleday, 1953. 394 pages. Supplement (p. [301]-394): 1. The mental hygiene movement, 1908-33, and its founder, by C. E. A. Winslow and others.--2. The mental hygiene movement, more recent developments, by L. E. Woodward--3. The mental hygiene movement, 1948 through 1952, by N. Ridenour.--4. The American Foundation for Mental Hygiene.

    See biography 1980 by Norman Dain

    Andy Bell and Peter Lindley (editors)

    Bell, A and Lindley, P. 2005 (editors) Beyond the Water Towers: the unfinished revolution in mental health services 1985- 2005 London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. 159 pages
    Contents include: ISBN: 1870480643
    1. "Protest and Co-option - The voice of mental health service users" by David Pilgrim
    2. "New Services for Old- An overview of mental health policy" by Jed Boardman offline
    3. "Acute Care in Crisis" by Lesley Warner offline
    6. "From Little Acorns - The mental health service user movement" by Peter Campbell

    Peter Beresford Peter Beresford 1945-
    Senior Lecturer in Social Policy at Brunel University from 1990

    The list below includes a personal updated bibliography of survivor publications relating to madness and distress, mental health issues and their history

    1978 - 1988 - 1993 - 1996 - 2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2008 - 2009 - 2010 - 2012 - 2013 - 2016

    Beresford, P. and Croft, S. 1978 A say in the future: Planning, participation and meeting social need - A new approach : North Battersea, a case study by Peter Beresford and Suzie Beresford; Battersea Community Action. London : Battersea Community Action : Trade distribution by Publications Distribution Co-operative, 1978. Series: Battersea Community Action report, no. 1.

    Peter Beresford, John Kemmis, and Jane Tunstill 1988

    Beresford, P., Kemmis, J. and Tunstill, J. "In Care in North Battersea" Journal of Social Policy, Volume 17, Isue 3, July 1988, pp 412-414 no abstract available

    Peter Beresford and Suzy Croft 1952-

    Beresford, P. and Croft, S. 1993 Citizen Involvement: A Practical Guide for Change. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.
    London : Macmillan [for] British Association of Social Workers. xvii and 240 pages
    Contents - Introduction - Making Sense of Citizen-Involvement - First Steps To Involvement: Information Gathering and Consultation - From More Responsive Services to a Direct Say in Decision-making - Key Components for Effective Involvement - Guidelines for Involvement: The Agency Perspective - Getting Involved with Other People: Moving from Individual to Collective Action - Guidelines for Involvement: Empowering Ourselves - Guidelines for Involvement: Developing an Empowering Practice as Workers - Towards a Policy for Citizen-Involvement.
    "the first introduction and practical guide to increasing people's say and involvement in their lives, neighbourhood and services"... " draws on a major study of initiatives to involve and empower people" .. "wide range of schemes across a variety of policies and services, including housing, health care, education, community development, social work and social services. It also examines the underlying principles, politics and philosophy of participation. It offers guidelines for participatory policy and practice and a checklist for evaluating and auditing citizen involvement. By the authors of "Schools for All", "A Say in the Future", Whose Welfare?" and "In Care in North Battersea"."

    Croft, S. and Beresford, P. 1993 Getting Involved: A practical manual London : Open Services Project and Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 73 pages. Spiral bound.

    Beresford, P., Gifford, G. and Harrison, C 1996 "What has disability got to do with psychiatric survivors?" In J. Reynolds and J. Read (editors) Speaking Our Minds: Personal Experience of Mental Distress and its Consequences Buckingham, Open University Press.

    Beresford, P. 2000, "Service Users' Knowledges and Social Work Theory: Conflict or collaboration" British Journal of Social Work, Vol 30, No 4, pp 489-504.

    Beresford, P. 2000 "What have madness and psychiatric system survivors got to do with disability and disability studies?" Disability and Society Vol 15, No 1, January, pp 168-172.

    Peter Beresford 2001 Peter Beresford became a member of Consumers in NHS Research (later INVOLVE)

    Beresford, P. 2002 "Thinking about 'mental health': Towards a social model", Journal of Mental Health 11(6) pp 581-584.

    Beresford, Peter and Anne Wilson. 2002. "Genes Spell Danger: Mental Health Service Users/Survivors, Bioethics and Control." Disability & Society Vol 17, No 5, pp 541-553.

    Beresford, P. 2002 "Thinking About 'Mental Health': Towards a social model", Journal of Mental Health, Editorial, Vol 11, No 6, December, pp 581-584.

    Beresford, P. and Anne Wilson 2002 "Madness, Distress and Postmodernity: Putting the record straight" in Corker, M. and Shakespeare, T. (editors), Disability/Postmodernity: Embodying disability theory, London and New York, Continuum, pp 143-158.

    Beresford, Peter, Chris Harrison, and Anne Wilson. 2002. "Mental Health, Service Users and Disability: Implications for Future Strategies." Policy and Politics 30:387-396.

    Beresford, P. 2003 It's Our Lives: A short theory of knowledge, distance and experience Citizen Press in association with Shaping Our Lives. Available at

    offline - Subject index: Survivor research

    Beresford, P. and Campbell, P. 2004 "Participation and Protest: Mental health service users/survivors', in Todd and Taylor 2004 pp 326-342.

    Beresford, P. 2004 "Madness, Distress, Research and a Social Model", in Barnes, C. and Mercer, G. (editors), Implementing the Social Model of Disability: Theory and research, Leeds, Disability Press, pp 208-222. Available at http://disability- chapter-13.pdf

    Beresford, P. 2004, "Treatment at the Hands of Professionals", in Swain, J. French, S. Barnes, C. Thomas, C. (editors), Disabling Barriers - Enabling environments, London, Sage, pp 245-250.

    Beresford, P. Croft, S. Wulff-Cochrane, E. 2004, "The Future of Social Work", in, Statham, D. ????

    Beresford, P. 2005, "Developing the Theoretical Base for Service User/Survivor-Led Research and Equal Involvement In Research" in Epidemiologia e Psychiatria Sociale (EPS), Vol 14, Issue 1, January, pp 4-9.

    Beresford, P. 2005, "Where Would We Be Without The Pharmaceutical Industry?: A service user's view", Psychiatric Bulletin: The Journal of psychiatric practice, Royal College of Psychiatrists, Vol 29, No 3, March, pp 84-85.

    Beresford, P. 2005 "Social work and a social model of madness and distress: Developing a viable role for the future", Social Work and Social Sciences Review Vol 12, No 2, pp 59-73.

    Beresford, Peter and Fran Branfield. 2005. From Involvement to Independent Living. Leeds, UK: Disability Press.

    Beresford, P. 2005, "Social Approaches to Madness and Distress: User perspectives and user knowledges, in: Tew, J. (editor), Social Perspectives in Mental Health: Developing social models to understand and work with mental distress, London, Jessica Kingsley, pp 32-52.

    Beresford, P. 2005, "Developing Self-Defined Social Approaches to Distress", in, Ramon, S. and Williams, J.E. (editors), Mental Health at the Crossroads: The promise of the psychosocial approach, Guildford, Ashgate, pp 109-123.

    Beresford, P. 2006, "A Service User Perspective on Evidence" in Slade M. and Priebe, S. (editors), Choosing Methods In Mental Health Research: Mental health research from theory to practice, Hove, Routledge, pp 223-230.

    Beresford, P. 11.2008 "Service users: Individualised involvement or collective action?" A life in the day Volume 12 Issue 4. November 2008 Pavilion Journals (Brighton) Ltd Text available at

    Beresford, P. 2009 "Control", in Jan Wallcraft and others Handbook of Service User Involvement in Mental Health Research pp 181-198.

    Beresford, P. - Mary Nettle - and Rebecca Perring

    Beresford, P., Nettle, M. and Perring, R. 2010 Towards a Social Model of Madness and Distress? Exploring What Service Users Say York, Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Available at distress

    Beresford, P., Nettle, M. and Perring, R. 2010/2014 "Mental Health: Developing service user/survivor ideas on social approaches: Stage Two" Survey papers

    Bryant, W. Vacher, G. Beresford, P. McKay, E. 2010, "The Modernisation Of Mental Health Day Services: Participatory action research exploring social networking", Mental Health Review Journal, Vol 15, Issue 3, September, pp11-21.

    Beresford, P. 2010 A Straight Talking Introduction to being a Mental Health Service User, Ross-on-Wye, PCCS Books.

    Foreword Jan Wallcraft
    Part One
    Chapter 1: Setting the scene
    Chapter 2: The psychiatric system
    Chapter 3: The language of 'mental health'
    Part Two
    Chapter 4: The mental health service user/survivor movement
    Chapter 5: Mental health services and inequality
    Chapter 6: Issues of identity
    Chapter 7: From a medical to a social model
    Part Three
    Chapter 8: Developing a new vision: Principles for the future
    Chapter 9: Developing a new vision: Survivor-led approaches to support
    Chapter 10: Developing a new vision: Routes to achieving Change
    Part 4
    Postscript: A broader view and next steps

    Peter Beresford and Kathy Boxall

    Beresford, P. and Boxall, K, 2012 "Service Users, Social Work Education and Knowledge for Social Work Practice" Social Work Education, Vol 31, No 2, March 2012, pp 155-167.

    Beresford, P. 2012 "From 'Vulnerable' to Vanguard: Challenging the Coalition" in Davison and Rutherford 2012 Welfare Reform: The dread of things to come pp 66-77.

    Beresford, P. (2012), Psychiatric System Survivors: An emerging movement, in, Watson, N. Roulstone, A. Thomas, C. (editors), London, Routledge Handbook of Disability Studies, pp 151-164

    Beresford, P. and Carr, S. (editors), (2012) Service Users, Social Care And User Involvement, Research Highlights Series, London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

    Beresford, P. and Croft, S. 2012, User Controlled Research: Scoping Review, London, NHS National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) School for Social Care Research, London School of Economics. Available at

    Beresford, P. 2013, "Experiential Knowledge and the Reconception of Madness" in Coles, S. Keenan, S. Diamond, B. (editors), Madness Contested: Power and Practice, Ross-on-Wye, PCCS publishing, pp 181-196.

    Beresford P. 2013 "'From 'other' to involved: user involvement in research: an emerging paradigm" Nordic Social Work Research 1-10 Available at

    Beresford, P. 2016 All Our Welfare - Towards participatory social policy Policy Press. 29.1.2016. 468 pages
    Introduction: Owning not othering our welfare
    Part One: The legacy of the past
    Setting the scene for welfare and social policy
    The Past
    The origins of the welfare state
    The welfare state and pressures from the war
    The principles of the welfare state
    The welfare state: Whose consensus?
    Back to the past
    What's wrong with social policy?
    Part Two: The way to the future
    The beginnings of something different
    A new set of principles for social policy
    Reconceiving research
    A new approach to social policy
    Welfare policy for the twenty first century
    Supporting each other in the future
    Changing welfare
    Afterword: The future: a different way forward?

    Beresford, P. 17.10.2016 "A beginner's guide to saving the NHS, our human rights and everything" Inaugural lecture as Professor of Citizen Participation at Essex University.

    German Elias Berrios
    University lecturer and Consultant in Neuropsychiatry at the University of Cambridge Clinical School.

    German Elias Berrios and Hugh Lionel Freeman

    Berrios G.E. and Freeman, H. 1991 (Editors) 150 Years of British Psychiatry 1841-1941 (Volume one). Gaskell (Imprint of the Royal College of Psychiatrists). London. xv and 464 pages

    Berrios G.E. and Freeman, H. 1996 (Editors) 150 Years of British Psychiatry - The aftermath. (Volume two) London ; Atlantic Highlands, NJ : Athlone, 1996
    Dealing "with the principal developments in British psychiatry during the 20th century and covers its most important conceptual and practical achievements"

    Best, G.F.A. 1964 Shaftesbury References are to the 1975 New English Library edition

    Bill: Printed Parliamentary Bill in Bills Public. Details in the chronological bibliography.

    Blanch, William Harnett, 1875 The Parish of Camberwell. Facsimile reprint for the Camberwell Society, 1976. Original publication was in monthly parts 1875-1876 called "Ye parish of Camerwell". See Peckham House and Camberwell House.

    Peckham House Old Papers include a rewritten (1940s) extract from Ye Parish of Camerwell "regarding early times of Peckham House; built about 1785, opened as a private lunatic asylum in 1826 by Dr Armstrong, purchased in 1872 from him by Dr. Stocker". (Jill Stocker)

    Paul Bloomfield

    Bloomfield, P. 1961 Edward Gibbon Wakefield, builder of the British Commonwealth. Longmans Green and co Ltd. See Quakers around Shoreditch

    Boase, F. Modern English Biography: containing many thousand concise memoirs of persons who have died during the years 1851-1900, with an index of the most interesting matter, by Frederic Boase 6 volumes published 1892-1921.

    Joseph Shaw Bolton

    Bolton, J.S. 1928 The Evolution of a Mental Hospital - Wakefield 1818-1928 Adlard and Son, London.

    Annie Borthwick, Chris Holman, David Kennard, Mark McFetridge, Karen Messruther and Jenny Wilkes of The Retreat, York, UK

    Borthwick, A. and others 2001 "The relevance of moral treatment to contemporary mental health care" Journal of Mental Health (2001) 10, 4, pages 427-439, available at http://www.retreat-

    [Edward] John [Mostyn] Bowlby 26.2.1907-2.9.1990 web links

    Bowlby, J. 1951 Maternal Care and Mental Health Geneva: World Health Organisation - London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office - New York: Columbia University Press.

    Bowlby J 1969 Attachment. Attachment and Loss volume 1.

    Bowlby J 1973 Separation: Anxiety and Anger. Attachment and Loss volume 2.

    Bowlby J 1980 Loss: Sadness and Depression. Attachment and Loss volume 3)

    Bowlby, J. 19.10.1977 John Bowlby Interview with Milton Senn, M.D. 19.10.1977. "American Child Guidance Clinic and Child Psychiatry Movement Interview Collection, 1975-1978". National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland. Transcript in Beyond the Couch - The Online Journal of the American Association for Psychoanalysis in Clinical Social Work Issue 2 December 2007. Avaailable at - offline

    Bowlby, J. 1987 "A Historical Perspective on Child Guidance". The Child Guidance Trust Newsletter 1: pages 1-2.

    Anny Brackx and Catherine Grimshaw

    Brackx, A. and Grimshaw, C. 1989 (Editors) Mental Health Care in Crisis London: Pluto. viii and 215 pages

    Althea Brandon
    David Brandon 1941-2001

    Brandon, D. 1981 Voices of Experience: Consumer perspectives of psychiatric treatment London: MIND. 36 pages. ISBN 0900557486 (pbk)

    Brandon, A. and Brandon, D. 1987 Consumers as Colleagues Althea and David Brandon. London : MIND v and 34 pages. ISBN 090055780X

    Brandon, D. 1991 Innovation Without Change?: Consumer power in psychiatric services Basingstoke : Macmillan. viii and 184 pages
    Contents: Introduction - Lunatics and Asylums - Winds and Tides - Match and Mismatch - Telling People Much Much More - Adventurous Listening - Speaking Out - Democracy in Strange Places - Innovation without Change?
    Summary: Examines the institutionalization of mental healthcare and looks practically at how consumers could have a much greater influence in both the planning and management of relevant services through a "consumers as colleagues" approach. The author argues that new directions in treatment, more relevant services and considerably increased quality can only be achieved by mental health consumers having a much more powerful say in the planning and running of services.

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    Briggs, A. 1959 The Age of Improvement 1783-1867 Longman

    Bristol 1961 Bristol in the evolution of mental health, 1696- 1961: [catalogue of an exhibition held at the] Royal West of England Academy, Queen's Road, Bristol, 4th May to 24th May, 1961.

    Eugene B. Brody 17.6.1921 - Saturday 13.3.2010
    Resident of Baltimore, Maryland

    Eugene B. Brody and Frederick (known as Fritz) C. Redlich 1910-2004, editors

    Brody, E.B. 1952 Psychotherapy with schizophrenics: A Symposium Series: Monograph series on schizophrenia ; no. 3. New York : International Universities Press. 246 pages.
    "The impetus for publication of this volume came from the Conference on Psychotherapy with Schizophrenic Patients held in the Department of Psychiatry of the Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven on December 6, 1950. The papers face realistically the difficulties in therapy, but there is nevertheless a consistent note of restrained optimism. Those who have worked in this pioneer field of psychotherapy of schizophrenia have an especial obligation upon them to write up and publish their work for others to read for purposes of study, comparison, challenge, and enlightenment. This volume of papers from the Yale-sponsored symposium serves these purposes". (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA)

    Brody, E.B. 1998 The Search for Mental Health: a History and memoir of WFMH, 1948-1997 Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. xix and 410 pages. ISBN 068318346X - 0683183478 (paperback.)

    Chapter one: Precursors of Federation

    Chapter two: The Founding of the WFMH
    Chapter three: The Rees Era and Beyond 1948-1966
    [John Rawlings "Jack" Rees]
    Chapter four: The Geneva Secretariat 1962-1967

    Chapter five includes:
    The Era of Working Presidents: 1948-1979
    The WFMH Secretariat in Baltimore and Washington: 1981-1983

    Chapter six includes:
    After 1983

    Chapter seven:
    The WFMH and Consumer/Survivor/User Movements
    North America: Dix and Beers
    The context of consumer, self-help, and ex-patient
    Liberation movements
    Consumerism in medicine
    Self-help for emotionally distressed persons
    After 1987: Collaboration with the establishment
    Philosophical differences despite mutuality
    Persisting uncertainties
    The meaning of symptoms and coping with them

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    Chapter eight:
    The WFMH and the United Nations



    Brook, Charles W. 1945 Battling Surgeon The Strickland Press, Glasgow.

    John Brooke

    Brooke, J. 1972 King George 3rd Constable

    George William Brown 1930-

    Brown, G.W. and Tirril Harris 1978 Social Origins of Depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women London: Tavistock Publications. xi and 399 pages
    Summary from
    Psychology wiki: "The book was largely based on two surveys of women in Camberwell in London and explores class differences in levels of depression - depression, is more common amongst those from the lower social classes. Using the semi- structured interview schedule as a measure of the stressfulness of events, the research provided clear evidence that the observed class differences could be accounted for in terms of two sets of factors: the life events experienced in the previous year, and a set of four 'vulnerability' factors: the absence of a confiding relationship, having three or more children under 14 to look after, not having paid work outside the home, and the loss of one's mother before the age of 11."

    See Subject Index Depression

    Wing, J.K. and Brown, G.W. 1970

    William Alexander Francis Browne

    Browne, W.A.F. 1837 What asylums were, are, and ought to be, being the substance of five lectures delivered before the managers of the Montrose Royal Lunatic Asylum (1837) available at

    Lewis C. Bruce

    Bruce, L.C. 1895 "Observations on the Effect of Thyroid Feeding in some Forms of Insanity. By Lewis C. Bruce, M.D. Paper read on Thursday 8.11.1894 at a Meeting of the Scottish Division of the Medico-Psychological Association in Edinburgh. Journal of Mental Science January 1895 41: pp 50-71 and discussion pp 169-172

    (offline) - Notes and discussion offline)

    John Brydall, born about 1635, of Lincoln's Inn, died 1704

    Brydall, J. 1700 Non compos mentis: or, The law relating to natural fools, mad-folks, and lunatick persons: inquisited, and explained, for common benefit London: printed by the assigns of Richard and Edward Atkins, Esquires; for Isaac Cleave, at the Star, next Serjeants-Inn, in Chancery-Lane. 127 pages plus 16 pages introductory.

    Susan Estelle (Su) Budd 1942 -
    Lived in Shelton, CT in 1971
    Now lives in Kansas City, Kansas.

    Budd, S. 17.12.2009 "A History of the Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Movement" Presented at the SAMHSA ADS Center Training Teleconference On Thursday, December 17, 2009 From 2:00 pm to 3:30 pm Eastern Time

    Rosina Bulwer Lytton

    Bulwer Lytton, R. 1880 A Blighted Life by the Right Hon. Lady Lytton. A True Story. With Three Illustrations London: The London Publishing Office, 3 Falcon Court, 32 Fleet Street, E.C. 1880. [Only edition I can trace in catalogues is the reprint (1994) by Thoemmes Press, with a new introduction by Marie Mulvey Roberts]

    Burke: Burke's Peerage
    Burke L.G.: Burke's Landed Gentry
    Dates, when given, are those of editions. e.g. (Burke, 1857) (Burke L.G. 1857)

    George Man[n] Burrows 1771-1846

    Burrows, G.M. 1815a Observations on the Comparative Mortality of Paris and London (From the London Medical Repository) 20 pages

    Burrows, G.M. 1815b Account of two cases of death from eating mussels: with some general observations on fish-poison (From the London Medical Repository) 39 pages

    Burrows, G.M. 1817a Cursory remarks on a bill now in the House of Peers for regulating of mad-houses: its probable influence upon the physical and moral condition of the insane, and upon the interests of those concerned in their care and management : with observations on the defects of the present system 104 pages

    Burrows, G.M. 1817b A statement of circumstances connected with the Apothecaries' Act, and its administration 47 pages

    Burrows, G.M. 1818 Strictures on the uses and defects of Parish Registers, and Bills of Mortality, in reference to marriages, births, baptisms, diseases, casualities, and burials; to the probabilities of the expectancy of life; and to the ascertaining of the progress of the population: with suggestions for improving and extending the system of parochial registry 72 pages, 3 leaves of plates (one folded) : forms, tables (1 folded)

    Burrows, G.M. 1820 An inquiry into certain errors relative to insanity; and their consequences; physical, moral, and civil 320 pages?

    German translation: Leipzig 1822: Untersuchungen über gewisse die Geisteszerrüttung betreffende Irrthümer und ihre Einflüsse auf die physischen, moralischen und bürgerlichen Verhältnisse des Menschen. Translated with a paper on the health of the soul (Seelengesundheit) by Dr. J. C. A. Heinroth.

    Burrows, G.M. 1828 Commentaries on the Causes, Forms, Symptoms ant Treatment, Moral and Medical, of Insanity London : T.&G. Underwood. 716 pages

    German translation: Weimar 1831: Commentare über die Ursachen, Gestaltungen, Symptome und moralische wie medicinische Behandlung des Wahnsinns

    Burrows, G.M. 1830 A letter to Sir Henry Halford, bart: touching some points of the evidence, and observations of counsel, on a commission of lunacy on Edward Davies 38 pages

    Robert Burton 1577-1640

    Burton, R. 1621 The Anatomy of Melancholy - What it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics and several cures of it... Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically opened and cut up. By Democritus Junior Oxford.

    Burton, R. 1624 The Anatomy of Melancholy... Revised edition. Oxford. [second edition]

    Burton, R. 1628 The Anatomy of Melancholy... Revised edition - with engraved title page (frontispiece), Latin elegiacs, Democritus Junior ad Librum saum and the author's abstract. Oxford. [third edition]

    Burton, R. 1632 The Anatomy of Melancholy... Revised edition - which added the Argument of the frontispiece, verses explaining the ten pictures. Oxford. [fourth edition]

    Burton, R. 1638 The Anatomy of Melancholy... Revised edition Edinburgh, Oxford and London. [fifth edition]

    Burton, R. 1641 The Anatomy of Melancholy... Revised edition Oxford and London. [sixth edition]

    There were reprints in 1660 and 1676. "No further reprints appeared until the two volume edition of 1800" (Holbrook Jackson, 1932, Dent edition)

    Burton, R. 1800 The Anatomy of Melancholy... The ninth edition / corrected, to which is now first prefixed, an account of the author. Two volumes. Includes index. Printed by J. Cundee ... for Vernor and Hood; J. Cuthell; J. Sewell; J. Walker [and 3 others] Copies at Leeds and Wellcome Library

    Burton, R. 1801 Melancholy; as it proceeds from the disposition and habit, the passion of love, and the influence of religion. Drawn chiefly from ... Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, etc. London: Vernor & Hood. British Library.

    1802 Curious Fragments extracted from a common-place book, which belonged to Robert Burton, the famous author of The Anatomy of Melancholy. [By Charles Lamb] Holding Library British Library

    1802 Charles Lamb John Woodvil; a tragedy. To which are added fragments of Burton, the author of the Anatomy of melancholy. Published London. Holding Library Glasgow

    1806 The anatomy of melancholy ... with a satyricall preface ... Edited by Edward Du Bois. Eleventh edition corrected. To which is prefixed, an account of the author. Two volumes. Printed for ...Vernor, Hood and Sharpe ... Holding Libraries include Glasgow (only one that mentions Du Bois), Imperial College, Oxford and Manchester. The British Library has a microfilm copy.

    1821 The anatomy of melancholy... 12th edition corrected / To which is now first prefixed an account of the author. Published London: Printed for J. Cuthell [etc.], 1821. Two volumes Holding Libraries: Wellcome Library and Edinburgh. (Anthony á Wood, 1632-1695 mentioned)

    1824 The anatomy of melancholy ... : being an abridgement of Burton's celebrated work London : N. Hailes

    The anatomy of melancholy : in which the kinds, causes, consequences, and cures of this English malady, ... are -- "traced from within its inmost centre to its outmost skin.". Author Robert Burton. Published London: Printed for N. Hailes, ... John Bumpus, ... John Walker, ...; and Richard Griffin and Co. Glasgow. : W. Wilson, printer

    Siân Busby

    Busby, S. 2004 The Cruel Mother: A Family Ghost Laid to Rest Short Books, London

    Joan Busfield
    Essex University

    "Trained initially as a clinical psychologist at the Tavistock Clinic. She then worked on a study of the social influences on family size published (with M.Paddon) as Thinking About Children: Sociology and Fertility in Post-War England (l977). Since then her research has focussed on psychiatry and mental disorder. Her main publications include: Managing Madness: Changing Ideas and Practice (l986) Men, Women and Madness (1996). She has recently edited a special issue of the Sociology of Health and Illness which will be published in October as Rethinking the Sociology of Mental Health and Health and Health Care in Modern Britain (2000). Main teaching interests: medicine, illness, psychiatry, mental health and illness, health services and health policy."

    Busfield, J. 1996 Men, Women and Madness: Understanding gender and mental disorder Basingstoke: Macmillan. xiv and 287 pages.
    Contents: Preface - Introduction - PART 1: GENDER, CONSTRUCTS AND SERVICES - The Gendered Landscape - Theorising Gender - Mental Disorder, Medicine and the Regulation of Rationality - Measuring Mental Disorder - Gender and Constructs of Mental Disorder - The Historical Context - PART 2: GENDER AND THE ORIGINS OF MENTAL DISORDER - Biological Origins - Feminist Psychologies and Gendered Individuals - Stress and the Gender Division of Labour - Trauma and Powerlessness: War and Sexual Violence - Conclusions -

    William F. Bynum

    Bynum, W.F. 1991 Tuke's Dictionary and psychiatry at the turn of the century in Berrios and Freeman 1991 pp 163-179.

    William Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd

    The anatomy of madness: essays in the history of psychiatry Three volumes.

    "Most of the papers in these volumes arose from a seminar series on the history of psychiatry and a one-day seminar on the same theme held at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London, during the academic year 1982-83"

    Bynum, Porter and Shepherd 1985/1 The Anatomy of Madness. Essays in the History of Psychiatry. Volume one: People and ideas, edited by W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter and Michael Shepherd. London. Tavistock. ISBN/ISSN: 0422794309

    Bynum, Porter and Shepherd 1985/2 The Anatomy of Madness. Essays in the History of Psychiatry. Volume two: Institutions and society, edited by W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter and Michael Shepherd. ISBN/ISSN: 0422794406

    Bynum, Porter and Shepherd 1988 The Anatomy of Madness. Essays in the History of Psychiatry. Volume three: The Asylum and its Psychiatry, edited by W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter and Michael Shepherd. London. Routledge. ISBN/ISSN: 041500859X

    Peter Campbell 1948-

    Campbell, P. June 1983 Letter. OpenMind

    Campbell, P. August 1983 Letter. OpenMind

    Campbell, P. December 1983 Letter. OpenMind

    Campbell, P. June 1984 Letter. OpenMind

    November 1985: Spoke at Mind conference
    Survivors Speak Out formed January 1986

    Campbell, P. December 1985 Letter "Advocacy". OpenMind

    Campbell, P. (September?) 1987 "Giants and Goblins. A Description of Camden Consortium's Campaign to Change Statutory Plans" in Barker, I. and Peck, E. 1987, pages 12-13

    Campbell, P. 1989a "Peter Campbell's Story" in Brackx and Grimshaw 1989 pages 11-20

    Campbell, P. 1989b "The Self-Advocacy Movement in the UK" in Brackx and Grimshaw 1989 pages 206-213

    Internal evidence suggests that this was written before Edale (September 1987)

    Campbell, P. December 1989 "Self-Harm". OpenMind, 42: 18.

    Campbell, P. 1991 "Mental Health Self-Advocacy in the United Kingdom". In: Fransen, Vivian E. (Editors). Mental Health Services in the United States and England. Princeton NJ : Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

    Campbell, P. 1992 "A survivor's view of community psychiatry" Journal of Mental Health, 1, (2), 117-122.

    Campbell, P. February 1992 "Poetry in motion". OpenMind, 55: 4.

    Campbell, P. 1993 "Mental Health Services - the user's view". British Medical Journal, 306: 848-850.

    Campbell, P. February 1993 Letter. OpenMind, 61: 10-11.

    Campbell, P. 1996 "The History of the User Movement in the United Kingdom" in T. Heller, J. Reynolds, R. Gomm, R. Muston and S. Pattison Mental Health Matters: A Reader. Buckingham: Open University Press.

    About 1996 ceased being an officer of Survivors Speak Out

    Campbell, P. 1999 "The Service User/Survivor Movement" In C. Newnes, C, G. Holmes, C. Dunn (editors) This is Madness: A Critical Look at The Future of Mental Health Services. Ross on Wye, Herefordshire: PCCS Books

    Campbell, P. 3.2001 "The role of users of psychiatric services in service development - influence not power", Psychiatric Bulletin 2001 vol. 25, pp 87-88. March 2001. Royal College of Psychiatrists, London. Available at

    Campbell, P. 2005 "From Little Acorns - The mental health service user movement". Chapter six in Bell, A. and Lindley, P. 2005

    Campbell, P. 2.11.2006 Opening address available online

    Peter Campbell and Andrew Roberts

    Campbell, P. and Roberts, A. 2009 "Survivors' history", A life in the day, vol 13, no. 3, August 2009.

    Campbell, P. 2009 "The service user/survivor movement" in Reynolds and others 2009

    Peter Cambell and the Survivor History Group

    Cambell, P. and others 2010- Peter Campbell's history of Survivors Speak Out and its connections. Work in progress.

    Peter Campbell and Diana Rose

    Campbell, C. and Rose, D. 2011 "Action for Change in the UK: Thirty Years of the User/Survivor Movement" in Pilgrim, Rogers and Pescosolido 2011

    Campbell, P. and another author - Survivors History 1800 to the present: The mental health service users movement. In preparation. This project is under a contract wih Palgrave.

    The following outline relates to an early version of the Palgrave project.

    Overall outline

    Preface offline
    1) Introduction: Who we are, why we are writing and what you can do. offline
    Chronology offline
    2) 1845-1969 - Features: Mary Lamb (England) - John Thomas Perceval (England) - Cesare Lombroso (Italy) and some other psychiatrists (sane) - Charlotte Mew (England) - Clifford Whittingham Beers (USA) - August Natterer (Germany) - Peter Whitehead (England) offline
    3) 1970s Features: Helen Spandler (sane) - Thomas Ritchie (Scotland) - Tony and Mary Riley (Manchester, England) - Eric Irwin (Ireland, Australia and England) - Fresnes and Europe (sane and mad) offline - Joan Hughes (England) - Peter Scott Blackman (England - Caribbean - Africa) - Anne Plumb (England) - Judi Chamberlin (USA) offline
    4) 1980s Features: Barbara Taylor (Canada and England) - Frank Bangay (England) - Richard 'Cartoon' Campbell (England) - David Reville (Canada) - Anne Boldt and Judi Chamberlin (USA) - Jim Read (England) - Glasgow Link (Scotland) - Wouter van de Graaf (Netherlands) - Peter Campbell (Britain) - offline
    5) 1990s offline
    6) Second millennium offline
    7) Critical reflections and ways forward offline
    Questions for discussion offline
    Glossary offline
    Bibliography offline
    Index offline

    We aim to provided a down-to-earth, easy to read, history of the movement set in the context of the development of mental health policy in the UK and internationally, with issues for readers to reflect on, discuss and pursue themselves.

    The book will provide a service user (survivors) perspective on the history of the mental health service user/survivor movement in previous centuries but particularly since the 1960s. It will consolidate and develop the growing body of survivor history that has been documented in the United Kingdom and internationally by people who are part of the movement. (See

    CAPS independant advocacy. The Consultation and Advocacy Promotion Service

    CAPS 2010 Oor Mad History - A Community History of the Lothian Mental Health Service User Movement Available online at df

    by Malcolm Chisholm, MSP
    Acknowledgements by Kirsten Maclean, Community History Worker
    Introduction by Kirsten Maclean
    Part 1: Background and process of recording Oor Mad History
    Why Oor Mad History? by Anne O'Donnell, chair of Oor Mad History Steering Group.
    Oor Mad History - Process and Methodology by Kirsteen Maclean
    Our Experience - what it was like being an oral history interviewer, by Jim McGill and Jennifer Booth.
    PART 2 Voices and images from the Oor Mad History Archive
    Early Days [1980s]
    Beginnings of the Lothian movement [See 8.1.1988]
    Collective Advocacy Groups
    The Struggle to be Heard -reactions and resistances to advocacy and an emerging service user voice
    Crisis Service Campaign
    Campaign for Advocacy and Getting Advocacy into the Mental Health Act
    Closure of Bangour Village Hospital, West lothian
    Achievements of the movement
    What could have been done differently?
    How influential has the movement been?
    How much has changed?
    Why and how I got involved with the movement
    The impact of being involved
    Importance of collective advocacy
    The future

    Judi Chamberlin 1944-2010

    Chamberlin, J. 1978 On Our Own: Patient-Controlled Alternatives to the mental health system New York: Hawthorn Books 1978 - McGraw-Hill paperback 1979 - London: MIND 1988. Chapters: Introduction - 1) A Patient's View of the Mental Health System - 2) The Making - And Unmaking - Of a Mental Patient - 3) Consciousness Raising - 4) Real Alternatives and False Alternatives - 5) When People go Crazy - 6) Inside the Mental Patients' Association - 7) Money - And Other Practical Problems - 8) Coercion or Cooperation? 9) People not Patients

    Chamberlin. J. and Unzicker, R. 1990 "Psychiatric Survivors, Ex- Patients, and Users: An observation of organizations in Holland and England" by Judi Chamberlin and Rae Unzicker.

    Chamberlin, J. 1990 "The Ex-Patients' Movement: Where We've Been and Where We're Going" by Judi Chamberlin - National Empowerment Center The Journal of Mind and Behavior Volume 11, Number 3, Summer 1990. Special Issue, Challenging the Therapeutic State, pages 323-336. Available

    Chambers Biographical Dictionary:
    Chambers Biographical Dictionary first edition was published in 1897
    Chambers Biographical Dictionary second edition was published in 1929
    Chambers Biographical Dictionary third edition was published in 1935
    Chambers Biographical Dictionary fourth edition was published in 1961
    Chambers Biographical Dictionary 1974 Edited by J.O. Thorne AND T.C. Collocott
    Chambers Biographical Dictionary fifth edition was published in 1990
    Chambers Biographical Dictionary 1990 General editor Magnus Magnusson KBE. Assistant editor Rosemary Goring

    Doris F. Chang and Arthur Kleinman

    Chang, D.F. and Kleinman, A. 2002 "Growing Pains: Mental Health Care in a Developing China" Yale China Health Journal, The Yale China Association Autumn 2002, volume 1. Available as a pdf file:

    Carolina Seibel Chassot

    Chassot, C.S. 2012a The British Mental Health Service User/Survivor Movement and the Experience of Mental Distress Masters Thesis, University of Évora, Portugal. July 2012.

    Chassot, C.S. 2012b The British Mental Health Service User / Survivor Movement and the Experience of Mental Distress Research Report. August 2012. "This report presents the results of a master thesis research in a summarised version, accessible to non-academics".

    This used grounded theory methods to analyse the responses of mental health service users in individual interviews.

    Kathryn Church

    Church, K. 1995 Forbidden Narratives: Critical Autobiography as Social Science London: Routledge.

    Church, K. 1997 Because of Where We've been: The Business Behind the Business of Psychiatric Survivor Economic Development Ontario: The Ontario Council of Alternative Businesses in partnership with Community Development Corporation.

    Clarke, Anne 1979 Lewis Carroll, A Biography, Dent

    George Norman Clarke 27.2.1890 - 6.2.1979

    Clarke, G. 1964 A History of the Royal College of Physicians of London Vol. 1. Published for the Royal College of Physicians by Clarendon Press

    Clarke, G. 1966 A History of the Royal College of Physicians of London Vol. 2. Published for the Royal College of Physicians by Clarendon Press

    clergy lists

    The Clerical Guide 3rd edition 1829 by Richard Gilbert

    The Clerical Guide or Ecclesiastical Directory New edition 1836 by Richard Gilbert

    The Clergy List for 1847

    The Clerical Directory for 1858

    Harold P. Clunn

    Clunn, H.P. 1932 The Face of London. Simpkin Marshall.

    Clunn, H.P. (Revised by E.R. Wethersett about 1962) The Face of London. Spring Books.

    Peter Clyne 1927-1987

    Clyne, P. 1973 Guilty but Insane : Anglo-American attitudes to insanity and criminal guilt London: Nelson. viii and 186 pages

    Cochrane, D. 1988 'Humane, economical, and medically wise': the LCC as administrators of Victorian lunacy policy" in Bynum, Porter and Shepherd 1988 pp 247 to 296

    Steven Coles, Sarah Keenan, and Bob Diamond
    Clinical Psychologists

    Coles, S., Keenan, S. and Diamond, B. 2013 (Editors) Madness Contested: power and practice Ross on Wye, Herefordshire: PCCS Books.

    Steven Coles, Sarah Keenan and Bob Diamond
    Part One: Questioning the Domination of Madness
    Chapter 1: Persistence of Medicalisation: Is the presentation of alternatives part of the problem? Mary Boyle
    Chapter 2: Paranoia: Contested and contextualised. John Cromby and Dave Harper
    Chapter 3: Meaning, Madness and Marginalisation. Steven Coles
    Chapter 4: From Constructive Engagement to Coerced Recovery. Alastair Morgan and Anne Felton
    Chapter 5: Mental Disorder and the Socioethical Challenge of Reasonableness. David Pilgrim and Floris Tomasini
    Chapter 6: The Pharmaceutical Industry and Mental Disorder. Joan Busfield
    Chapter 7: Clinical Psychology in Psychiatric Services: The magician's assistant? Steven Coles, Bob Diamond and Sarah Keenan
    Chapter 8: Manifesto for a Social Materialist Psychology of Distress. Midlands Psychology Group
    Chapter 9: Soteria: Context, practice and philosophy. Philip Thomas
    Part Two: Exploring the Liberation of Madness
    Chapter 10: Recovery, Discovery and Revolution: The work of intervoice and the hearing voices movement. Eleanor Longden, Dirk Corstens and Jacqui Dillon
    Chapter 11: Experiential Knowledge and the Reconception of Madness. Peter Beresford
    Chapter 12: Service User Led Research on Psychosis: Marginalisation and the struggle for progression. Jan Wallcraft
    Chapter 13: The Patient's Dilemma: An analysis of user's experiences of taking neuroleptic drugs. Joanna Moncrieff, David Cohen and John Mason
    Chapter 14: Speaking Out Against the Apartheid Approach to our Minds. Rufus May, Rebecca Smith, Sophie Ashton, Ivan Fontaine, Chris Rushworth and Pete Bull
    Chapter 15: Toxic Mental Environments and other Psychology in the Real World Groups. Guy Holmes
    Chapter 16: Readdressing the Balance of power: Psychiatric medication in Nottingham. Nottingham Mind Medication Group
    Chapter 17: Ordinary and Extraordinary People: Acting to make a difference. Leicester Living with Psychiatric Medication Group
    Chapter 18: Peer Support. Becky Shaw
    Chapter 19: A Critical Journey from Involvement to Emancipation: A narrative account. Theo Stickley
    Chapter 20: Rebuilding the House of Mental Health services with Home Truths. Bob Diamond
    Chapter 21: A Beacon of Hope: Alternative approaches to crisis. Fiona Venner and Michele Noad

    George Dale Collinson

    Collinson, G.D. 1812 A Treatise on the Law concerning Idiots, Lunatics, and other persons non compotes mentis "With an appendix containing the statutes relating to lunatics, the practice on proceedings in lunacy, and a collection of lunatic petitions, with the orders of the Chancellor thereon" (title page) Two volumes. London : Reed

    Colvin, H.M. 1954 A Biographical Dictionary of English Architects 1600-1840. Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Colvin, H.M. 1995 A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840

    Flurin Condrau 9.11.1965-
    Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of Manchester 2004-2011
    Professor of History of Medicine at Zurich since 2011

    Condrau, F. 2007 "The Patient's View Meets the Clinical Gaze", Social History of Medicine volume 20, no.3, 2007: pp 525-540

    Summary: Roy Porter's 1985 article on 'The Patient's View' is the starting point for a methodological and historical reflection on the patient in medical history. This article gains its inspiration from the fact that to the present day, the history of patients as an intellectual project has not found much reflecion. Old categories, such as patient, knowledge and disease, all need to be revisited and rethought. It sketches out several arenas where this debate will have to take place and contrasts Porter's patient's view with David Armstrong's writings on the constructed patient. It goes on to discuss the project of social history of medicine to begin to place Porter in the context of the discipline and closes with some comments on the political context of patients' history in the 1980s which coincided with the start of governmental reforms in the NHS intended to strengthen the patient's role.

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    John Conolly 1794-1866

    Conolly, J. 1830 The Indications of Insanity 1973 reprint, Dawsons of Pall Mall (vol.1)

    Conolly, J. 1845 Clinical Lectures on the Principal Forms of Insanity Delivered in the Middlesex Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell by John Conolly, MD. Publication commenced in The Lancet 4.10.1845.

    1845-1866: Lawn House

    Conolly, J. 1847 The Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane 1973 reprint, Dawsons of Pall Mall (vol.2)

    Conolly, J. 1856 Treatment of the Insane without Mechanical Restraints 1973 reprint, Dawsons of Pall Mall (vol.3)

    [Hunter and MacAlpine's Conolly: Hunter, RA and MacAlpine, I. 1973 Introductions to the above 3 reprints, which introductions together constitute a biography of Conolly. Introduction to vol.1: birth to circa 1837; to vol.2: 1837-42; to vol.3: 1843-66]

    Conolly, J. 1863 A study of Hamlet London: E. Moxon & Co., 209 pages. Argued that Shakespeare was portraying someone who is mad, not feigning madness. In chapter 32 of Hard Cash, appearing at the time in instalments, 'Dr Wycherley' loses his "philosophic calmness" "the moment Hamlet's insanity was disputed".

    Anne Cooke
    Psychologist at Canterbury Christ Church University

    Cooke, A. 2014 (Editor) Understanding Psychosis and Schizophrenia. Why people sometimes hear voices, believe things that others find strange, or appear out of touch with reality and what can help British Psychological Society. Division of Clinical Psychology. Available at clinical-psychology/understanding-psychosis-and-schizophrenia

    Coombs, Tony, 1975 (Second Edition) Tis a Mad World at Hogsdon. A Short History of Hoxton and surrounding area. Hoxton Hall.

    Vicki Coppock
    Senior Lecturer in Social Policy and Social Work at Edge Hill College.

    Vicki Coppock and John Hopton
    John Hopton is a Lecturer in Applied Social Studies at the University of Manchester.

    Coppock, V. and Hopton, J. 2000 Critical Perspectives on Mental Health London ; New York : Routledge. viii and 208 pages.
    The historical maze
    From asylum to community : relocating psychiatry
    Alternative models of managing mental distress
    Anti-psychiatry : passing fad or force for change?
    Gender and race critiques of psychiatry
    Crises of legitimacy
    Towards a new critical perspective on mental health care
    Implications for practice.

    Core Arts -
    1 St Barnabas Terrace, Homerton, London E9 6DJ
    Core Arts

    Core Arts 2013 Creative Journeys: Responses To Mental Health in Hackney, Present and Past available at

    William Cowper (1731-1800)

    1835 The Works of William Cowper and Life and Letters by William Hayley esq., now first completed by the introduction of Cowper's Private Correspondence Edited by Rev. T.S. Grimshawe, A.M. Five volumes. London. Saunders and Otley, Conduit Street.

    Janet Cresswell 29.3.1931 - 24.11.2015

    Nikki Johnson and Janet Cresswell

    Johnson, N. and Cresswell, J. 1989/1990 "The one-sided wall" in Plays by Women. Volume 8 edited and introduced by Mary Remnant. Methuen new theatre scripts 1990. Performed Spring 1989.

    Cresswell, J. 2.2003 "Following Fallon. Janet Cresswell describes what it's like to be on the receiving end of the security clampdown in the special hospitals" Mental Health Today February 2003, pages 31-32

    Cresswell, J. 2005 Ox-Bow Chipmunka publishing

    Mark Cresswell
    University of Durham.
    Previously Department of Sociology, University of Manchester.
    See Survivors History Group

    Cresswell, M. n.d. "Self-Harm: Perspectives From Personal Experience (1994) Edited by Louise Roxanne Pembroke - Published by Survivors Speak Out - An Appreciation by Mark Cresswell - pdf copy

    Cresswell, M. 2.7.2004 Psychiatric 'Survivor' Knowledge and Testimonies of Selfharm - A paper delivered at 2nd International Conference (Imaging Social Movements) of The Social and Cultural Movements Group, at Edge Hill College, UK, Thursday 1.7.2004 to Saturday 3.7.2004. - pdf copy

    Originally available as a pdf on the conference website. Also preserved in the international archive

    Cresswell, M. 22.4.2005 "Psychiatric 'survivors' and testimonies of self-harm" Social Science and Medicine Volume 61, Issue 8, October 2005, pp 1668-1677 - (Available online 22.4.2005) - pdf copy
    Abstract: UK "Psychiatric Survivors" - a variety of activist groups comprising individuals who have been on the "receiving end" of psychiatric treatment - have, since the mid-1980s, mounted a challenge to the psychiatric system. "Survivors" have formulated their own knowledge-base concerning a range of human problems hitherto regarded as the province of "official" psychiatry only. "Official" knowledge stresses scientific classification, professional expertise, and statistical evidence: "Survivor" knowledge, by contrast, emphasises individual experience, the traumas of the life-course, and the personal testimony of the survivor as itself expert data. This paper focuses upon the truth-claims enacted by the "testimony of the survivor" and the relation of "testimony" to political practice. Specifically, I analyse a key text containing the testimonies of female survivors whose behaviour has been officially labelled as "deliberate self-harm"; that is, women who harm themselves, through self- poisoning or self-laceration, and subsequently receive medical/psychiatric treatment. The main focus is upon the political functions of testimony in theory and practice-the ways in which "survivors" challenge the power of psychiatry.
    Article Outline
    Background: self-harm survivor activism, 1986-1996
    Testimony as truth-claim
    The political functions of testimony
    Testimony in action
    Performative violations

    Cresswell, M. 11.2005 "Self-Harm 'Survivors' and Psychiatry in England, 1988-1996" Social Theory and Health, Volume 3, Issue 4, November 2005 pp 259-285 - pdf copy
    Abstract: This paper considers aspects of language and its relation to political practices in psychiatry. It analyses the ways in which groups of psychiatric patients - self-defined 'self-harm survivors' - have resisted psychiatry's power to define their experiences in terms of the 'official' category, 'Deliberate self-harm' (DSH). DSH refers to self-inflicted injurious acts that do not result in death, including drug overdose and self-lacerations of the forearms and wrists. DSH is today considered a significant public health problem. Politically, the paper focuses upon a deployment of language in the form of metaphor: 'survivors' re-articulate their experiences as a 'silent scream', expressive of their trauma and distress, and they oppose this to the hegemony of psychiatric definitions (eg the label DSH). Utilizing key texts of survivors, the paper analyses the history of this deployment between the years 1988 and 1996 in England. The analysis is framed within the context of survivors' political struggle with psychiatry, a struggle which takes its impetus from a confluence of mental health and feminist movements. Theoretically, approaches to 'discourse' are engaged, drawing upon the works of Michel Foucault and Ernesto Laclau.

    Cresswell, M. 2006 Arguing about Self-harm: Contrasting knowledges of self-poisoning and self-injury by Mark Cresswell. Ph.D Thesis Manchester: University of Manchester School of Social Sciences. 2006. 305 pages.

    Cresswell, M. 2007 "Self-harm and the politics of experience". Journal of Critical Psychology Volume 7, Issue 1, Spring 2007, pp 9-17

    Cresswell, M. 29.5.2008 "Problems with academic writing on the history of psychiatric user/survivor activism - some notes on the 'History of Mental Health Service User/Survivor Movement Group' meeting 29.5.2008"

    pdf copy of the whole report

    Cresswell, M. 2008/Szasz "Szasz and His Interlocutors: Reconsidering Thomas Szasz's "Myth of Mental Illness" Thesis". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38:1 - 0021-8308 pdf copy

    Cresswell, M. 22.8.2009 "Asylum to Action, 'Survivors' history, and the symbols of a movement". Survivors History Group. 22.8.2009. Available at
    This is review of Helen Spandler's Asylum to Action, Paddington Day Hospital, Therapeutic Communities and Beyond 2006

    Draft offline 1 - 2 - 3 of "Survivors' history and the symbols of a movement - A review of Helen Spandler's Asylum to Action, by Mark Cresswell. To be published in Asylum

    Mark Cresswell and Helen Spandler

    Cresswell, C. and Spandler, S. 2009 "Psychopolitics: Peter Sedgwick's legacy for the politics of mental health" Social Theory and Health Volume 7, 2, pages 129-147. Palgrave Macmillan 2009 - pdf copy

    Cresswell, M. 14.7.2010 History of Self-Harm Activism, 1986 - 2004 . PowerPoint presentation. Mark Cresswell for the Survivor History Group. Centre of Excellence in Interdisciplinary Mental Health, University of Birmingham, 14.7.2010. download

    Mark Cresswell and Zulfi Karimova

    Cresswell, M. and Karimova, Z. 2010 "Self-Harm and Medicine's Moral Code: A Historical Perspective, 1950-2000" Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 12, Number 2, Summer 2010. Springer Publishing Company download

    Mark Cresswell and Helen Spandler

    Cresswell, M. and Spandler, H. forthcoming 2011? "The Engaged Academic: academic intellectuals and the psychiatric survivor movement".

    Cresswell, M. and Spandler, H. 2012 "The Engaged Academic: Academic intellectuals and the psychiatric survivor movement". Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest DOI:10.1080/14742837.2012.696821
    ABSTRACT: This paper considers some political and ethical issues associated with the 'academic intellectual' who researches social movements. It identifies some of the 'lived contradictions' such a role encounters and analyses some approaches to addressing these contradictions. In general, it concerns the 'politico-ethical stance' of the academic intellectual in relation to social movements and, as such, references the 'theory of the intellectual' associated with the work of Antonio Gramsci. More specifically, it considers that role in relation to one political 'field' and one type of movement: a field which we refer to, following the work of Peter Sedgwick, as 'psychopolitics', and a movement which, since the mid- to late-1980s, has been known as the 'psychiatric survivor' movement- psychiatric patients and their allies who campaign for the democratisation of the mental health system. In particular, through a comparison of two texts, Nick Crossley's Contesting Psychiatry and Kathryn Church's Forbidden Narratives, the paper contrasts different depths of engagement between academic intellectuals and the social movements which they research.

    Email review by Andrew Roberts 5.11.2012

    The article is written in a style that I find difficult to penetrate and I am grateful to Helen Spandler for helping me to understand it. Helen points out that it was not actually written for survivors , but targetted at a certain kind of academic audience. It is, however, about survivors and Mark and Helen are writing about the problems of engaging with survivors.

    I think the article is important - actually, I think it is very important. So I will try to explain why in my own language. The article is partly about Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)'s theory that thinking is as important a human activity as making things. Gramsci argued that we all think and so we are all intellectuals. However, society enables some of us to specialise in being intellectuals. Groups within society, for example, can give thinkers an opportunity to develop thoughts by putting us in contact with other thinkers. Survivors Speak Out, for example, gave Peter Campbell and Louise Pembroke (two outstanding "movement intellectuals" identified by Mark and Helen) opportunities to meet other survivors with whom they developed their ideas more fully than they would otherwise have been able to do. Gramsci calls the way society facilitates specialist thinking naturally like this "organic". However, organic intellectuals can sometimes develop into an "academic" group (not to be confused with "academia"), and this has been very important in the history of ideas. Academic intellectuals are not (on my reading of Gramsci) agents of the ruling class, as Mark and Helen seem to think, but a class that has gained a relative autonomy from the groups that generated it. The academic group preserves an intellectual tradition that can criticise (pragmatic) group thinking. Pragmatic group thinking is the group thinking that serves the interests of groups.

    There is an idealist tradition of academic intellect that Gramsci traces back to the ancient Greeks (Plato, Socrates etc) and which continues through a winding path in history to the critical philosophy of Rousseau, Kant and Hegal from which Gramsci's own version of marxism, in part, flows. Gramsci makes an effort to trace how this was able to survive in a class society and to continue relatively autonomously as the nature of the ruling class changed.

    So, why is this important? In my opinion it is important because it places intellect where it belongs, in the whole body of society and not in an elitist part called "academia". It is important because it preserves the concepts of critical objectivity that allow one to think about what is "true" and not just adopt a relativist position that any idea is as good as any other idea. It is important because it alerts us to where the development of social ideas may be taking place - in movements of ordinary people. (Who am I calling "ordinary"!). It is important because it does not rubbish the intellectual tradition which is (sometimes) preserved by academia, although in Gramsci's case it was preserved in prison (where the Fascists put him). Gramsci sees the dialogue between organic intellect and academic intellect as important for progress.

    If you look at Mark and Helen's article, you will see that they have a different interpretation of the issues to mine. I think they are most concerned about academia (universities) dialoguing with social movements and not so much with what Fabian (Tompsett) called "life- long learning" when we discussed some of this at a London meeting of the Survivor History Group. Whatever people think about this, I hope you will agree that Mark and Helen have raised interesting and important issues. I also think that Nick Crossley's reply raises interesting and important issues - Some of which I think my email relates to.

    P.K. Crimmin: National Maritime Museum, Greenwich

    Crimmin, P.K. 12.1999 "The Sick and Hurt Board and the health of seamen c. 1700-1806" Journal of Maritime Research December 1999, available at - offline

    Richard Crocket 1914-2007

    Crocket, R.W. 1943 "Inpatient Care of general hospital psychiatric patients" British Medical Journal 18.7.1943, pp. 122-125.

    Crocket, R.W. 1951 "Affective contact in Psychosomatic Disorder: Problems in the General Hospital", paper read at the International Congress for Psychotherapeutics Leyden, September 1951.

    Crocket, R.W. 1952 "Psychiatric findings in Crohn's Disease", Lancet, 10 May 1952, pp.946-953.

    Crocket, R.W. 1957 "The Therapeutic Community Approach in a Neurosis Centre", address to the Runwell Hospital Medical Society, November 1957.

    Crocket, R.W. 6.12.1958 The cardiorespiratory syndrome of extreme obesity" The Lancet Volume 272, Issue 7058, Page 1236, 6.12.1958

    Crocket, R.W. 1960 "Doctors, Administrators and Therapeutic Communities" The Lancet Volume 276, Issue 7146, Pages 359 - 363, 13.8.1960,

    Richard Crocket and Christine Hassall (Research Social Worker)

    Crocket, R.W. and Hassall, C. 1961 Treatment and Results at the Ingrebourne Centre, St. George's Hospital, Hornchurch, Essex. April 1st 1957 to March 31st 1959, Report to the North-East London Regional Hospital Board (copy available at the PETT archive).

    Crocket, R.W. 1962a "Initiation of the Therapeutic Community Approach to Treatment in a Neurosis Centre" International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 12, p.180.

    Crocket, R.W. 1962c The School as a Therapeutic Institution, address to the Essex Teacher's Association.

    Crocket, R.W. May 1962 "Community Treatment and the boundaries of group and Individual Hospital treatment", chairman's address to the Psychotherapy and Social Psychiatry Section of the RMPA, May 1962.

    Richard Crocket, Ronald A Sandison and Alexander Walk

    Crocket, R.W., Sandison, R.A. and Walk, A. 1963 (Editors) Hallucinogenic Drugs and their Psychotherapeutic Use, The Proceedings of the Quarterly Meeting of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association1 in London, February 1961 London, H.K. Lewis (for the RMPA). ivx and 191 pages.
    "Richard Crocket and I spent the next year editing the proceedings together with some valuable help from Alexander Walk" (Sandison 2001)
    Contents: Introduction, acknowledgements, list of chairmen and invited participants, 23 papers arranged into six sessions - each with a discussion, index.
    Contributors: G. W. Arendsen-Hein, Stephen Black, P. B. Bradley, Kenneth Cameron, G. Morris Carstairs, A. Cerletti, Richard Crocket, Brian M. Davies, Jean Delay, H. M. de Groot, Betty Grover Eisner, Michael Fordham, E. H. Gombrich, S. T. Hayward, Francis Huxley, Murray Jackson, Brian J. Key, Frank Lake, Carl Lambert, T. Lemprire, F. Letemendia, H. Leuner, G. B. Leyton, T. M. Ling, T. F. Main, P. McKellar, E. Marley, Joyce Martin, Christopher Mayhew, Raymond Mortimer, Pirre Pichot, H. H. Price, Linford Rees, C. H. van Rhijn, Ismond Rosen, Martin Roth, R. A. Sandison, H. J. Shorvon, J. R. Smythies, Hannah Steinberg, A. M. Spencer, Gordon Rattray Taylor, and A. Walk.

    Crocket, R.W. 1964 "Authority and Permissiveness in the Psychotherapeutic Community: Theoretical Perspectives" 6th International Congress of Psychotherapy (reprinted 1966, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 20 (4), pp.669-676).

    Richard Crocket and Ronald St Blaize-Molony

    Crocket, R. and St Blaize-Molony, R. 1964 "Social ramifications of the therapeutic community approach in psychotherapy" British Journal of Medical Psychology, 37: June 1964 pp 153-156.
    doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8341.1964.tb01983.x
    [Adapted from a paper read at the 5th International Congress for Psychotherapy, Vienna, 1961]

    Richard Crocket and Christine Hassall (Research Social Worker)

    Crocket, R.W. and Hassall, C. 1964 "The concordance between assessment at interview of objective and subjective disability" British Journal of Psychiatry 110, July 1964 pp.571-573.

    Crocket, R.W. 1965 The Results of Treatment in a Psychotherapeutic Community MD thesis: University of Glasgow.

    Crocket, R.W. 1965a "The Religious Community as a Hospital Analogue" address to Southwark Diocesan Training Centre.

    Crocket, R.W. April 1966 "Acting-Out as a Mode of Communication in the Psychotherapeutic Community" The British Journal of Psychiatry April 1966, Volume 112, Issue 485 pp 383-388

    Crocket, R.W. 1966b "Authority and Permissiveness in the Psychotherapeutic Community: Theoretical Perspectives" American Journal of Psychotherapy 20, 4. pp 669-676

    Crocket, R.W. 1967 "Personality in Mental Health". Address to Chelmsford Diocesan Committee for Family Life, 29.6.1967.

    Crocket, R.W. 1968 "Diary of a Trip to the United States, 13 May 1968 - 15 June 1968".

    Crocket, R.W. 1971 "Round Table Conference on Therapeutic Community" unpublished private paper (available at PETT archive).

    Crocket R.W. 18.12.1971 Letter in The Lancet

    Crocket, R.W. 1972 "Notes on the architectural requirements of the therapeutic community approach to psychiatry in district general hospitals"

    Crocket, R.W. 1973 "Therapeutic community adaptation of standard plans for district general hospital psychiatric units"

    Crocket, R.W. 1975 "Why do we do it this way? A Social Network Approach to Theory in the Therapeutic Community" in The Changing Forms of Therapeutic Communities (Proceedings of a joint conference of MIND and the Association of Therapeutic Communities, The Hayes, Derbyshire, June 1975).

    Crocket, R.W. June 1975 "Reading List" The British Journal of Psychiatry June 1975, Volume 126 pp 593-594;

    Richard Crocket - Nicholas (Nick) Manning, - Jan Lees - and David Millard

    Crocket, R.W., Manning, N., Lees, J. and Millard, D.W. 1978 "Community Time Structures" Association of Therapeutic Communities Bulletin No. 25, pp.12-17.

    Crocket, R.W. 1977 Letter for the Newsletter of the Society of Clinical Psychiatrists - offline

    Crocket, R.W. 1979 "The therapeutic community and social network theory". Chapter 13 in Hinshelwood, R.D. & Manning, N. (editors) Therapeutic Communities: Reflections and Progress

    Crocket, R.W. 1985 "On Claire Baron's paper 'The Paddington Day Hospital: Crisis and Control in a Therapeutic Institution'" International Journal of Therapeutic Communities 6, pp.109-114.

    Crocket, R.W. 1997 The Theory of the Therapeutic Community. An approach to structural psychiatry and the use of Intensive Treatment Networks in Psychiatry: An Essay in Space, Time, Love and Hate, unpublished ms., available at PETT archive

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    John Cromby 1961-, David Harper 1965- and Paula Reavey
    John Cromby, Senior Lecturer University of Loughborough, David Harper, Reader in Clinical Psychology University of East London, Paula Reavey, Professor of Psychology London South Bank University.

    Cromby, J., Harper, D. and Reavey, P. 2013 Psychology, Mental Health and Distress Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 452 pages
    Part One: Concepts
    1. From disorder to experience p.3
    2. History p.19
    3. Culture p.55
    4. Biology p.75
    5. Diagnosis and formulation by Lucy Johnstone p.101
    6. Causal influences: with Lucy Johnstone p.118
    7. Service users and survivors by Peter Campbell, Jacqui Dillon and Eleanor Longden p.139
    8. Interventions p.158
    Part Two: Forms of distress
    9. Sadness and worry p.193
    10. Sexuality and gender p.219
    11. Madness by John Read and Richard Bentall p.249
    12. Distressing bodies and eating p.283
    13. Disordered Personalities p.308

    Nick Crossley 1968 -

    The following project started before the date of the start of the grant below. 2.9.1998 to 20.7.1999 Small grant (£2,435.00) R000222187 to Nick Crossley of The University of Manchester (Sociology) "Mental Health Activism in the Post-war Public Sphere: A socio- historical analysis" "This project examines the history of mental health pressure groups (e.g. MIND and SANE) and social movements (e.g. anti- psychiatry, mental hygiene and the user movement) in post-war Britain. It aims to investigate how and why the groups/movements have emerged and to consider their various activities in and outside of the mental health arena. The project will shed light upon a group of agents (i.e. the groups and movements) who are central to contemporary psychiatry but who tend to be overlooked in most accounts of it. In addition it will shed light upon the politics of psychiatry in the recent era, and particularly the conflicts of opinion which have emerged around such issues as: location of community psychiatric units, the civil rights of patients, the exclusion and inclusion of the patients from the community, the rights of patients relatives and of the community, dangerous treatments and the right to refuse them, mental health policy, alternatives to psychiatry." (source)

    Nick Crossley and Michele L. Crossley

    Crossley, N. and Crossley, M. 1998 "HIV, Empowerment and the Sick Role", Health, 2(2): pp 157-174.

    Crossley, N. 1998a "R.D. Laing and British Anti-psychiatry: A Socio- historical Analysis", Social Science and Medicine, 47(7): pp 877- 889.

    Crossley, N. 1998b "Transforming the Mental Health Field: The Early History of the National Association for Mental Health", Sociology of Health and Illness, 20(4): pp 458-488.

    Crossley, N. 1999a 'Fish, field, habitus and madness: the first wave mental health users movement in Britain', British Journal of Sociology, volume 50, number 4, pages 647-70.

    Abstract: "This paper traces and explains the emergence of the mental health users movement in Great Britain, focusing specically upon the formation of the Mental Patients Union in the early 1970s. The analysis presented in the paper draws, to some extent, from conventional movement theory. In addition, however, it draws from the work of Pierre Bourdieu. This represents an innovation in movement analysis and the necessity of this innovation is argued for in an early section of the paper".

    Crossley, N. 1999b "Social Movements and Working Utopias", Sociology, 33(4): pp 809-830.

    At this stage, Nick Crossley had interviewed 30 people and found he had interviewed or tried to interview everybody his interviewees identified as a "key player" in the movement. "Seven out of the thirty... had visited Trieste" "they are a ... a full set of key players rather than a selective sample" "Through these seven players many hundreds of people were introduced to the developments at Trieste" (p.812) Only five are quoted. They can be identified as Alec Jenner - Shula Ramon - Nigel Rose - Mark Greenwood - and Stephen Ticktin

    Michele L. Crossley and Nick Crossley

    Crossley, M.L. and Crossley, N. 2001 "'Patient' voices, social movements and the habitus; how psychiatric survivors 'speak out'" Social Science and Medicine 52 (2001) pp 1477-1489

    Crossley, N. 2001a The Social Body: Habit, Identity and Desire, London: Sage.

    Crossley, N. 2001b "The Phenomenological Habitus and its Construction", Theory and Society, 30: pp 81-120.

    Crossley, N. 2002a Making Sense of Social Movements Buckingham : Open University Press. 207 pages.

    Social unrest, movement culture and identity the symbolic interactionists
    Smelser's value-added approach
    Rational actor theory
    Resources, networks and organizations
    Opportunities, cognition and biography
    Repertoires, frames and cycles
    New social movements
    Social movements and the theory of practice a new synthesis

    "offers a new perspective, based upon the work of the leading social theorist, Pierre Bourdieu" - See resistance habitus

    Crossley, N. 2002c "Repertoires of Contention and Tactical Diversity in the UK Psychiatric Survivors Movement: the question of appropriation". Social Movement Studies, Volume 1, No. 1, 2002

    Abstract: This paper seeks to advance our understanding of the processes whereby particular techniques of protest are selected from societal 'repertoires of contention'. Empirically, it focuses upon data which have been gathered on activists within mental health movements in the UK. Theoretically, it seeks to make a case for use of the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically his concepts of 'habitus', 'capital' and 'field'....

    Crossley, N. 2004 "Not being mentally ill: Social movements, system survivors and the oppositional habitus" Anthropology and Medicine 2004, volume 11; no. 2, pp 161-180

    Abstract: "Much of the social scientific work on psychiatry and mental health, from a variety of competing perspectives, has focused upon power and the social construction of 'mental illness'. Very little attention has been paid to resistance or to the various ways in which 'patients' or 'survivors' (as some now prefer to refer to themselves) have sought to socially deconstruct 'mental illness'. This paper seeks to redress that balance by way of a detailed examination of some of the key practices of resistance which have developed within the context of the UK mental health survivors movement. Using key concepts from Bourdieu's theory of practice, it examines the challenge which survivors have mounted to the symbolic power of psychiatry, and the resistance habitus which their opposition has given rise to."

    Crossley, N. 10.3.2005 Mental Health Activism in the Post-War Public Sphere: A Socio-Historical Analysis. Award no. R000222187 - Dr. N. Crossley Full Full report at 47d0-abd1-6a7348c0e699. Research Summary at esrc/grants/R000222187/outputs/Read/78f1e34e-2282-4939-985e- a1bebdae1a98

    Crossley, N. 2006 Contesting Psychiatry: Social Movements in Mental Health, London: Routledge.

    Introduction: researching resistance
    1. Social movements, SMOs and fields of contention...... p.13
    2. A value-added model of mobilisation ...... p.30
    3. Contextualising contention : a potted history of the mental health field ...... p.47
    4. Mental hygiene and early protests : 1930-60 ...... p.69
    5. Anti-psychiatry and 'the Sixties' ...... p.99
    6. Parents, people and a radical change of MIND ...... p.126
    7. A union of mental patients ...... p.144
    8. Networks, survivors and international connections ...... p.164
    9. Consolidation and backlash. ...... p.191

    I cannot find out the origin of the following "contents list" that appears on the internet: 1. Introduction 2. The Mental Health Field 3. Power, Strain and Social Movement 4. Mental Hygiene and Mental Health Politics in the 1950s 5. Anti-Psychiatry and Civil Rights 6. Patients and Survivors 7. Panic, Backlash and Counter-Backlash 8. Power and Resistance. It does not correspond to my copy of the book.

    Crossley, N. 2006b "The field of psychiatric contention in the UK, 1960-2000" Social Science and Medicine 62 (2006) pp 552-563

    Crossley, N. 2010 "The Social World of the Network. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Elements in Social Network Analysis" Sociologica 1/2010 available

    Nick Crossley and Joseph Ibrahim

    Crossley, N. and Ibrahim, J. 2012 "Critical Mass, Social Networks and Collective Action: Exploring Student Political Worlds" Sociology August 2012 46: pp 596-612

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    5. Back in circulation [10.9.1903]

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    Mark Gallagher 1984-

    Gallagher, M. 2016 "From asylum to action in Scotland: the emergence of the Scottish Union of Mental Patients, 1971-2" History of Psychiatry First published date: 28.11.2016. Available at 10.1177/0957154X16678124

    Gallagher, M. 2017 From mental patient to service user: deinstitutionalisation and the emergence of the Mental Health Service User Movement in Scotland, 1971 -2006. Glasgow University PhD thesis. Available at

    Gamage, R.C. 1899 History of the Chartist Movement 1837-1854. Merlin Press

    Norman Gash

    Gash, N. 1953 Politics in the Age of Peel: A study in the technique of parliamentary representation 1830-1850

    Gash, N. 1961 Mr Secretary Peel, the life of Sir Robert Peel to 1830 Longmans

    Gash, N. 1979 Aristocracy and People. Britain 1815-1865 Arnold

    [Some books still to be added]

    Hugh Gault

    Gault, H. 5.2008 "An expert by experience" The Psychologist May 2008 pp 462-463 [Article about John Thomas Perceval]

    Gault, H. Summer 2008 "Spencer Perceval: Private values and public virtues" The Historian - The magazine of the Historical Association Number 98, Summer 2008, pp 6-12

    Gault, H. 2009 1809: Between Hope and History: The Impetus to Reform in the Years Between Pitt and Liverpool 1806-1812 Gretton Books, Cambridge 6.4.2009. 253 pages

    Gault, H. 5.2009 "The enigmatic Mr Carr: A life less ordinary" (unpublished)

    Gault, H. 2010 Living History: A Family's 19th Century Gretton Books, Cambridge 8.6.2010 [A history of the family of Spencer Perceval]

    Michael Gelder, Dennis Gath, Richard Mayou

    Gelder, M., Gath, D., Mayou, R. 1983 Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry Oxford medical publications. Oxford : Oxford University Press. ix and 883 pages.

    "aims to provide an introduction to all the clinical topics required by the trainee psychiatrist".

    Gelder, M., Gath, D., Mayou, R. 1983/1989 Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry Second edition. Oxford medical publications. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
    Signs and symptoms of mental disorder -- Interviewing, clinical examination, and record keeping -- Classification in psychiatry -- Aetiology -- Personality disorder -- Neurosis I -- Neurosis II -- Affective disorders -- Schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders -- Paranoid symptoms and paranoid syndromes -- Organic psychiatry -- Psychiatry and medicine -- Suicide and deliberate self-harm -- The abuse of alcohol and drugs -- Problems of sexuality and gender -- Psychiatry of the elderly -- Drugs and other physical treatments -- Psychological treatment -- Psychiatric services -- Child psychiatry -- Mental retardation -- Forensic psychiatry -- Appendix : the law in England and Wales.

    Michael Gelder, Dennis Gath, Richard Mayou, Philip Cowen

    Gelder, M., Gath, D., Mayou, R. 1983/1996 Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry Third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1996. xi and 944 pages

    GEC: or Gibbs: The Complete Peerage, or a History of the House of Lords and all its members from the earliest times by G.E.C. [George Edward Cokayne 1825-1911], Vicary Gibbs and others.

    The Gentleman's Magazine Periodical publication, London 1731-1868

    Gibbon, C. 1878 The life of George Combe 2 volumes. London : Macmillan.

    Steve Gillard
    A musician by training, Steve Gillard began his research career in the Department of Peace Studies at Bradford University, winning a Cadbury Charitable Trust Fellowship to undertake a PhD in Youth, Identity and Conflict in the former-Yugoslavia (1999).
    (web biography)

    Gillard, S. 2000 Psychological 'conflict mapping' in Bosnia & Hercegovina : case study, critique and the renegotiation of theory Working paper, Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies ; 6. University of Bradford) 27 pages illustrated

    In 2001 Steve Gillard was appointed as Research and Development Manager for the new East Berkshire Mind. In this role he came across Strategies for Living and User Focused Monitoring

    Steve Gillard and Estelle Stacey

    Gillard, S. and Stacey, E. 2005 "All talk: experiencing userled research" A Life in the Day 2005 9:2 , pp 27-30. "Steve Gillard and Estelle Stacey of Slough User-Led Consultation (SULC) describe the particular benefits of people with experience of mental health problems undertaking research if the service users being interviewed are to feel able to talk freely and openly about their views and experiences of services".

    Joined St George's, University of London in 2005.

    2006 Guidelines: St George's guide to employing service user researchers. First edition produced for work on organisation change. Second edition 2013.

    Steve Gillard and Kati Turner

    Gillard, S. and Turner, K. 2009 (Presentation) "Does who we are make a difference to the research that we do? Evaluating the impact of service user involvement in mental health research" See SRNBSA6.4.2009

    Steve Gillard, Kati Turner, Kathleen Lovell, Kingsley Norton, Tom Clarke, Rachael Addicott, Gerry McGivern, Ewan Ferlie

    Gillard, S, and others 2010 "'Staying native': coproduction in mental health services research" International Journal of Public Sector Management 2010 23:6 , pp 567-577 (more details)

    Steve Gillard, Kati Turner, Marion Neffgen, Ian Griggs, Alexia Demetriou

    Gillard, S, and others 2010 "Doing research together: bringing down barriers through the 'coproduction' of personality disorder research", Mental Health Review Journal, Volume 15 Issue 4, pp. 29-35

    Abstract: Background: historical assumptions and knowledge about personality disorders (PDs) have inhibited efforts to improve PD services. Public and patient involvement in research has become a requirement of UK health services research. The potential for people with personal experiences of PD to 'coproduce' research knowledge as a means to transform PD services is largely unexplored.Objectives: to consider the extent to which research teams on two recent projects have 'coproduced' knowledge about PD, and the potential impact of coproduction on research findings and service delivery.Setting: two qualitative research projects were conducted by teams comprising conventional academic, clinical, service user and carer researchers. Reflective writing by researchers was analysed thematically to explore research objectives.Findings: researchers reported that their high expectations of research coproduction were mostly met, that findings would have been different without involvement of service user and carer researchers, and that the research would have wider credibility because of their involvement.Conclusions: coproduction is characterised by enabling perspectives from outside the conventional clinical-academic health research team to inform the research decision-making process, and by self- conscious reflection to make explicit how findings are shaped as a result. The potential to improve PD services by coproducing knowledge was demonstrated.

    Steve Gillard - Christine Edwards - Sarah White - Rachel White - Katie Adams - Lucy Davies - Katherine Green - Trevor Kettle - Judith Lathlean - Mike Lucock - Stephen Miller - Virginia Minogue - Christine Nugent - Lucy Simons and Kati Turner

    Gillard, S., Edwards, C., White, S., White, R., Adams, K., Davies, L., Green, K., Kettle, T., Lathlean, J., Lucock, M., Miller, S., Minogue, V., Nugent, C., Simons, L. and Turner, K. April 2010 "The barriers and facilitators of supporting self care in Mental Health NHS Trusts" Project Report. Southampton, U.K.: Report for the National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation programme April 2010 262 pages Available at

    22.9.2010 Detained patients - different narratives article received by International Journal of Social Research Methodology. Final version received 15.3.2011. Published online 4.8.2011. Published in print May 2012.

    Kati Turner and Steve Gillard

    Turner, K. and Gillard, S. 2011 "Still out there?" Is the service user voice becoming lost as user involvement moves into the mental health research mainstream? Chapter fifteen (pages 189-200) in the Policy Press (Bristol) publication Critical Perspectives on User Involvement edited by Marian Barnes and Phil Cotterell.

    Steve Gillard, Rohan Borschmann, Kati Turner, Norman Goodrich-Purnell, Kathleen Lovell and Mary Chambers

    Gillard, S., Borschmann, R., Turner, K., Goodrich-Purnell, N., Lovell, K. and Chambers, M. 2012 "Producing different analytical narratives, coproducing integrated analytical narrative: a qualitative study of UK detained mental health patient experience involving service user researchers" International Journal of Social Research Methodology Volume 15. No.3. May 2012 pp 239-254. Available at

    Steve Gillard, Kati Turner and Sarah Gibson

    Gillard, S, Turner, K and Gibson, S. 2013 Balancing Good Research with Good Mental Health. A Step-by-Step Guide to Employing and Supporting Service User Researchers, London: St. George's, University of London. Second edition available as an appendix to national guidelines.

    Steve Gillard, Kati Turner and Marion Neffgen

    Gillard, S., Turner, K. and Neffgen, M. 2013 "How does who we are shape the knowledge we produce? Doing collaborative research about personality disorders" Chapter five in Staddon, P. 2013 Mental Health Service Users in Research: Critical Sociological Perspectives

    Mary Chambers - Ann Gallagher - Rohan Borschmann - Steve Gillard - Kati Turner - and Xenya Kantaris

    Chambers, M., Gallagher, A., Borschmann, R., Gillard, S., Turner, K., and Kantaris, X. 2014 "The experiences of detained mental health service users: issues of dignity in care". Research article avaiable at

    Anonymous briefing summary of the Peer Worker Research Project available at . See funding 17.10.2011 Exploring the role of Peer Workers

    Steve Gillard and Jessica Holley

    Gillard, S. and Holley, J. 7.2014 "Peer workers in mental health services: literature overview" Advances in Psychiatric Treatment July 2014, 20 (4) 286-292; Available at

    Steve Gillard, Christine Edwards, Sarah Gibson, Jess Holley and Katherine Owen

    Gillard S, Edwards C, Gibson S, Holley J, Owen K. 7.2014 "New ways of working in mental health services: a qualitative, comparative case study assessing and informing the emergence of new peer worker roles in mental health services in England". Health Services and Delivery Research 2014; 2(19) July 2014. Available at

    Diana Gittins

    Gittins, D. 1998 Madness in its Place: narratives of Severalls Hospital, 1913-1997 London: Routledge, Memory and narrative series. 12 pages introductory, 242 pages. Oral history from patients and staff

    Fiona Godlee

    Godlee, F. 1985 Aspects of non-conformity: Quakers and the lunatic fringe Bynum, Porter and Shepherd 1985/2 pp 73-85

    David Gollaher 1949-

    Gollaher, D. 1995 Voice for the Mad: The life of Dorothea Dix New York: Free Press. xi and 538 pages.

    [Robert A. Woodruff, Junior] and Donald W. Goodwin and Samuel B. Guze

    Woodruff, R.A., Goodwin, D.W. and Guze, S.B. 1974 Psychiatric Diagnosis Oxford Medical Publications. New York; London [etc.]: Oxford University Press. xii and 221 pages [Later edition of this work by only Goodwin and Guze]

    Donald W. Goodwin and Samuel B. Guze

    Goodwin, D.W. and Guze, S.B. 1979 Psychiatric Diagnosis Second edition. xiii and 254 pages

    Third edition 1984 - Fourth edition 1989 - Fifth editin 1996 -

    Carol S. North and Sean H. Yutzy

    North, C.S. and Yutzy, S.H. 2010 Goodwin and Guze's Psychiatric Diagnosis Sixth edition. Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press, 2010. xxxii and 398 pages
    Evolution of psychiatric diagnosis -- Mood (affective) disorders -- Schizophrenic disorders -- Panic disorder and phobias -- Posttraumatic stress disorder -- Obsessive-compulsive disorder -- Eating disorders -- Somatization disorder (hysteria) -- Antisocial personality (sociopathy) -- Borderline personality disorder -- Alcoholism -- Drug dependence -- Delirium and dementia (acute and chronic brain syndromes) -- The psychiatric evaluation.

    Gray, Dennis, 1963 Spencer Perceval, The Evangelical Prime Minister. Manchester University Press.

    GLRO: Greater London Record Office. Contains the collection of the former Middlesex Record Office (MRO)

    Green, R. L. (Editor), 1954, Lewis Carroll's Diaries.

    George Griffith
    pseudonym of George C. Griffith-Jones, (1857-1906). He wrote about 47 books, about twenty of which were early science fiction, and some of which were documentaries on prisons.

    Griffith, G. 1903 Sidelights on Convict Life London, John Long.


    Two Years' Hard Labour

    A Convict Convalescent Home

    Women in Penal Servitude
    The Oasis of the Felon
    The House of the Doomed
    Prison as Home and Shelter
    Jacques Bonhomme in Transportation
    New Caledonia

    The Drag-Net of Justice
    New Caledonia

    The Beginning of the End
    Wormwood Scrubbs


    HAD: London Borough of Hackney, Hackney Archives Department

    Halevy, E. 1949 revised, A History of the English People in the Nineteenth Century. 6 volumes. References give volume and page number e.g. (Halevy, E. 1949, vol.1, p.2)

    Andrew Halliday

    Halliday, A. 1828 A General View of the Present State of Lunatics and Lunatic Asylums in Great Britain and Ireland London: Underwood.

    Ed Halliwell, Liz Main and Celia Richardson

    Halliwell, E., Main, L. and Richardson, C. 2007 The Fundamental Facts: The latest facts and figures on mental health. London: Mental Health Foundation
    Available facts/
    - how many people experience mental health problems? page 7
    - what are the main types of mental health problem? page 8
    - common mental health problems: page 9
    - severe mental illness: page 17
    - other types of mental illness: page 19
    - gender differences: page 27
    - black and minority ethnic groups: page 28
    - children and young people: page 28
    - older people: page 29
    - the prison population: page 30
    - homeless people: page 31
    - other groups: page 32
    - mental health and material deprivation: page 37
    - family related and social factors: page 38
    - physical health: page 39
    - spirituality: page 39
    - other factors: page 40
    4. TREATMENT AND CARE page 43
    - how many people seek help and use services? page 45
    - what treatment and care is available for mental health problems? page 46
    - treatment and coping: page 50
    - hidden cost: page 65
    - overall cost: page 66
    - health and social care costs: page 67
    - economic and social factors: page 70
    - mental health promotion: page 73
    - violence and mental health: page 74

    Hansard A record of what is said in the House of Commons or House of Lords. The Parliamentary History of England edited by William Cobbett from 1806 to 1812 and continued by Thomas Curson Hansard from 1812 to 1820 covers the period 1066 to 1803 in 36 volumes. The Parliamentary Register, a contemporary record of what is said, was published by Luke Hansard and his descendants from November 1774 to 1889. Since 1909 it has been published by His (Her) Majesty's Stationary Office.


    Hanwell County Asylum

    Hanwell 1842 The reports of the Visiting Justices of the County Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell, from the Easter Sessions 1839, to the Michaelmas Sessions, 1842 M'Gowan and Co. London. 244 pages. Consists the quarterly reports of the Committee of Visiting Justices (Charles Tulk, John Adams, Henry Pownall, chairmen) from No.49 (25.4.1839) to no.64 (27.10.1842). Financial statements, lists of Committee members and statistical tables are included periodically (George Whelan and Charles Wright, clerks, J. Morrison, accountant). A statement of the duties of ward attendants is included on p.168-183 and a "guide through the Hanwell Asylum - January 1843" on p.235-244 The asylum is referred to variously (sometimes in the same report) as the "County Lunatic Asylum at Hanwell", the "Middlesex Lunatic Asylum", "Hanwell Lunatic Asylum" and "Hanwell Asylum"

    Details from catalogue Wellcome Library

    Hare, E.H. 1959 "The Origin and Spread of Dementia Paralytica" Journal of Mental Science Volume 105, 1959, pages 594-627

    Valerie Harrington

    Harrington, V. 2004 Death of the Asylum: The run-down and closure of Prestwich Mental Hospital. M.Sc.Dissertation, CHSTM, University of Manchester.

    Harrington, V. 2008 Voices Beyond the Asylum: A post-war history of mental health services in Manchester and Salford. Ph.D.Thesis, CHSTM, University of Manchester.
    Available at

    "The aim of this thesis is to provide a local history of post-war mental health services beyond the asylum. The particular setting is Manchester and Salford, two adjacent but culturally and historically distinct cities in the north west of England. Through the lens of their mental health services, the thesis explores the post-war history of mental health care in England and Wales, from the inauguration of the NHS in 1948 through to its fiftieth anniversary in 1998."

    Harrington, V. 2009a "Innovation in a backwater: The Harpurhey Resettlement Team and the mental health services of North Manchester, 1982- 1987" Health and Place 15 (2009) pp 664-671

    Harrington, V. 2009b "National policy and local contexts: insights from the post-war history of mental health services in Manchester and Salford". Social Policy Association Conference on Policy Futures: Learning From the Past. Edinburgh. 29.6.2009-1.7.2009.

    Harrington, V. 2009c "Consensus and Conflict: Powell Street Community Mental Health Centre 1985-1994" Presentation Friday 3.4.2009 Whose Voice? Narratives in the history of health and social care. Health History West annual conference at Glenside Campus, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol.

    Hawkins, F. B. 1829 The Elements of Medical Statistics: Containing the substance of the Gulstonian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Physicians: with numerous additions, illustrative of the comparative salubrity, longevity, mortality, and prevalence of diseases in the principle countries and cities of the civilized world. By F. Bisset Hawkins, M.D. of Exeter College, Oxford; Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians; and physician to the Westminster General Dispensary. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, Paternoster Row. 234pp + 12 at front.

    Hawkins, F. B. 1831 The History of the Epidemic Spasmodic Cholera of Russia

    Hawkins, F. B. 1838 (German edition 1939) Germany, the Spirit of Her History, Literature, Social Condition and National Economy: illustrated by reference to her physical, moral, and political statistics, an by comparison with other countries. By Bisset Hawkins, M.D. Oxon, F.R.S, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians; Inspector of Prisons, Late Professor at King's College; and Member of the Royal Geographical and Statistical Societies. London.

    Hawkins, H. 1904 The Reminiscences of Sir Henry Hawkins (Now Lord Brompton) Edited by Richard Harris K.C., Nelson.


    Heidelberg 2005- Universit„tsKlinikum Heidelberg: Historisches available at Internet archive of the original

    See also Hans Prinzhorn

    David K. Henderson 1884-1965 and Robert Dick Gillespie 1897-1945
    Gillespie graduated from the University of Glasgow in
    1920 and was appointed an assistant physician at Glasgow Royal Mental Hospital by Henderson. He went to the Phipps Clinic to further train under Adolf Meyer. On his return in 1926, Henderson asked him to collaborate on the textbook. (source)

    Henderson, D.K. and Gillespie, R. D. 1927 A Text-Book of Psychiatry for Students and Practitioners

    Henderson, D.K. and Gillespie, R. D. 1944 A Text-Book of Psychiatry for Students and Practitioners Sixth edition

    Henderson, D.K. 1962/1963 "The History of the Royal Scottish Mental Hospitals"

    Harry Hendrick

    Hendrick, H. 2003 Child welfare: historical dimensions, contemporary debate (Revised edition) Bristol : Policy, 2003. 288 pages

    Nicholas Bethell Hervey

    Hervey, N.B. 1980 Bowhill House St Thomas's Hospital for Lunatics. Asylum for the Four Western Counties. 1801-1869 University of Exeter.

    Hervey, N.B. 1985 A slavish bowing down: the Lunacy Commission and the psychiatric profession 1845-60 Chapter 6 of Bynum, Porter and Shepherd 1985/2

    Hervey, N.B. 1986 Advocacy or folly: The Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society, 1845-63. Medical History (1986), v.30, 245-275

    Hervey, N.B. 1987 The Lunacy Commission 1845-60, with special reference to the implementation of policy in Kent and Surrey This is a doctoral thesis for the University of Bristol. There is a copy listed in the Wellcome Library Catalogue which contains above two articles by Nicholas in a pocket.

    Hervey, N.B. 1996: See Scull, MacKenzie and Hervey 1996.

    Anthony Highmore (1758-1829) "an English barrister and legal writer. ... active opponent of the slave trade and a supporter of hospitals and other public improvements" [All information from online booksellers' catalogues]

    Highmore, A. 1807 Treatise on the Law of Idiocy and Lunacy; to Which Is Subjoined an Appendix, Containing the Practice of the Court of Chancery on This Subject, and Some Useful Practical Forms. London: Printed for J. Butterworth/Dublin: J. Cooke, 1807. 16 pages introductory, 320 pages. Described as the second collection of laws relating to lunacy published in English, 100 years after the first (Brydall 1700). The only Engish collection of legal precedents relating to insanity in the 18th century, and as such a valuable reference. Brittain Medico-Legal Bibliography p. 85.

    Highmore, A. 1822 A Treatise on the Law of Idiocy and Lunacy. First American from the Last London Edition. To which is Subjoined an Appendix, Comprising a Selection of American Cases; in which some Important Subjects of this Treatise Have Been Investigated and New Principles Settled. Exeter, New Hampshire, USA: George Lamson. 10 pages introductory, 194 pages. Reprint 2003 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 2002024213. ISBN 1-58477-266-2. "First published in London in 1807, it was one of the first studies devoted exclusively to the subject. It deals with legal definitions of lunacy, the disabilities of lunatics, asylums and their regulation by statute, the nature of criminal insanity, and precedents regarding the treatment of lunatics before the law for various crimes".

    Hill, Brian, 1965 "A Poet's Brother. Henry Herbert Southey, MD". The Practitioner June 1965. vol 194.

    Hill, C., Martin, J., Roberts, A. 10.1975 A Directory of the Side Effects of Psychiatric Drugs "Written, produced and published by Chris Hill, Joan Martin M.Sc., and Andrew Roberts and available from Hackney Mental Patients Union, Robin Farquarson House, 37 Mayola Road, Clapton, London, E.5."

    See Subject Index Mental Disorder Treatments

    See Mental Health History Words

    David John Hill (1952 - )

    Hill. D 1983a Schizophrenia: The Medicalization of Social Control University of Cincinnati PhD thesis, 1983. 586 pages.

    Hill. D 1983b The Politics of Schizophrenia: Psychiatric oppression in the United States Lanham, MD, University Press of America, 12 introductory pages plus 577 pages. ISBN 081913614X [published February 1984?] and 0819136158 (paperback) [published January 1984?]. - Believed to be the thesis with another title. Its contents are 1. History of Madness - 2. the Invention of Schizophrenia - 3. Kraeplin and Bleuer from a social control perspective - 4. The scientific Status of 'schizophrenia' - 5. The politics of Diagnosis (classism, racism, sexism) - 6. Psychiatric violence (includes from scalpels to radiation, electrocution, tanquillisers and tardive dyskinensia) - 7. The forces resistant to change (includes psychological barriers, scientific barriers, psychiatric propaganda, psychiatric encroachment , economics, drug companies etc - It ends with a list of 'ex-patient groups'

    Robert Gardiner Hill (26.2.1811- 30.5.1878)

    Hill, R.G. 1838 Total abolition of personal restraint in the treatment of the Insane: A Lecture on the management of Lunatic Asylums, and the treatment of the Insane: delivered at the Mechanics' Institution, Lincoln, on the 21st of June, 1838: with statistical tables, illustrative of the system advocated in the lecture London: Simpkin, Marshall, and S. Highley

    Hill, R.G. and others 1842 State of the Lincoln Lunatic Asylum (instituted November 4, 1819) [eighteenth report] 45 pages, folded leaf of plates: illustrations, plan. Lincoln: printed by T.O. Brumby. Consists of the report of the chairman (Robert Gardiner Hill), report on the causes of lunacy (Edward Ffrench Bromhead), extracts from the report of the Commissioners in Lunacy, reports of the house surgeon (William Smith), lists of officers and subscribers, statistical tables, financial statements, extracts from the rules, a plan of the asylum with a view from the south east. (Wellcome Library Catalogue)

    Hill, R.G. 1857 A concise history of the entire abolition of mechanical restraint in the treatment of the insane: and of the introduction, success, and final triumph of the non-restraint system ; together with a reprint of a lecture delivered on the subject in the year 1838, and appendices, containing an account of the controversies and claims connected therewith 318 pages. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans

    Hill, R.G. 1870 Lunacy: its past and present with appendix History of the non-restraint system by B.W. Richardson. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer.

    Claire Hilton
    King's College, London
    "I am a consultant psychiatrist working with older people in Harrow, north west London. I have had a long term interest in history, and completed a MA in the History of Medicine at UCL in 2007".

    Thesis title: The development of mental health services for people over 65 years of age in England, up to 1989. Supervisor Professor Pat Thane (Centre for Contemporary British History at King's

    Hilton C. 2005 The clinical psychiatry of late life in Britain from 1950 to 1970: an overview. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 20, 423-428

    Hilton C. 2005 The origins of old age psychiatry in Britain in the 1940s History of Psychiatry 16, 267-289

    Hilton C. 2006 Post, Julius Ferdinand Hans Ernst (1913-2001), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edition, Oxford University Press

    Hilton C. 2006 Mill Hill Emergency Hospital 1939-1945 Psychiatric Bulletin 30,106-108

    Hilton C. 2007 An exploration of the patient's experience of electro-convulsive therapy in mid-twentieth century creative literature: A historical study with implications for practice today Journal of Affective Disorders 97, 5-12

    Hilton C. 2007 Felix Post (1913-2001) pioneer in the psychiatry of old age Journal of Medical Biography 15, 31-36.

    Hilton C. 2007 Changes in the Mental Health Acts between 1959 and 1983, with particular reference to consent to treatment for electroconvulsive therapy History of Psychiatry 18, 217-229

    Hilton C. 2007 A Jewish contribution to psychiatry: Edward Mapother, Aubrey Lewis and their Jewish and refugee colleagues at the Maudsley Hospital and Institute of Psychiatry 1933-1966 Jewish Historical Studies 41, 209-229

    Hilton C. 2007 Death and Dying in the Upanishads Bhagavad-Gita and Caraka Samhita Opticon1826, vol 2 no 1. Available at ath_in_Upanishads.pdf

    Hilton C. 2008 The provision of mental health services for people over 65 years of age in England 1970-78 History of Psychiatry 19, 297-320

    Hilton C, and Hilton B. 2009 Samuel Alderman Lomas (1838-1901) the man with two grave stones, his brother Muscot Atkin Lomas (1840-1907) and their lives in Victorian asylums Journal of Medical Biography 17 100-105

    Hilton C, Arie T, Nicolson M. 2009 A witness seminar: the development of old age psychiatry in Britain, 1960-1989. Themes, lessons and highlights International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Published Online: 12.10.2009. Available at RY=0

    Hilton C. 2010 Learning from history Old Age Psychiatrist (Faculty for the Psychiatry of Old Age newsletter) 51, 4-5

    Hilton C. 2010 The National Dementia Strategy: reiteration or reality? The Psychiatrist July 34: 292-294

    Hilton C. 10.11.2014 "Mentally ill older people aren't 'past it'" History and Policy paper 10.11.2014. Available at people-arent-past-it

    History of Psychiatry A Quarterly Journal (March, June, September, December) founded about 1989   homepage   archive of online issues March 2003 - December 2005 (now 2013!)

    June 2010; 21 (2)

    Pieter R Adriaens and Andreas De Block "The evolutionary turn in psychiatry: a historical overview" pp 131-143

    De Bont "Schizophrenia, evolution and the borders of biology: on Huxley et al.'s 1964 paper in Nature" pp 144-159

    Alison M Pearn "'This excellent observer .': the correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Crichton-Browne, 1869-75" pp 160-175

    Chloe Silverman, "'Birdwatching and baby-watching': Niko and Elisabeth Tinbergen's ethological approach to autism" pp 176-189,

    Marga Vicedo "The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love" pp 190-205

    Dennis Doyle "'Racial differences have to be considered': Lauretta Bender, Bellevue Hospital, and the African American psyche, 1936-52" pp 206-223

    Hodder, E. 1888 The Life and Work of the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury 3 volumes. Cassel. References give volume and page number e.g. (Hodder 1888 2, p. 61). A one volume "Popular" edition was published in 1892 References give page number e.g. (Hodder 1892 p. 106).

    Hodgkinson, R. 1966 "Provision for Pauper Lunatics, 1834-1871" Medical History vol. 10, 1966, pp 138-154.

    Hodgkinson, R. 1967 The Origins of the National Health Service 1834-1871. Wellcome Historical Medical Library

    John Hollingshead (1825-1904)

    Hollingshead, J. 1895 My Lifetime 2 volumes. Sampson Low, Marston & Co., London

    HO Home Office papers. Public Records Office, Kew.

    HO 20/13 A box containing three books. One is a register of criminal lunatics. The book reads from both ends. At one end, there is a register of the inmates of Bethlem Hospital. The nominal dates covered are 1819-1841 but dates in the period 1799-1843 are evident. Turning the book over, we find a ruled register recording the criminal lunatics held at institutions other than Bethlem. These are the "County" and the "Licensed" Asylums. Dates are similar, being 1800-1839. (Stuart Tamblin). Stuart has indexed all the names of patients in this book, with the asylum, date, where the patient was committed from, sometimes a crime, and any alias. This database is available on a floppy disk. See . Reference on this website is to Stuart's index.

    1829/1830 Reports
    HO 44/51 At the time of consulting indexed as: Reports of the Metropolitan Lunacy Commissioners 1830. They are 18 manuscript books in which are recorded, by house, the names of patients, date of admission and discharge, and (sometimes) who confined and who signed the medical certificate; along with the commissioners' minutes of visits to the house. The books are probably the London Clerk's Register. The commissioners names at the end of the minutes are all in the same hand. Pasted inside the books are lists of the licensed houses [1829/1830 Lists]. These are listed below. The Metropolitan Lunacy Commission...Controlling London's Madhouses discusses and gives information on many of the houses.

      HO 44/51 Books 1829/1830

      a. Hanwell, Lower Tooting, Fulham, Brook House, Gloucester House, Twickenham, Moorcroft House, Castle Bar, Blacklands House, Fisher House, Cowper House, Normand House, Sidney House.

      b. Pembroke House, Holly House, Whitmore House, Plaistow

      c. Northumberland House, Hollywood House, Althorpe House, Weston House, Surrey House, Ealing, Hope House, Kings Road, Numbers 34+35 Church Street Chelsea, Fulham Road, Winchmore Hill, Kensington Gore, Clapham Retreat, Battersea Fields, Turnham Green Terrace, Old Kent Road, Melina Place, Rawston St Brompton.

      d. whole book for Peckham House

      e. whole book for Bethnal House

      f. whole book for White House, Bethnal Green

      e. whole book for Hoxton House

      HO 44/51 Books 1830/1831

      A. Hanwell, Fulham Road, Hope House, Brook Green, Melina Place, Brook House, Castle Bar, Gloucester House, Moorcroft House, Fisher House, Sidney House.

      B. Holly House, Kensington House, Chelsea Retreat.

      C. Northumberland House, Kensington Gore, Hollywood House, Sleaford House, Weston House, Surrey House, Ealing, Audley House, Beufort House, Blacklands House, Cowper House.

      D. whole book for Peckham House

      E. Normand House, London House, Lower Tooting, Turnham Green, Winchmore Hill, Clapham Retreat.

      F. and G. two books for Bethnal House, the second having patients' names (not reports of visits).

      H. and I. two books for White House, Bethnal Green, the second having patients' names (not reports of visits).

      J. and K. two books for Hoxton House, the second having patients' names (not reports of visits).

    Gail A. Hornstein

    Hornstein, G. A. 2002 "Narratives of Madness, as Told from within." Chronicle of Higher Education 48: 20.

    Hornstein, G.A. 2008 Bibliography of First-Person Narratives of Madness In English (4th edition) Massachusetts (USA). Available from - offline - See Dale Peterson 1982

    Hornstein, G. A. 2009 Agnes's Jacket: A Psychologist's Search for the Meaning of Madness. New York: Rodale. 2012? Second edition with a new introduction published by PCCS Books

    Frank C. P. van der Horst and Réne van der Veer

    Horst, F.C.P. and Veer, R. 2009a "Changing attitudes towards the care of children in hospital: a new assessment of the influence of the work of Bowlby and Robertson in the UK, 1940-1970". Attachment and Human Development 11 (2), pp 119-142.

    Horst, F.C.P. and Veer, R. 2009b "Separation and divergence: the untold story of James Robertson's and John Bowlby's theoretical dispute on mother-child separation". Journal of the History of Behavioural Sciences Summer 2009, volume 45 (3), pp 236-252.

    Horst, F.C.P. and Veer, R. 2009c "Why we disagree to disagree: a reply to commentaries by Robertson and McGilly, and Lindsay" Attachment and Human Development

    Horst, F.C.P. and Veer, R. The ontogeny of an idea: John Bowlby and contemporaries on mother-child separation. History of Psychology

    Allan V. Horwitz and Teresa L. Scheid (1999)
    Scheid and Brown (2010)

    Horwitz, A.V. and Scheid, T.L. 1999 A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social contexts, theories, and systems Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. xvii and 676 pages.
    Part One: Approaches to Mental Health and Illness: Conflicting Definitions and Emphases:
    1. The nature of mental health and illness David Mechanic
    2. Measuring Mental Illness Jerome C. Wakefield
    3. The prevalence of mental illness Ronald C. Kessler and Sanyang Zhao
    4. Biological approaches to psychiatric disorders Sharon Schwartz
    5. Psychological approaches to mental illness Christopher Peterson
    6. Sociological approaches to mental illness Peggy A. Thoits
    7. The labeling theory of mental disorder (I): the role of social contingencies in the application of psychiatric labels Jo C. Phelan and Bruce C. Link
    Part Two The Social Context of Mental Health and Illness
    8. Stress and mental health: a conceptual overview Leonard Pearlin
    9. The Nature of Stressors Blair Wheaton
    10. Social Support and Coping Jay Turner
    11. Outcomes of the stress process Carol S. Aneshensel
    12. Family structure and processes William R. Avison
    13. Social networks and mental health Nan Lin and M. Kirsten Peek
    14. Socioeconomic stratification and mental disorder William W. Eaton and Carles Muntaner
    15. Work and unemployment as stressors Mary Clare Lennon
    16. Race and mental health: emerging patterns and promising approaches David R. Williams and Michelle Harris-Reid
    17. Social stressors in childhood and adolescence Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Frank L. Mott
    18. Well-being across the life course John Mirowsky and Catherine E. Ross
    19. Gender and mental health: do women have more psychopathology, men more, or both the same (and why) David A. Rochefort
    20. The labeling theory of mental disorder (II): The consequences of labeling Bruce C. Link and Jo C. Phelan
    Part Three: Mental Health Systems and Policy:
    21. How do people come to use mental health services? Current knowledge and changing perspectives Bernice A. Pescosolido and Carol A. Boyer
    22. Contemporary mental health systems and managed care Ronald W. Manderscheid, Marilyn J. Henderson, Michael J. Witkin and Joanne E. Atay
    23. Institutional care and its consequences for the delivery of mental health services Mark Schlesinger and Bradford Gray
    24. Integrating service delivery systems for persons with a severe mental illness Joseph P. Morrissey
    25. Mental health policymaking in the intergovernmental system David A. Rochefort
    26. Psychiatric rehabilitation services and outcomes: an overview Susan A. Pickett, Judith A. Cook and Lisa Razzano
    27. "An introduction to the mental health consumer movement" by Caroline L. Kaufmann
    28. Mental illness and the criminal justice system by Virginia Aldige Hiday
    29. The HIV-mental health challenge Stephen Crystal and Lori R. Schlosser
    30. Cultural diversity and mental health treatment David T. Takeuchi, Edwina Uehara and Gloria Maramba
    31. Mental health systems in cross-cultural context Harriet P. Lefley

    Teresa L. Scheid, Tony N. Brown

    Scheid, T.L. and Brown, T.N. 2010 (Editors) A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social contexts, theories, and systems Second edition. Cambridge; New York : Cambridge University Press. xix and 714 pages
    Part One: Introduction to Part one: approaches to mental health and illness Teresa L. Scheid and Tony N. Brown
    1. An overview of sociological perspectives on the definitions, causes, and responses to mental health and illness Allan V. Horwitz
    2. The measurement of mental disorder Jerome C. Wakefield and Mark F. Schmitz
    3. The prevalence of mental illness Ronald C. Kessler
    4. Biological approaches to psychiatric disorders: a sociological approach Sharon Schwartz and Cheryl Corcoran
    5. Psychological approaches to mental illness Christopher Peterson
    6. Sociological approaches to mental illness Peggy A. Thoits
    7. Viewing mental health from the complete state paradigm Corey L. M. Keyes and Barret Michalec
    8. Mental health systems in cross-cultural context Harriet P. Lefley
    Part Two: Introduction to Part two: the social context of mental health and illness Tony N. Brown and Teresa L. Scheid
    9. Stressors, stress, and distress Blair Wheaton and Shirin Montazer
    10. Social support and mental health R. Jay Turner and Robyn Lewis
    11. Work and unemployment as stressors Mary Clare Lennon and Laura Limonic
    12. Socio-economic stratification and mental disorder William W. Eaton, Carles Muntaner, and Jaime C. Sapag
    13. Gender and mental health: do males and females have different amounts or types of problems? Sara Rosenfield and Dena Smith
    14. Race and mental health: patterns and challenges David Williams, Manuela Costa, and Jacinta Leavell
    15. African American women and mental well-being: the triangulation of race, gender, and socioeconomic status Verna Keith and Diane Brown
    16. Marital status and mental health Kristi Williams, Adrianne Frech, and Daniel L. Carlson
    17. Stress and distress in childhood and adolescence Elizabeth G. Menaghan
    18. Psychopathology and risky sexual behaviors among black adolescents Cleo Howard Caldwell and Ebony Sandusky
    19. Well-being across the life course John Mirowsky and Catherine Ross
    20. Mental health and terrorism Robert J. Johnson and Steven E. Hobfoll
    Part Three: Introduction to Part three: mental health systems and policy Teresa L. Scheid and Tony N. Brown
    21. Understandng the context and dynamic processes of mental health treatment Bernice Pescosolido and Carol A. Boyer
    22. Cultural diversity and mental health treatment Emily Walton, Kateri Berasi, David T. Takeuchi, and Edwina S. Uehara
    23. The mental health consumers/survivors movement in the US by
    Athena McLean
    24. Mental illness and the criminal justice system Virginia Aldige Hiday and Padraic Burns
    25. Mental health in organizations and systems Michael Polgar
    26. Integrating service delivery systems for persons with severe mental illness Gary S. Cuddeback and Joseph Morrissey
    27. Consequences of managed care for mental health care providers Teresa L. Scheid
    28. Mental health and the changing context of HIV James Walkup and Stephen Crystal
    29. Labelling and stigma Bruce G. Link and Jo C. Phelan.

    Ida MacAlpine (1899-1974) and Richard Alfred Hunter (1923-1981) (Mother and son)

    Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1963 " John Thomas Perceval (1803-1876) Patient and Reformer" Richard Hunter, Ida Macalpine. Medical History October 1962; 6(4): pp 391- 395. Available at

    Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1963 Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry 1535-1860 Oxford University Press

    Hunter, R.A. and MacAlpine I. 1964 Introduction to Tuke, S. 1813

    Hunter, R.A 1966 Varieties of Psychopathological Experience by Carney Landis reviewed by Richard Hunter. Medical History January 1966; 10(1): pp 98-99. Available at

    Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1969 George Third and the Mad- Business Pantheon Books

    Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1974 Psychiatry for the Poor. 1851 Colney Hatch Asylum-Friern Hospital 1973. A medical and social history. Dawsons of Pall Mall

    Hunter and MacAlpine's Conolly: See Conolly

    Andrew Hughes 1953

    Hughes, A. Spring 1995 "Distress Awareness Training Agency". Asylum volume 9, No. 1, Spring 1995, pp 11-12
    " DATA is one of the few projects providing training that is composed of psychiatric system survivors"

    IC (British?) Imperial Calendar. An annual general reference book. Not found to be very reliable

    Illustrated London News: Weekly. Issue one 14.5.1842. Visit John Weedy's collection.

    Ireland, W.W. 1895 "Daniel Hack Tuke, MRCS, MD, LLD" Journal of Mental Science volume 41, pages 377-386

    Irish, D. 1700 Levamen infirmi: or, cordial counsel to the sick and diseased : Containing I. Advice concerning physick, and what a physician ought to be; with an account of the author's remedies, and how to take them. II. Concerning melancholy, frensie, and madness; in which, amongst other things, is shew'd, how far they differ from a conscience opprest with the sense of sin, and likewise how they differ among themselves. III. A miscellany of pious discourses, concerning the attributes of God; with ejaculations and prayers, according to scripture rule. Likewise an account of many things which have happen'd since the creation. To which are added several predictions of what may happen to the end of the world. The whole being enrich'd with physical, pious, moral & historical observations, delightful to read, & necessary to know "By D. Irish, practitioner in physick and surgery, now dwelling at Stoke, near Guilford in Surry, where he is ready to serve any person, to the utmost of his skill". London : printed for the author: and are to be sold by Isaac Walker, bookseller in Guilford, 1700 Main book is 127 pages. Caption titles: David Irish, practitioner in physick & chirurgery, his missellany of pious discourses: David Irish, practitioner in physick, his advice concerning melancholy, phrensie, and madness: Caption title: David Irish, practitioner in physick, his advice concerning physick.

    Eric Irwin Eric Irwin 1924-1987, Lesley Mitchell, Liz Durkin and Brian Douieb

    Sources about Eric Irwin:
    Frank Bangay 1988
    Mike Lawson's poem 1988
    Liz and Brian 2014 - Barbara Norden 2014

    Irwin, E., Mitchell, L., Durkin, L, and Douieb, B. 1972 The Need for a Mental Patients' Union - Some proposals, available at

    Irwin, E., Bangay, F., and Van Der Graaf, W. 11.1986 Eric Irwin and Frank Bangay interviewed by Wouther van de Graaf. Published Asylum April 1989. See November 1986

    Dana Crowley Jack

    Jack, D.C. 1991 Silencing the Self: Depression and women Cambridge, Massachusetts; London : Harvard University Press. 256 pages
    Part 1 Preparing to listen: visions of the self; the psychology of women; the obstacle of dependence; depressed women as guides.
    Part 2 Loss of self: loss of voice; the forms of connection.
    Part 3 Images of self in intimate relationship: the game; oneness; the wish to help; the way to help; the importance of pleasing; the cultural context.
    Part 4 Moral themes in women's depression: the "good me"; the inner dialogue of depression; cultural imperatives in the inner dialogue; the development of the over-eye; measuring beliefs about intimacy.
    Part 5 Silencing the self: the activity required to be passive; anger; learning self-silencing; silencing creativity; the divided self.
    Part 6 The self in dialogue - movement out of depression. Appendices: the women in the longitudinal study; the silencing the self scale.
    "... based on data gleaned from an intensive, longitudinal study of twelve clinically depressed women. Attending closely to the metaphors of loss and self-reproach these women use to describe their lives and their intimate relationships, Jack identifies a 'loss of self' as the most salient feature of female depression. Sharland Trotter "Women's Review of Books"

    Jack, DC. and Ali, A. 2010 (Editors) Silencing the self across cultures Oxford University Press

    See Subject Index Depression - Voice

    Catherine Jackson

    Jackson, C. 3.9.2008 "Mad pride and prejudices - The radical service user groups that sprung up in the 1970s helped change attitudes to mental health. Now their history is being written". Society Guardian Wednesday 3.9.2008 available at

    John Hughlings Jackson, 1835-1911 weblinks

    Jackson, J.H. 1881 "On temporary paralysis after epileptiform and epileptic seizures : a contribution to the study of dissolution of the nervous system, by J. Hughlings-Jackson ..., Physician to the London Hospital, and to the National Hospital for the Epileptic and Paralysed" in Brain Volume 3 pages 433-451

    Jackson, J.H. 1884 Evolution and dissolution of the nervous system: Croonian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Physician, March 1884

    Jackson, T.A. 1945 (2nd edition. 1st: 1940) Trials of British Freedom. Being studies in the history of the fight for democratic freedom in Britain. Lawrence and Wishart.

    Carl Wigand Maximilian Jacobi (1775-1858)

    Jacobi, C.W.M. 1834 Ueber die Anlegung und Einrichtung von Irren- Heilanstalten, mit ausfuhrlicher Darstellung der Irren-Heilanstalt zu Siegburg ... Mit 15 lithographirten Tafeln. 8o.

    translated into English as:

    Jacobi, C.W.M. 1841 On the construction and management of Hospitals for the Insane: with a particular notice of the Institution at Siegburg Translated by John Kitching (Medical Superintendent of the Friends' Retreat, near York). With introductory observations etc (75 pages) by Samuel Tuke, who also added editorial footnotes. John Churchill, 8o. lxxx + 298 pages + plan of a model asylum, Dr Esquirol's establishment at Ivry and Wakefield Asylum.

    Elly Jansen 1933? -

    Jansen, E. 1980 (Editor) The Therapeutic Community: Outside the hospital London : Croom Helm, for the Richmond Fellowship. 392 pages. Based on papers presented at the Richmond Fellowship International Conferences, 1973,1975 and 1976.

    Steven M. Jenkusky (M.D.)

    Jenkusky, S.M. 1992 "Public Perceptions of Electroconvulsive Therapy : A Historic Review," Jefferson Journal of Psychiatry: Vol. 10: Issue. 2, Article 3. Available at:

    See Subject Index Shock treatments -

    Suzie and Jean Johnson

    Johnson, J, 2005 Treading on Eggshells. The Cairn

    Johnson, S, 2003 The Naked Bird Watcher (Second, updated, edition (2004) published by The Cairn).

    Edgar Jones 1953-

    Jones, E. 10.2004 "War and the Practice of Psychotherapy: The UK Experience 1939-1960", Medical History 1.10.2004, volume 48: issue 4, pp 493-510 available at

    Edgar Jones and Neil Greenberg

    Jones, E. and Greenberg, N. 5.2006 "Royal Naval Psychiatry: Organization, Methods and Outcomes, 1900-1945", The Mariner's Mirror Vol. 92 No. 2 (May 2006). "Proof copy only" available at al%20Navy%20Psychiatry%20Jones&Greenberg.pdf - offline

    Kathleen Jones (7.4.1922 - 13.10.2010)
    Born Kathleen Savage. Graduated in Modern History from Oxford University. She married (David) Gwyn Jones (1917-1976) on 22.7.1944. Gwyn Jones provided her earliest links to mental hospitals. He was related to the superintendent of Runwell and became chaplin at Winwick from 1950 until 1955. Thir only son, Stephen Gwyn Jones, was born in Lambeth on 20.10.1948 (died York November 1993). "Married women with young children did not work in those days. I wanted to read up the history of mental hospitals, and I found that very little had been written. I started with a short article, and that grew into an MA project, and then into a doctorate." "When my son was old enough to go to school, the University of Manchester gave me a research assistant's post; and I owe a good deal to Dr Alexander Walk ... Alexander Walk knew far more about the history of mental hospitals than I shall ever know, but he did not write easily, and he encouraged me to do it"]

    Jones, K. 1953 Lunacy legislation and administration in England 1744-1845. 408 leaves. Thesis: (University of London) 1953. History (Board of Studies)

    The Research Assistant's post (grade three) was in the Department of Public and Social Administration. On obtaining her Ph.D she was appointed Assistant Lecturer for three years.

    Jones, K. 1955 Lunacy, Law and Conscience. 1744-1845: the social history of the care of the insane International Library of Sociology and Social Reconstruction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1955. x and 240 pages [There is a 1998 reprint available and also an online version]

    [In my research, I found this book historically unreliable. My research was focused on the 1840s]

    "Dr Alexander Walk, Librarian of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association, contributed much from his own store of knowledge on this subject, and made available sources of information which would have otherwise been inaccessible" (Preface, p.vii dated The University of Manchester, March 1954).

    19.7.1955 sailed from Liverpool on journey to Malaya where her husband was posted. 31.8.1957 Malaya independent. 13.3.1958 arrived back in Southampton. Gwyn became chaplain to the United Leeds Teaching Hospitals and she was appointed Lecturer in Social Administration at Manchester University (she commuted from Leeds).

    Jones, K. 1960 Mental Health and Social Policy 1845-1959 RKP International Library of Sociology and Social Reconstruction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1955. vii and 237 pages

    "Especial thanks are due to Dr Alexander Walk, of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association, for his detailed and valuable revision of the text in the final stages. (It is only fair to add that he does not wholly agree with the conclusions drawn n Chapter 1, maintaining that 'asylum doctors' in the 1845-90 period were more enlightened than the attitude of law-makers and investigators would suggest)" (Preface, p.vii dated The University of Manchester, May 1960).

    with Roy Sidebotham, W.V. Wadsworth, W.L. Tongue, and H.M.Price

    Jones, Sidebotham, Wadsworth, Tonge and Price 1961 "Cost and. Efficiency in Mental. Hospitals" Hospital (London). 57: pp 23-25,. 1961.

    with Roy Sidebotham 20.7.1927-1970
    A specialist in public sector accounting at Manchester University who became Professor of Accountancy at Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealnd in 1961.

    Jones, K. and Sidebotham, R. 1962 Mental Hospitals at Work International library of sociology and social reconstruction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1962. 210 pages.

    The idea for the research originated with Dr Wadsworth, the superintendent of Cheadle Royal - [1957: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust study 28. "Cheadle Royal Hospital and Manchester University Department of Social Administration". Subject: "Study of the cost of mental illness". Trust reports were made (4:34 and 5:46) and in "Med Offr 1960 103, 219" before the publication of Mental Hospitals at Work] See research in three hospitals June 1958 to June 1959 - "a patients' committee, and a patients' general meeting" - on consumer research 1961



    Chapter 5: Needs and resources
    Chapter 6: Simple measures of efficiency - 1
    Chapter 7: Simple measures of efficiency - 2
    Chapter 8: Complex measures of efficiency
    Chapter 9: Cost per case


    with Aileen Tillotson:
    Lecturer in Social Work at Leeds College of Commerce. For two years (1961-1962) she was attached to Manchester University to carry out the fieldwork for the
    Epilepsy Colony project.

    Jones, K. and Tillotson, A. 1962?: The adult population of epileptic colonies: Report on a patient-census carried out in the eleven Homes and Colonies for epileptic patients in Great Britain based on the population as at June 13th 1962 "Social Studies in Epilepsy" number 3. A thirty six page booklet published by the British Epilepsy Association and International Bureau for Epilepsy.

    Jones, K. and Tillotson, A. 1964 "The Population of Epileptic Colonies" in McLachlan, G. 1964 (Editor) Problems and Progress in Medical Care London.

    Jones, K. 1972 A History of the Mental Health Services RKP

    Peter Kennedy: In 1976, you became an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. What did that mean to you?

    Kathleen Jones: I was very much honoured. Dr Walk sat in the front row, beaming, and said to me afterwards "I'm as pleased as if you were my own daughter". When I started work, psychiatrists and social scientists often collaborated in studying mental health systems - writers like Stanton and Schwarz, or John and Elaine Cummings in the States, and Maxwell Jones and Robert Rapoport over here. Now, of course, the two disciplines have moved apart. I have tried to repay my honorary fellowship by keeping them in some sort of contact with each othe

    Jones, K., Brown, B. and Bradshaw, J. 1978 Issues in Social Policy RKP

    Jones, K. and Fowles, A.J. 1984 Ideas on Institutions. Analyzing the Literature on Long-Term Care and Custody RKP. Theorists covered are Goffman - Foucault - Szasz - Russell Barton - Townsend - The Morrises - Rothman - Kittrie - Cohen and Taylor - Haney, Banks and Zimbardo - King and Elliot

    Jones, K. 1990 (2nd edition 1994) The Making of Social Policy in Britain 1830-1990 Athlone

    in conversation with Peter Kennedy
    Peter Kennedy - Psychiatrist and health service manager - born 31.5.1941 - died 27.10.2012

    Jones, K. and Kennedy, P. 1996 "Kathleen Jones in Conversation with Peter Kennedy" Psychiatric Bulletin 1996, 20: pp 474-479 available at

    without Jonathan Bradshaw
    [article written by Kathleen Jones for Jonathan Bradshaw]

    Jones, K. 2003 Kathleen Jones "talks to Jonathan Bradshaw about her career". Social Policy Matters June/July 2003. A slightly edited version appears as her own obituary on the University of York website at

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    Robert Jones
    Coordinator of
    SIMBA from April 2002. Funded by the Trust. His tasks included developing legal structures to enable the group to operate as a legally constituted organisation - attracting additional funding to secure stability and continuity of the group - expanding membership - developing the range of activities - overseeing day to day operational matters. (source)

    Jones, R. 2009 "A movement led by black service users in South London" in - Chapter 18 in Fernando, S. and Keating, F. 2009 pages 226- 231 (references at the end of the book pages 259-281)

    Stephen Jones

    Steven Jones, Fiona Lobban and Anne Cooke

    Jones, S., Lobban, F. and Cooke, A. 2010 (Editors) Understanding Bipolar Disorder British Psychological Society. Division of Clinical Psychology. Available at

    Journal of Abnormal Psychology A United States journal founded in 1906 and acquired by the American Psychological Association in 1926

    JHC Journal of the House of Commons
    JHL Journal of the House of Lords

    JHP Journal of the House of Commons or Lords

    Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology, edited by Forbes Winslow (1810-1874). Quarterly?. 1848 to 1860.

    Gerrit Parmele Judd

    Judd, G.P. 1955 Members of Parliament 1734-1832. (An attempt to show the relationship between the British ruling class and the House of Commons). [With a check-list of members]. Yale Historical Publications. Miscellany 61. New Haven

    Michael Kassler and Philip Olleson

    Kassler and Olleson 2001 Samuel Wesley (1766-1837): A Source Book Ashgate. (Click here for publisher's description and outline of the book)]

    Kassler, M. 2003 "Samuel Wesley's 'madness' of 1817-1818" in History of Psychiatry December 2003

    Caroline L. Kaufmann

    Kaufmann, C.L. 1999 "An introduction to the mental health consumer movement" in A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health edited by Allan V. Horwitz and Teresa L. Scheid. New York: Cambridge University Press

    (from the chapter) "Consumers of mental health services are an important group influencing mental health policies. Kaufmann provides an overview of the consumer movement and of self advocacy in mental health, describing the origins and purposes of the consumer movement. Sociologists have long studied the power of groups to affect broad social changes, and Kaufmann utilizes social movement theory to assess the likely impact of consumers on the delivery of mental health services. A critical problem for any social movement is the mobilization of resources, and the consumer movement is currently highly dependent upon the public mental health system. A key objective of the consumer movement is an expanded consumer role (for example, self-help groups or consumer-run services); this is part of a broader movement toward consumer empowerment. Consumer groups also share the goal of combatting the stigma of mental illness. However, Kaufmann describes areas of tension among different consumer advocacy groups- especially over the etiology of mental illnesses. The chapter ends by considering the challenge of managed care to service delivery and advocacy groups." (source)

    Keely, T.S. 1944 "One Hundred Years of Lunacy Administration" The Cambridge Law Journal. Volume 8, pages 195-200. An extended version of an article first published in The Times 27.10.1942

    David Kessel 1947-

    Kessel, D. 1989 the ivy - Collected Poems 1970-1989 David Kessel Contains: Women Stone [1985] - Simple Poem [1977] - The Ivy (for Wendy) [1975] - Elegy for Johnny - To The International Brigade [1972] - In a Southern English Seaside Town. For My Grandmother Emmie [1984] - Hungering [1979/1980] - For Zoe [July 1987] - The Tree (for those suffering with schizophrenia) [1985] - 1984 The River. For Andrew Gleadall - How to Dance. An elegy for Keith Douglas [1986] - For Caroline - A Mug of Black Coffee [May 1987] - Possessed "She could be a bird, a dead man, a photograph" [December 1985] - For Drummond Allison [1987] - Disintegration [September 1985] - The Men of 45. For John Peck [May 1987] - Beautiful Ireland [August 1980] - In Finsbury Circus [June 1985] - Paranoia or Fucking Stupidity (Being the conjunction of my oddness with the oddness of the universe) [February 1989] - Commonground. For Liz Wright, Irish peasant woman [1987] - The Weald. Lines in memory of Keith Douglas [1988] - Woman. New Battleground [February 1985] - Desire (in loving gratitude of London busworkers) [October 1985] - In North London. [April 1986] - Desperate Sex [1986] - Search for a Mate [July 1980] - On Broadstairs Beach [July 1984] - Songs of Soho [1972] - Elegy For Lost Innocence. For Celia and John Lee [December 1985] - In Memory of Jude [Oxford 1982] - Intimacy [1982] - 1988 The Hungry Heart. For the people of Poplar - November 1985 England, O England (For Hilda and Ray Sims) - One Body, One Soul (in memory of Michael Robinson - London teacher anti-racist and communist) [1985] - Emily Bronte [1970] - Glass is Dynamite "The new world shines through all the windows of the old one" Lenin [1971] - Autumn By The Sea. In memory of my mother Peggy. [November 1986 (also mis-dated June 1986)] - For Emma Aged 10 [June 1986] - Bus No 253 [June 1986] - The Barren Age. For Londoners of my generation [August 1986] - The Black Heart [December 1985] - Extension to Sidney Keyes [September 1985] - New Cross. For John Van [1984] - Willesden High Street. For Ted Young [1984] - Limehouse [1991 (?)] - The Songthrush. [July 1988]

    Kessel, D. 1995/2000? the ivy - Collected Poems 1970-1994 David Kessel Poems added (with page): Arnham. In memory of my father Lippy, a battlefront surgeon at Arnhem. February 1991 (6) - Life Poem. April 1994 (7) - Disgusting Times. February 1991 (13) - Ireland. July 1990 (27) - Mike Mosley. February 1991 (32) - My Youth. July 1993 (33) [Re-titled Inheritance 2006, p.86] - Over The Top (37) [1994] - Schizoid. June 1991 [July 1991] (40) - The Fisherman June 1993 (61) - To Bleed With Her. February 1992 (69) - The Park. April 1990 (70) - Man-Stone. October 1991 (71)

    John Zammit, David Kessel and David Amery September 1999 Outsider Poems contains The Vixen - In Memory of Jude - Willesden High Street - My Youth - Paranoia or Fucking Stupidity - A Mug of Black Coffee - London - Possessed - Poetry and Poverty - Mike Mosley - The River - New Cross - To Bleed With Her - Intimacy - Schizoid - The Stillness -

    Kessel, D. 2006 Collected Poems (1970-2006) O the Windows of the Bookshop Must be Broken edited by Alan Morrison, Survivors' Press. Poems added (with page): For Desmond Trotter. 1974 (26) - Across the City Grey Clouds Heavy With Rain 1977 (28) - Broadstairs Beach on Jubilee Day. 1977 [31] - From Hell to Hackney. 1978 (32) - Fragment. 1979 (33) - The Vixen [1999 (1997?)] (89) - London [1999] (90) - Poetry and Poverty. A Declaration [1999] (91) - The Stillness [1999] (92) - Life Against Death [1999] (93) - Summer Rain [2000] (94) - Human Hope and Hackney [2005] (95) - Tough One [Tuesday 21.6.2005] (96) - Hillside, Llangattock [August 2005] (97) -

    Kessel, D. 2007 Auáenseitergedichte

    Kessel, D. and others 2013 Ravaged Wonderful Earth - A Collection for David Kessel outsider poets in collaboration with F.E.E.L. Stepney July 2013.

    offline review by William Park to be published in Asylum March 2018. - "OUTSIDE OR INSIDE? TWO VIEWS ON SURVIVOR CULTURE" includes the review and "Outsider culture - David Kessel - Howard Mingham - Survivors Poetry: Andrew Roberts from the Survivors History Group reflects on William Park's review in relation to the preservation of survivor identity and culture." (offline)

    David King
    Exeter District Administrator 1974-
    Mental Health Task Force 1992-

    King, D. 1991 Moving on from Mental Hospitals to Community Care: A case study of chage in Exeter London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust. ISBN: 0900574771 xv and 119 pages. Available at mental-hospitals-community-care-case-study-change-exeter

    Albert Kenneth Roland Kiralfy 1915-2001

    Kiralfy, A.K.R. 1954/1960 (3rd edition 1960) The English Legal System. Sweet and Maxwell.

    Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926)

    Kraepelin, E. 1883 Kompendium der Psychiatrie

    Kraepelin, E. 1887 Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte Second edition. Leipzig: Ambr. Abel, 1887. xii and 540 pages

    Kraepelin, E. 1889 Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte Third edition. Series Abel's medicinische Lehrbücher Leipzig : A. Abel, 1889. viii and 584 pages

    Kraepelin, E. 1894 Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte Fourth edition. Leipzig: A. Abel, 1894. 702 pages

    Kraepelin, E. 1896 Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte Fifth edition. Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1896. xiv and 825 pages. 10 leaves of plates.

    Kraepelin, E. 1899 Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte Sixth edition. Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth. Two volumes: Volume 1: Allgemeine Psychiatrie. Volume 2: Klinische Psychiatrie.

    Emil Kraepelin and Allen Ross Defendorf 1871-

    Kraepelin, E. (Defendorf) 1902 Clinical psychiatry : a textbook for students and physicians / abstracted and adapted from the sixth German edition of Kraepelin's "Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie" by A. Ross Defendorf. New York ; London : The Macmillan Company, 1902. xi and 420 pages

    1903: Move from the Heidelberg Clinic to Munich

    Kraepelin, E. 1903/1904 Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte Seventh edition. Two volumes: 478 and 892 pages

    Kraepelin, E. 1909/1915 Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte Eighth edition. Four volumes: Volume 1: Allgemeine Psychiatrie. Volumes 2, 3 and 4: Klinische Psychiatrie.

    Kraepelin, E. 1918/1962 One Hundred Years of Psychiatry Translated from the German by Wade Baskin. Peter Owen, London.

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    Max Lafont 1950- See Vichy France

    J.L.T. Birley "Famine: the distant shadow over French psychiatry" in The British Journal of Psychiatry (2002) 180: 298-299 provides an English introduction to Lafont

    Lafont, M. 1981 Déterminisme sacrificiel et victimisation des malades mentaux, enquête et réflexions au sujet de la mortalitéliée aux privations dans les hôpitaux psychiatriques français pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale [Thesis]

    Lafont, M. 1987 L'extermination douce: la mort de 40,000 malades mentaux dans les hôpitaux psychiatriques en France, sous le régime de Vichy . Ligné : AREFPPI

    Lafont, M. 2000 L'extermination douce Preface by Lucien Bonnafé "Entre 1940 et 1944, 40,000 malades mentaux qui ne devaient pas mourir sont morts de faim dans les hôpitaux psychiatriques français" (Between 1940 and 1944, 40 000 mental patients, who would not otherwise have, died of hunger in French psychiatric hospitals]

    Lambert: Great Britain. House of Commons: Sessional papers of the eighteenth century edited by Sheila Lambert. 1975 147 volumes, two of which list papers from 1715 to 1800: vol.1 is introduction and list from 1715 to 1760; vol 2 is list from 1761 to 1800 and an index. The other volumes are reprinted papers.

    The Lancet:  Weekly medical journal, founded and edited by Thomas Wakley Sunday 5.10.1823. Reference by date and page only.

    Thomas Wakley remained editor to 1861. He was succeeded by James Goodchild Wakley, T.H. Wakley and T. Wakley.

    Editorial 21.9.1844 respecting the enlarged Lancet:

    "... although when those alterations were made in March last, The Lancet could boast of possessing the largest sale of any medical periodical then published in Europe, the circulation of the Journal has been more than doubled since the work has issued from the press in its enlarged and stamped form."

    2011 description: "The Lancet is the world's leading general medical journal and specialty journals in Oncology, Neurology and Infectious Diseases. Available online first. Free registration."

    " In 1823, reformer Thomas Wakley chose to call his medical journal The Lancet as a play on words: his publication would both illuminate, like a lancet window, and "cut out the dross" like a surgical instrument. In his introduction to the first issue, Wakley signalled his intent to make his publication accessible to as wide an audience as possible, promising to "exclude from our pages the semibarbarous phraseology of the Schools, and adopt as its substitute, plain English diction"."

    Law lists or L.L. Annual Directories listing all barristers and attorneys with some information on their practice. I have treated as more reliable than the Imperial Calendar.

    Jeremy Laurance. 2003. Pure Madness. How fear drives the mental health system London. Routledge. [Reading on present day policy suggested by Chris Fitch]

    L.C.O. 9/1. One of 2 minute books of Chancery visitors in the custody of the Lord Chancellor's Office. "Board Minutes commencing 1856, Ending 18--". Contains minutes from 2.2.1856 to ????

    Raymond Lee is an historian with the British Deaf History Society. Much of the information respecting Pembroke House, the East India Company asylum, is based on notes he made when researching the previous use of the building (see below). He shared these with me by email.

    Lee, R. 7.2001 "Braidwoodian Buildings and Locations" in Deaf History Journal Vol. 5 Issue 1, August 2001 pp 16-36 (The Journal of the British Deaf History Society)

    Leff, J. Editor 1993 "The TAPS project: Evaluating community placement of long-stay psychiatric patients" British Journal of Psychiatry 162 (Supplement 19), pages 1-56.

    Leff, J., Trieman, N., and Gooch, C. 1996. Team for the assessment of psychiatric services (TAPS) project 33: Prospective follow-up study of long-stay patients discharged from 2 psychiatric hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, pages 1318-1324

    Brenda A. LeFrançois, Robert Menzies, and Geoffrey Reaume
    Brenda A. LeFrançois is Associate Professor of Social Work at Memorial University of Newfoundland.
    Robert Menzies is Professor of Sociology at Simon Fraser University.
    Geoffrey Reaume is Associate Professor of Critical Disability Studies at York University.

    LeFrançois, B.A., Menzies, R. and Reaume, G. 2013 (Editors) Mad Matters: A Critical Reader in Canadian Mad Studies Canadian Scholars' Press Inc. Toronto
    Introducing Mad Studies
    Part One: Mad People's History, Evolving Culture, and Language
    Chapter 1: The Movement, Mel Starkman
    Chapter 2: Women in 19th Century Asylums: Three Exemplary Women; A New Brunswick Hero, Nérée St-Amand and Eugène LeBlanc
    Chapter 3: Democracy Is a Very Radical Idea, Lanny Beckman and Megan J. Davies
    Chapter 4: What Makes Us a Community? Reflections on Building Solidarity in Anti-Sanist Praxis, Shaindl Diamond
    Chapter 5: A Rose by Any Other Name: Naming and the Battle against Psychiatry, Bonnie Burstow
    Part Two: Mad Engagements
    Chapter 6: "Breaking open the bone": Storying, Sanism, and Mad Grief, Jennifer M. Poole and Jennifer Ward
    Chapter 7: Mad as Hell: The Objectifying Experience of Symbolic Violence, Ji-Eun Lee
    Chapter 8: A Denial of Being: Psychiatrization as Epistemic Violence, Maria Liegghio
    Chapter 9: Mad Success: What Could Go Wrong When Psychiatry Employs Us as "Peers"? Erick Fabris
    Part Three: Critiques of Psychiatry: Practice and Pedagogy
    Chapter 10: The Tragic Farce of "Community Mental Health Care," Irit Shamrat
    Chapter 11: Electroshock: Torture as "Treatment," Don Weitz
    Chapter 12: Is Mad Studies Emerging as a New Field of Inquiry? David Reville
    Chapter 13: Making Madness Matter in Academic Practice, Kathryn Church
    Part Four: Law, Public Policy, and Media Madness
    Chapter 14: Mad Patients as Legal Intervenors in Court, Lucy Costa
    Chapter 15: Removing Civil Rights: How Dare We? Gordone Warme
    Chapter 16: "They should not be allowed to do this to the homeless and mentally ill": Minimum Separation Distance Bylaws Reconsidered, Lilith "Chava" Finkler
    Chapter 17: The Making and Marketing of Mental Health Literacy in Canada, Kimberley White and M.C. Pike
    Chapter 18: Pitching Mad: News Media and the sychiatric Survivor Perspective, Rob Wipond
    Part Five: Social Justice, Madness, and Identity Politics
    Chapter 19: Mad Nation? Thinking through Race, Class, and Mad Identity Politics, Rachel Gorman
    Chapter 20: Whither Indigenizing the Mad Movement? Theorizing the Social Relations of Race and Madness through Conviviality, Louise Tam
    Chapter 21: Spaces in Place: Negotiating Queer In/visibility within Psychiatric and Mental Health Service Settings, Andrea Daley
    Chapter 22: Rerouting the Weeds: The Move from Criminalizing to Pathologizing "Troubled Youth" in The Review of the Roots of Youth Violence, Jijian Voronka
    Chapter 23: Recovery: Progressive Paradigm or Neoliberal Smokescreen? Marina Morrow
    Glossary of Terms

    Archibald Denis Leigh 11.10.1915 - 20.4.1998
    MB ChB Manchester (1939) BSc (1939) MRCP (1941) MD (1947) FRCP (1955) FRCPsych (1971). Physician, The
    Bethlem Royal and Maudsley Hospitals, London.

    Leigh, D. 1961, The Historical Development of British Psychiatry Vol.1 18th and 19th century. Pergamon Press.

    Chapter 1: The Eighteenth Century pages 1-93
    Chapter 2: John Haslam, M.D. 1764-1844 pages 94-147
    Chapter 3: James Cowles Prichard, M.D., F.R.S. 1786-1848 pages
    Chapter 4: John Conolly, M.D. D.C.L. 1794-1866 pages 201-270

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    Le Marchant, Sir Dennis bart, 1876, Memoir of John Charles Viscount Althorpe, Third Earl Spencer.

    Aubrey Lewis 8.11.1900-21.1.1975
    Clinical Director Maudsley Hospital 1936-1948.
    Professor of Psychiatry, University of London 1946 -1966

    Lewis, A. 1965 Inquiries in Psychiatry: Clinical and social investigations London : Routledge and Kegan Paul. 335 pages : illustrations
    Clinical Psychiatry
    1 The experience of time in mental disorder
    2 The psychopathology of insight
    3 Melancholia: a clinical survey of depressive states
    4 Melancholia: a prognostic study
    5 States of depression: their clinical and aetiological differentiation
    6 Problems of obsessional illness
    7 Obsessional illness
    8 A study of cretinism in London
    9 Aspects of psychosomatic medicine
    Social Psychiatry
    10 Neurosis and unemployment
    11 Social causes of admission to a mental hospital for the aged
    12 Vocational aspects of neurosis in soldiers
    13 Social psychiatry
    14 The offspring of parents both mentally ill
    15 Fertility and mental illness
    16 Demographic aspects of mental disorder

    Bradley Lewis 1956-

    Lewis, B. 2010 PowerPoint:
    "Narrative Psychiatry: How Stories Shape Clinical Encounters" by Bradley Lewis, New York University Gallatin School of Individualized Study.

    Lewis, B. 2011 Narrative Psychiatry: How stories can shape clinical practice Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. xvi and 214 pages

    Lydia Lewis

    Lewis, L. 2007 "Epistemic authority and the gender lens", Sociological Review, 55 (2): 273-292.

    Lewis, L. 2009 "Mental health and human rights: a common agenda for service user/survivor and women's groups?" Policy and Politics, 37(1), 75-92.

    Lewis, L. 5.2012 "You become a person again": mental health and community learning Workers Educational Association Research Briefing, May 2012. Available at

    Lewis, L. 2012 "The capabilities approach, adult and community learning and mental health". Community Development Journal (special issue on mental health). Volume 47 issue 4. pp 522-537

    The Literary Gazette, and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, etc [Edited successively by W. Jerdan, S. Phillips, L. Reeve, and J. M. Jephson] London, 1817 to 1858. New series. [Edited successively by Shirley Brooks, H. Christmas, W. R. Workman, F. Arnold, J. Morley, and C. W. Goodwin] 1858 to 1862. After 26.4.1862 The Literary Gazette was incorporated with the Parthenon.


    Montagu Lomax

    Lomax, M. 1921 The Experiences of an Asylum Doctor. With Suggestions for Asylum and Lunacy Law Reform. Allen & Unwin. London. 255 pages. Twelve chapters including Administration - Mechanical Restraint - Workshops and Labourers - Asylum Food - Staff (Superintendent, Assistant Medical Staff, Nurses and other officials) - Legislative Reforms - Ideal Asylum. Dedicated `To all the insane poor in sympathy with their sufferings and in hope of alleviating their hardships...'. (description from online booksellers' catalogue)

    Lomax, M. 1922 The experiences of an asylum patient by Rachel Grant-Smith (a pseudonym), London : G. Allen & Unwin 190 pages

    John Robert Lord 1874-1931
    Honorary Secretary of the National Council for Mental Hygiene

    Lord, J.R. 1920 The Story of the Horton (County of London) War Hospital: Epsom: Its inception and work and some reflections London: Heinemann. 264 pages: illustrated.

    Lord, J.R. 3.5.1923 Social Workers and the Insane: being an address delivered before the Society of the Crown of Our Lord, in London, on May 3rd, 1923 Adlard & Son & W. Newman, Ltd. Oxford. 26 pages

    Lord, J.R. April 1925 "Epilepsy: a clinico-pathological study of fifty cases" Journal of Mental Science Volume 71, number 293 (April 1925) (= New series number 257) pages 240-253

    Lord, J.R. July 1926 The Clinical Study of Mental Disorders [Presidential address, The Royal Medico-Psychological Association, July 1926 - by "Lt.-Colonel J. R. Lord"]

    Lord, J.R. 1927 Mental Hospitals and the Public: The Need for Closer Co-operation. In aid of the work of the National Council for mental hygiene. London.

    Lord, J.R. (Editor) 1929 Contributions to Psychiatry, Neurology and Sociology dedicated to the late Sir Frederick Mott ... Edited ... by J. R. Lord, etc. [With a bibliography and a portrait] London: H. K. Lewis & Co. 401 pages plus 12 pages introductory.

    Lord, J.R. 12.7.1929 The admission of mental patients to in- patient treatment [Address to the Annual Meeting of the Royal Medico- Psychological Association, London, July 12, 1929. Reprinted from the Journal of Mental Science October 1929]

    Lord, J.R. 1929/1930 Report of the proceedings of the Conference on Mental Health, Westminster, October 30 to November 2, 1929 edited by J.R. Lord for the National Council for Mental Hygiene and the Tavistock Square Clinic. London, 1930. The converence was convened by the Joint Committee of the National Council for Mental Hygiene and the Tavistock Square Clinic.

    Lord, J.R. July 1930 American psychiatry and its practical bearings on the application of recent local government and mental treatment legislation: including a description of the author's participation in the First International Congress on Mental Hygiene, Washington, D.C., May 5 - 10, 1930. [Reprinted from the Journal of Mental Science, July 1930.] [The Royal Medico-Psychological Association.]

    Lord, J.R. 23.7.1930 "After-care" and other aspects of social service as an adjunct to mental treatment. (Address delivered before the Board of Control Conference on the Mental Treatment Act, 1930, at the afternoon session, July 23, 1930.)

    Lord, McGrath and Pool 1930 The Royal Medico-Psychological Association. Infectious diseases in Mental Hospitals Sub-committee. (a) First report on the comparative incidence of cancer in mental hospital patients and in the general population of England. John Robert Lord, M. J. McGrath and Arthur Pool. London

    London Gazette Journal in which Government appointments (see Metropolitan Commissioners for example) and other official notices (see revocation of licenses for example) are posted. website

    LONGFORD [Wellington's Biography]

    Norman Longmate

    Longmate, N. 1974 The Workhouse Temple Smith, London.

    Juan José Lopéz Ibor [Dressing] 17.12.1941-12.1.2015

    Lopéz Ibor, J.J. 2006/2008 "La fundación en Valencia del primer hospital psiquiatrico del mundo". [The foundation in Valencia of the world's first psychiatric hospital] Actas Espanolas de Psiquiátria Volume 36, number 1, 25.2.2008. Available in Spanish at and in English at

    The paper is a development of one given in Maranon week (November) 2006.

    English abstract: The founding of the first psychiatric hospital in the World in Valencia Several hospitals, countries and cultures claim the privilege of being the first to have provided care to peo- ple suffering mental illnesses. Among them, the "Hospital de los Inocentes" (Hospital of the Innocents) founded in Valencia in 1410 stands out due to its originality and there are historic and cultural reasons to recognize its primacy. Furthermore, the organization and functioning of this institution and the model, spread like wildfire through the entire Iberian Peninsula during the 15th Cen- tury and shortly after through American Spanish speak- ing countries. For centuries, these establishments wereconsidered exemplary and were copied in other Europe- an Countries. At the beginning of the 19th Century in Spain a forced sale of the Catholic Church properties or their disamortization among other a large number of hospitals establishments took place. This lead to a terri- ble collapse of health care for the mentally. From then on it took more than one century to recover a decent standard. The vicissitudes of the creation and progress of the hospital of Valencia and others which followed the example that allows to affirm that it was really the first psychiatric hospital in the World are analyzed in this present work.

    Low, Sampson, 1854 The Charities of London 1852-1853

    Louisa Lowe 14.4.1819 - 16.6.1907
    Born Naples, Italy, Youngest daughter of Thomas Crookenden of Rushford Hall, Suffolk and Mary Anne Fuller of Chelsea, Middlesex. On Thursday, 1.9.1842 at St. George's, Hanover Square, London, she married Reverend George Lowe (born Diddlebury, Shropshire 4.2.1813) the Vicar of Uppper Ottery, Devon since 1841. He had her admitted to an asylum. In 1872 she was "late of Upper Ottery Vicarage ... now residing at Bedford-place, Russell-square". George Lowe died at the Vicarage on Monday, 2.11.1885. Louisa died Ealing, Middlesex (aged 88) on Sunday, 16.6.1907. She was buried at Ealing West on Wednesday, 19.6.1907.

    Lowe, L. 1872/1873? Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? series of pamphlets

    Offline: 1 - 2 - 3 -

    Lowe, L. 1883 The Bastilles of England: or, The lunacy laws at work London : Crookenden, 153 pages

    William Golden Lumley 1802-1878
    Lectured in English Law at University College London 1837-1838
    One of two Assistant Secretaries to the Poor Law Commission from 23.4.1839. Engaged from September 1840 as counsel to the Committee of Council on Education.

    Lumley, W.G. 1843 A Collection of Statutes of General Use Relating to the Relief of the Poor, with notes. (Two volumes)

    Lumley, W.G. 1844 The Factory Acts

    Lumley, W.G. 1845 Lunacy: The New Lunacy Acts, 8 & 9 Vict. cc. 100, 126; with an introduction, abstracts, notes and index; and an appendix containing the Statutes relating to insane criminals and prisoners, and a statement of the different forms of insanity. 12o. London: Shaw and Sons, Fetter Lane. 23 page introduction plus 250 pages etc. [The statement of the different forms of insanity is from the 1844 Report]

    MACA/Together - Mental After Care Association, also known as Together for Wellbeing.

    Wellcome Archives reference SA/MAC

    MACA Rapport 1983-1992? SA/MAC/H.3 Issues for Christmas 1983 - Issue 1: October 1984 - Issue 2: July 1985 - Issue 3: September 1986 - Issue 4: October 1987 - Issue 5: c.1988 - Issue 6: c.1989 - Issue 7: c.1990 - (Issue 8) c.1991 - Easter 1992.

    Maca SURE Group, 2004, We Did It Our Way: Final report of the SURE team's usercontrolled research project London, MACA.

    MACA/Together Time Together

    Summer (July?) 2008 First issue of Time Together, Together's free magazine. It was described as a "relaunch" of the magazine Rapport and continued twice yearly until Winter 2011.

    Internet archive

    Summer 2008 Issue 1

    2008 Issue 2

    Issue 3

    2010 Issue 4

    2010 Issue 5

    Mackay. See Nicholls + Mackay

    Maitland, F.W. 1963 The Constitutional History of England. A Course of Lectures... Cambridge University Press.

    Ivana S. Marková
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Hull, Hull,

    Ivana S. Marková and German E. Berrios

    Marková, I.S. and Berrios, G.E. 2012 "Epistemology of Psychiatry" Psychopathology 2012; 45: pp 220-227
    Abstract: In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry.

    Sir Theodore Martin 1816-1909

    Martin, T. 1883 A Life of Lord Lyndhurst: from letters and papers in possession of his family London: John Murray

    Mattock, W.H. + Ramsden, Lady G. (Editors) 1893 Letters, Remains, and Memoirs of Edward Adolphous Seymour, Twelfth Duke of Somerset. London. Richard Bentley + son.

    Henry Maudsley

    Maudsley, H. 1870 Body and mind : an inquiry into their connection and mutual influence, specially in reference to mental disorders ; being the Gulstonian lectures for 1870, delivered before the Royal College of Physicians. London : Macmillan and Co. Lectures. 1. On the physical condition of mental function in health. 2. On certain forms of degeneracy of mind, their causation, and their relations to other disorders of the nervous system.-- 3. On the relaxations of morbid bodily states to disordered mental functions. Appendix. 1. The limits of philosophical inquiry.--2. The theory of vitality. 189 page [Details from Copac catalogue]

    Justin McCarthy MP

    McCarthy, J. 1897 A History of Our Own Times from the Accession of Queen Victoria to the General Election of 1880. Two volumes

    Andrew McCulloch, Matt Muijen, and Heather Harper

    McCulloch, Muijen and Harper 2000 "New developments in Mental Health Policy in the United Kingdom" International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Volume 23, No. 3-4, pp. 261-276. [Reading on present day policy suggested by Chris Fitch]

    Charlotte MacKenzie

    MacKenzie, C. 1986 A family asylum: a history of the private madhouse at Ticehurst in Sussex, 1792-1917. Thesis (Ph.D). University of London, 1986. 542 leaves: illustrations, Some of the portraits are original photographs. genealogy, tables, maps, portraits. Bibliography: leaves 516-542.

    MacKenzie, C. 1992 Psychiatry for the rich : a history of Ticehurst private asylum, 1792-1917 Wellcome Institute series in the history of medicine. London: Routledge.

    Robin McKown

    McKown, R. 1961 Pioneers in Mental Health New York : Dodd, Mead, 1961. 242 pages. Available at
    10: Clifford Beers and the Mind That Found Mental Health

    Judy McLoughlin

    McLoughlin, J. 2005 Letting Loose Madmen. The Lincoln Lunatic Asylum 1820 - 1852 A dissertation prepared for a local history course run by Nottingham University. Judy hopes to publish this on her website

    Meacher, M. (Editor) 1979 New Methods of Mental Health Care Pergamon Press

    Mechanic, D. 1969 Mental Health and Social Policy Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

    m.Dir a medical directory. (usually London and Provincial?)
    The London Medical Directory C. Mitchell 1845, then John Churchill from 1846. An annual "containing the name, address, qualification, official appointments, honorary distinctions, and literary productions of every physician, surgeon, and general practitioner resident in London and its immediate vicinity; with a great variety of useful medical information", which became
    The London and Provincial Medical Directory from 1847 and covered England, Wales and the Channel Islands

    m.R "The Medical Register" of the General Council of Medical Education. Commenced 1859 or 1860.

    Medical Gazette Dec 1827 -
    Medical Times 1839 -
    The Medical Gazette later merged with Medical Times to be:
    Medical Times and Gazette

    Medical History January 1957-

    "A quarterly journal devoted to the history and bibliography of medicine and the related sciences. Official organ of the Cambridge University History of Medicine Society, the Norwegian Society for the History of Medicine, the Scottish Society of the History of Medicine, the Osler Club of London"

    Original Editor: W. J. Bishop

    Online archive page

    Medicine in Society (London, England)
    "Quarterly marxist journal of health studies."
    Description based on: Vol. 3, no. 2 (1977).
    Four issues yearly, 1977-1984
    Three issues yearly, 1985-1986
    Irregular, 1987-1988
    London : Health Care Advisory Committee of the Communist Party

    The Medical Register of the General Council of Medical Education. Commenced 1859 or 1860.

    Medico-Psychological Association [Became the Royal College of Psychiatrists]

    MPA 1885 Handbook for the Instruction of Attendants on the Insane Prepared by a sub-committee of the Medico-Psychological association appointed at a branch meeting held in Glasgow on the 21st February, 1884. London : Baillière, Tindall, and Cox 1885 64 pages. Available at

    Joseph Melling and Bill Forsythe

    Melling, J. and Forsythe, B. 1999 Insanity, Institutions and Society, 1800-1914: a Social History of Madness in Comparative Perspective London: Routledge, See Review by Anne Borsay

    Mental Health Task Force. England and Wales 2003-2004

    Mental Health Task Force Users Group

    MHTFUG 1994 Charter Guidelines for a Local Charter for Users of Mental Health Service. London: Department of Health, 1994. 14 pages [Marion Beeforth - Colin Gell, Jim Read, Jan Wallcraft]

    MHTFUG 1994 Advocacy Advocacy : a code of practice Researched and written by Edna Conlan...[et al.] ; edited by Edna Conlan and Tony Day. A publication by United Kingdom Advocacy Network sponsored by the NHS Executive Mental Health Task Force User Group. Sheffield : United Kingdom Advocacy Network, 1994. 32 pages

    MHTFUG 1994 Building Building on Experience : A training pack for mental health service users working as trainers, speakers and workshop facilitators Edited by Roberta Graley, Mary Nettle and Jan Wallcraft. London: Department of Health, 1994. 27 pages and 11 (7?) Training pack handouts in a pocket at the end.
    Cover: "This training pack is part of the work programme of the Department of Health's Mental Health Task Force User Group"

    MHTFUG 1994 Forging Forging our Futures - Lighting the fire : A transcript of the national conference Forging our Futures, arranged by the Mental Health Task Force User Group ... held at Derby on 29th and 30th November 1994. Mental Health Task Force User Group, 63 pages

    MHTFUG 1994 Black Black Mental Health - A dialogue for change Heywood: Department of Health, 1994. 28 pages

    Mental Patients Union

    MPU 1973 Declaration of intent of the Mental Patients Union, available at

    MPU Hackney 1975 "Mental Patient's Union: interviews with Joan Martin, Val and Andrew Roberts, Austin Johnson and others" (November 1974- February 1975), New Humpty Dumpty Today, double issue 6 and 7, pp 6-10. available at

    MPU Manchester 1979 Your rights in mental hospital: A mental patients union (MPU) pamphlet, Manchester MPU c/o Grass Roots Books.

    R. Lawrence Merkel
    Larry Merkel
    Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Medicine, University of Virginia.
    Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, Anthropology, 1996
    M.D. University of Virginia 1979

    Merkel, L. 18.9.2003 "History of Psychiatry" available from .edu/internet/psych-training/seminars/9-18-03---History-of-Psychiatry.pdf

    Begins with a discussion of pre-classical (Egyptian, Middle-Eastern, Judaic) influences on classical Greek and Roman theory and practice.

    Originally part of his his University of Virginia seminars as a pdf file - offline - See Subject Index Social Science History

    Adolf Meyer 13.9.1866-17.3.1950

    Meyer, A. 28.2.1895 "Mental Abnormalities in Children During Primary Education" Transactions, Illinois Society for Child-Study, p. 48

    Meyer, A. 1906 "Fundamental Conceptions of Dementia Praecox"

    Meyer, A. 1908 "The Role of Mental Factors in Psychiatry" American Journal of Insanity 65. pp 39-56.

    Meyer, A. 1908 Reviews of "A Mind that Found Itself": 1) In the North American Review Volume 187 (1908) pp 611-614 [Possibly the April issue]. 2) In the Psychological Bulletin volume 5 (1908) pp 283-284. Available from Collected works at:

    Meyer, A. 1910 "The nature and conception of dementia praecox" The Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Vol 5(5), December- January 1910-1911, pp 274-285.

    Meyer, A. 1913 "The treatment of paranoic and paranoid states" by Adolf Meyer in Modern Treatmentof Nervous and Mental Diseases William Alanson White and Smith Ely Jelliffe, Lee and Febiger, 1913.

    Meyer, A. 1918 "On the Mental Hygiene Movement" Canadian Medical Association Journal New series volume 8 (1918) pp 632-634. Available from Collected works at:

    Meyer, A. 1928 "Thirty-five Years of Psychiatry in the United States and Our Present Outlook" by Adolf Meyer American Journal of Psychiatry 8: pp 1-31 Meyer, A. and others 1933 Letters about Clifford Beers solicited by William Welch

    Meyer, A. 14.11.1934 "The Birth and Development of the Mental Hygiene Movement". An address to the 25th Anniversary Dinner of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene held in New York City 14.11.1934 Available from Collected works at:

    Meyer, A. 14.11.1940 "Mental Hygiene in the Emergency" Opening Remarks to a symposium at the 31st Annual Meeting of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene

    Meyer, A. 13.11.1941 "Mental Hygiene and National Defense" Opening Remarks to a symposium at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene

    Meyer, A. 12.11.1942 "Striking of Shakles in 1942" Opening Remarks to a symposium at the 33rd Annual Meeting of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene

    All three available from Collected works at: - offline 1940 - 1941 and 1942

    Meyers, R. 1978 Like Normal People Souvenir Press, London, 1979

    MH Ministry of Health Papers, Public Records Office Kew

    MH50 Lunacy Commission and Board of Control Minutes 1845 to 1960. 81 vols. Reference gives date (and sometimes page) only as PRO index shows period covered by each volume

    MH50/41 Private Committee Minutes

    MH51 Correspondence and Papers of Lunacy Commission and Board of Control 1845 to 1966 (sic?)

    MH51/723 Destruction of papers, records and documents 1889-1938

    MH51/724 Destruction of papers, records and documents 1940-1954

    MH51/725 Destruction of papers, records and documents 1842-1963

    MH51/737 Lunacy Commission and Board of Control List of Commissioners and Secretaries 1845-1960

    The lists is this file were drawn up on the initiative of commissioners interested in the Lunacy Commission and Board of Control's history. They contain the names of commissioners and secretaries with the years of appointment, resignation or retirement, and death of those who died in office. They also contain some references to previous and subsequent employments.

    The several lists in the file appeared to be copies of two basic ones:

    • A handwritten list of ninetenth century commissioners and secretaries

    • A typed list of all commissioners and secretaries

    I found several discrepancies between the two which comparison with other sources convinced me were mainly due to typing errors. In the charts and biographies of the commissioners, I have, therefore, given preference to the dates in the handwritten list.

    MH51/737 [account] Office of Commissioners in Lunacy. Estimate of Salaries and Contingent Expenses

    In 1979 (when I used it) this Public Record Office File was closed to the public until 1990 under the so called "30 year rule". I appreciate the help of E. Wheatcroft, Deputy Departmental Record Officer of the Department of Health and Social Security who secured the file from Kew and allowed me to read it in the Library of Alexander Fleming House. At the time, I signed the Official Secrets Act to the effect that I would not divulge the contents of the file without prior permission in writing. (Sorry)

    Agnes Eva Miles

    Miles, A.E. 1967 Psychopathy and 'community therapy' : a case study of the effects of therapeutic community on a group of psychopaths Ph.D. (London) thesis 1967 LSE. 308 leaves

    Agnes Miles
    In 1971 Agnes Miles B.Sc., Ph.D. was Senior Research Fellow, Department of Sociology and Social Administration, University of Southampton

    Miles, A. 1981 The Mentally Ill in Contemporary Society. A Sociological Interpretation. Oxford. Martin Robertson. (2nd edition 1987)
    Chapter 1 Who is mentally ill?
    Medical critics
    The labelling theorists
    Some consequences of the anti-psychiatric approach
    Chapter 2 From person to patient
    Recognising the problem
    Identifying the problem
    Consulting the social group
    Decision to seek professional role
    Chapter 3 The social role of the mental patient
    The sick role
    The public image of the mentally il
    Assuming the mental patient role
    Chapter 4 The social role of the ex-mental patient
    The climate of public opinion
    The management of stigma
    Performance of social roles
    Chapter 5 The family of the mentally ill
    Chapter 6 Men, women and mental illness
    Chapter 7 Social class and mental illness
    Chapter 8 The expansion of psychiatric problems.

    John Millar LRCP 1839-1872

    Millar, J. 1877 Second edition (enlarged, 142 pages plus 11 pages introduction) of Hints on insanity and signing certificates London: Henry Renshaw. First edition (1861 105 pages) may just have been called Hints on insanity. It was reviewed in the British Medical Journal 1861, volume 1.

    David Walter Millard

    Millard, D.W. 1994/1995 Collected writings on the therapeutic community Thesis (M.D.) - University of Birmingham, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 1994 or 1995.

    Millard, D.W. Summer 2008 " Richard Wilfred Crocket: A Professional Biography" Therapeutic Communities, 29, 2, Summer 2008

    Millard, D.W. Winter 2008 "A 'Keen Young Doctor': Hamish Anderson" Therapeutic Communities, 29, 4, Winter 2008

    Enid Mills (Miss)

    Mills, E. 1962 Living with Mental Illness. A study in East London Reports of the Institute of Community Studies. no. 7. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. xii and 184 pages

    Mind - National Association for Mental Health - archive - publications - web

    Archives: See National Association for Mental Health (later Mind) collection in the papers of Robina Addis - international Internet Archive - UK web archive -

    Mind archive:
    Wellcome Library, London

    blog about Mind archive by Emma Hancox [See symposium

    90 boxes of catalogued material and 1 oversize box. 237 transfer boxes, 3 small boxes, 1 record Date 1930s-2000s


    SA/MIN/A/ Minutes

    SA/MIN/A/1 National Council for Lunacy Reform Minutebooks 1920-1933

    SA/MIN/A/1 National Association for Mental Health Minutebooks 1946-1965

    SA/MIN/A/3 Council of Management Meeting Minutes 1966-2000

    SA/MIN/B "Subject files". Material that Mind kept in its Archive Cupboard. These are alphabetical files.


    Mental Health

    Mind and mental health magazine Quarterly. 1971-1972. London. National Association for Mental Health,

    Mind Out Magazine. London: MIND, ISSN 0305-4128 1973-1982. Irregular?, then Bimonthly (March/April 1976-July/August 1980, then Monthly (October 1980-February 1982)

    MIND information bulletin London: MIND, 1974-1982. (Ten issues a year?)

    Mind October 1980 The Future of the Mental Hospitals. A report of Mind's 1980 Annual Conference includes papers by Douglas Bennett, Patrick Jenkin, Kay Carmichael, Kathleen Jones, Donald Dick, Roger Dyson, Audrey Emerton, David Clark, Saul Feldman, Francis J. Lillie, Peter Mittler, and Tony Smythe, plus views "from the inside" from David Brandon, Mary Barnes, P.J. Hughes, Lily Bowling, Jean Townshend, John McCusker, and Pamela Maudsley.

    OpenMind Magazine. London: MIND, ISSN: 0265-511X 1983-2012 Bi-monthly.

    See index

    MindWaves: The Newsletter of the Mind Consumer Network London: MIND, August 1988-Spring 1993

    The Information Pack Spring 1994-August 2000

    "stapled mailing"

    Mind Link Magazine September 2003 - 2011

    Mind Membership News London: MIND, October 2011- Quarterly.

    Mind website

    Mental Health A to Z

    John Mitford 1782-1831 Poet and journalist. A cousin of John Freeman Mitford (1748-1830), Solicitor General 1793. Then Attorney General. Speaker of the House of Commons 1801 to 1802, when he was created first Baron Redesdale and Lord Chancellor for Ireland until February 1806. John Mitford was confined in Whitmore House May 1812 to March 1813. His reputation suggests the sensational content of his writings should be treated with more caution than most. However, Whitmore House was for the aristocratic and well-off and, on the straightforward question of who was a patient in 1812/1813, I found that some of those mentioned by Mitford were (still) listed in the registers for 1829/1830

    The first of the following was published anonymously.

    Mitford, J. 1825?a A Description of the Crimes and Horrors in the interior of Warburton's private Mad-house at Hoxton, commonly called Whitmore House Benbow: London, [1825?] 8o.

    Mitford, J. 1825?b Part Second of the Crimes and Horrors in the interior of Warburton's private Mad-houses at Hoxton and Bethnal Green; and of these Establishments in general with Reasons for their Total Abolition.

    Mitford's texts are in the British Library. I have used the material from them in Morris, A.D. 1958. Mitford claims that he conspired with Warburton to admit him as a patient in order to secure his discharge from the Royal Navy, and compensation for his loss of commission. Whilst an inmate he wrote letters to the press about the king (?) for which he could not be prosecuted because of his insanity. One of the dedications to 1825?a says "You John Mitford, Lord Redesdale, have had a relation a John Mitford, also in this house, who was protected there to write libels against the Crown and Government, in conjunction with your relation Viscountess Perceval and her illustrious friend. You paid for Mr Mitford's protection, to Warburton, more than £300 in nine months --" On Thursday, 24.2.1814, Mitford was prosecuted for perjury (on the instigation of Viscount and Viscountess Perceval). He was acquitted and published his own pamphlet about the trial.

    Alex Mold
    Centre for History in Public Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

    Mold, A. 10.2010 "Patient Groups and the Construction of the Patient-Consumer in Britain: An Historical Overview". Journal of Social Policy, October 2010 39(4), 505-521. Available at

    Mold, A. 6.2011 "Making the patient-consumer in Margaret Thatcher's Britain". Historical Journal Cambridge, England) June 2011; 54(2): pp 509- 528. Available at

    Mold, A. 2013 "Repositioning the Patient:?: Patient Organizations, Consumerism, and Autonomy in Britain during the 1960s and 1970s" Bulletin of the History of Medicine Summer 2014 pp 225-249. Available at
    Examines the activities of the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association

    Mold, A. 4.2015 "Making British patients into consumers" The Lancet 4.4.2015 Volume 385, Issue 9975, pp 1286-1287 Available at 6736%2815%2960672-9/fulltext

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    Reverend W.N. Molesworth

    Molesworth, W.N. 1865 The History of the Reform Bill of 1832. 1972 Reprint. A.M. Kelly, publishers, Clifton, New Jersey.

    Benedict Augustin Morel 1809-1873

    Morel B.A. 1852-1853 Traité des maladies mentales Two volumes; Paris, 1852-1853 ; 2nd edition, 1860.

    Morel B.A. 1857 Traité des Degenerescences Physiques, Intellectuelles et Morales de l'espece Humaine et des causes qui produisent ces variétés maladives par [A treatise on the physical degeneration, intellectual and moral of the human species and the causes that produce the diseased varieties by] A. Morel, Médecin en chef de l'Asile des aliénés de Saint-Yon (Seine-Inférieure), Ancien médecin en chef de l'Asile de Maréville (Meurthe)... Paris, Masson, Two volumes. Volume two is a collection of twelve plates and notes on them.

    Offline: one - two

    Morel B.A. 1860 Le non-restraint ou de l'abolition des moyens coercitifs dans le traitement de la folie, Paris, Victor Masson et fils. 128 pages

    Morel B.A. 1864 Du goître et du crétinisme, étiologie, prophylaxie etc, Paris.

    Morel B.A. 1864 De la formation des types dans les variétés dégénérées, vol. 1 ; Rouen.

    Morel B.A. 1866 Traité de la médecine légale des aliénés

    Arthur Morris

    Morris, A.D. 1958 The Hoxton Madhouses. Cambridge. March, for the author. Dr Arthur Morris was Medical Superintendent at St Leonard's Hospital, Shoreditch in the 1950s. His research has been continued recently by Elaine Murphy.

    Kathryn Morrison

    Morrison, Kathryn July 1996 English Military Hospitals: An Architectural History. - external link - archive - offline

    Frederick Walker Mott

    Mott, F.W. 1887 "Intellectual evolution and its relation to physiological dissolution". Edinburgh Medical Journal, April 1887

    Mott, F.W. 1892 "Ascending degenerations resulting from lesions of the spinal cord in monkeys" Brain Volume 15, Issue 2 pp. 215-229

    Mott, F.W. 1893 "The sensory motor functions of the central convolutions of the cerebral cortex" Journal of Physiology volume 15 (or 45), number 6, pp 464-487

    Mott, F.W. and Durham, H.E. 1900 Report of Drs Mott and Durham on colitis or asylum dysentery "Presented May, 1900" "Ordered to be printed by the Asylums Committee, 13th November, 1900" London County Council. Asylums Committee.

    Mott, F.W. 6.1900 "The Croonian lectures on the degeneration of the neurone" British Medical Journal 1900, volume 1. pages 1517-1524 and 1582-1590. Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians of London, on 19.6.1900, 26.6.1900 and 28.6.1900. Also published by John Bale, Sons & Danielson (London) 118 pages.

    Mott, F. W. and Halliburton, W. D. 1901 The Chemistry of Nerve- Degeneration. Published for the Royal Society by Dulau

    Mott, F.W. 10.1906 "Alcohol and insanity : the effects of alcohol on the body and mind as shown by asylum and hospital experience in the wards and post-mortem room" The Journal of Mental Science, October 1906

    Mott, F.W. 1906 Histological observations on sleeping sickness and other trypanosome infections Reports of Sleeping Sickness Commission number 7. London: Bale

    Mott, F.W. 1907 "Case of cerebral tumour illustrating the difficulty of localisation" Archives of Neurology, Volume 3 1907

    William Munk (1816-1898)

    Munk: Munk, W. 1878 (2nd edition) The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London, comprising biographical sketches of all the eminent physicians whose names are recorded in the Annals RCP. Three volumes containing lives of Fellows and Licentiates of the college from 1518 to 1825. A 4th volume (1955) Lives of the R.C.P. London 1826-1925, compiled by G.H. Brown, is a sequel to Munk, but containing only Fellows. The reference "Munk" refers to the 4 volumes without distinction. (online Munk)

    Munk, W. 1895 The Life of Sir Henry Halford. Longmans

    Elaine Murphy

    Murphy, E. 12.12.1987 "Community care. 1: Problems" BMJ 12.12.1987

    Murphy, E. 2.1.1988 "Community care. 1: Possible Solutions" BMJ 2.1.1987

    Murphy, E. 1991 After the Asylums: Community care for people with mental illness London : Faber and Faber, 1991. 248 pages.

    Murphy, E. 2000 The Administration of Insanity in East London 1800-1870 PhD Thesis, University of London (UCL) [Supervisor Roy Porter Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine]

    Murphy, E. 2001 "The Madhouse Keepers of East London". History Today, Vol.51, pp 29-37

    Murphy, E. 2001a "Mad Farming in the Metropolis, Part 1: A Significant Service Industry", History of Psychiatry Vol.12, pp 245- 282

    Murphy, E. 2001b "Mad Farming in the Metropolis Part 2: The administration of the old poor law of insanity in the City and East London 1800-1834", History of Psychiatry Vol.12, pp 405-430

    Murphy, E. 2002 "The Lunacy Commissioners and the East London Guardians, 1845-1867". Medical History 2002 Vol.46, pp 495-524

    Murphy, E. 10/11.2002 "The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834". The London Journal (October/November 2002 issue)

    Murphy, E. "Nineteenth Century Psychiatry and its Institutions". Chapter commissioned for new edition of La Storia dell' Scienza, Enciclopedia Italiana. (in press)

    Murphy, E. "The Administration of Insanity in England 1800-1870". Chapter in R.Porter and D.Wright (eds) Confinement of the Insane, 1800-1965. Cambridge University Press. (in press)

    Murphy, E. 2002HH "The Madhouse Keepers of Hackney". Hackney History, Vol.8, pp 18-28.

    Murphy, E. 2003 "Workhouse psychiatry". Working title for chapter in planned book edited by Wright

    Murphy, E. 2003 "The New Poor Law Guardians and the Administration of Insanity in East London". Paper in print, Bulletin of the History of Medicine.

    Murphy, E. 9.2004 "A mad house transformed: the lives and work of Charles James Beverly FRS (1788-1868) and John Warburton MD FRS (1795- 1847)" Notes and Records of the Royal Society Volume 58, Number 3. 22.9.2004

    Mx RO, Middlesex Record Office (Now London Metropolitan Archives):-

    Mx RO, minute 18.1.1827 "MJ/8P 1827(L) Minutes of Committee, Jan 1827". List of County Inquiry members.

    Mx RO, minute 15.11.1827 "General Orders of the Court" [County minutes] 15.11.1827 "MJ/OC 22". List of Hanwell Committee members.

    Mx RO/MJP "Oaths taken by Justices of the Peace"

    Used respecting 1828 Metropolitan Commission. See also the dictionary entry for magistrate

    Eri Nakamura
    Hitotsubashi University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Graduate Student
    Research Interests: History from Below, Social History of Medicine, and Patient's History
    Work available

    Nakamura, E. 17,4.2013 Book Review: an essay on the article of Roy Porter and Flurin Condrau called "From the Patient's History to the Sufferer's History" Social History of Medicine. Week 1. 17.4.2013

    Conference Presentation: "War Neurosis in Imperial Japanese Army: The Politics of Inclusion and Exclusion under Total War". The Sixth Conference for the Asian Society for the History of Medicine.

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    Namier, L. & Brooke, J. 1964, The House of Commons, 1754-1790 HMSO

    NICE: National Institute for Clinical Excellence and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.

    NICE website:

    NICE Guidelines

    NICE Mental Health Guidelines

    2004 Eating Disorders: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders

    2005 Depression in Children and Young People: Identification and Management in Primary, Community and Secondary Care

    2006 Bipolar Disorder: Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults, Children and Adolescents in Primary and Secondary Care

    2007 Dementia: The NICE-SCIE Guideline on Supporting People with Dementia and their Carers in Health and Social Care

    2007 Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health: The NICE Guideline on Clinical Management and Service Guidance

    2008 Drug Misuse: Psychosocial Interventions - The NICE Guideline

    2008 Drug Misuse: Opioid Detoxification - The NICE Guideline

    2009 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The NICE Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults

    2009 Borderline Personality Disorder: The NICE Guideline on Treatment and Management

    2010 Antisocial Personality Disorder: The NICE Guideline on Treatment, Management and Prevention

    2010 Schizophrenia: The NICE Guideline on Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care (Updated edition)

    August 2010 Depression: The NICE Guideline on the Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults (Updated edition)

    December 2010 Depression in Adults with a Chronic Physical Health Problem: The NICE Guideline on Treatment and Management

    June 2011 Generalised Anxiety Disorder in Adults: The NICE Guideline on Management in Primary, Secondary and Community Care

    July 2011 Alcohol Use Disorders: The NICE Guideline on the Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Harmful Drinking and Alcohol Dependence

    November 2011 Psychosis with Coexisting Substance Misuse: The NICE Guideline on Assessment and Management in Adults and Young People

    December 2011 Common Mental Health Disorders: The NICE Guideline on Identification and Pathways to Care

    February 2012 Patient Experience in Adult NHS Services: Improving the Experience of Care for People Using Adult NHS Services [NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 138] "This guidance does not cover: People using NHS services for mental health. Carers of people using NHS services

    May 2012 Self-Harm: The NICE Guideline on Longer-term Management

    June 2012 Service User Experience in Adult Mental Health: NICE Guidance on Improving the Experience of Care for People Using Adult NHS Mental Health Services [NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 136]

    The development group was chaired by Diana Rose

    November 2012 Autism: The NICE Guideline on Recognition, Referral, Diagnosis and Management of Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    August 2013 Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Children and Young People: The NICE Guideline on Recognition and Management

    September 2013 Antisocial Behaviour and Conduct Disorders in Children and Young People: The NICE Guideline on Recognition, Intervention and Management

    December 2013 Social Anxiety Disorder: The NICE Guideline on Recognition, Assessment and Treatment

    National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (England)

    NIHR Clinical Research Network Mental Health

    CRNMH 27.6.2014 Mental health - Good practice guidance for recruitment and involvement of service user and carer researchers Available at content/uploads/mentalhealth/UserCarerResearcherGuidelinesMay2014_FINAL.pdf - St George's guidelines as appendix A.


    National Institute for Mental Health (USA)

    NIMH website:

    NIMH booklets on Anxiety Disorders - ... Autism Spectrum Disorder - ... Mental Health Clinical Research - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Bipolar Disorder - Borderline Personality Disorder - Depression - Depression and College Students - Eating Disorders - Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and Disasters - Men and Depression - Mental Health Medications - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Schizophrenia - Women and Depression ... available from

    National Institute for Mental Health in England (NIMHE)

    National Survivor User Network

    NSUN Network Issue 1 - Summer 2009. Irregular.

    Neate, A.R. 1967 The St Marylebone Workhouse and Institution 1730-1965 St Marylebone Society publication no. 9.

    Karen Newbigging, Tony Cadman and June Westley

    Newbigging K., Cadman T. and Westley J. 1989 " 'Powell Street': Community Mental Health" in Seedhouse D. and Cribb A. (editors) Changing Ideas in Health Care Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, pp 143-157

    Sir Arthur Newsholme, KCB, MD, FRCP "Principal Medical Officer Local Government Board, England and Wales 1908-1919, merged in the Ministry of Health"

    Newsholme, A. 1925 The Ministry of Health G.P. Putnams Sons Ltd, London and New York.

    George Nicholls 1781 - 14.3.1865
    Poor Law Commissioner

    Nicholls, G. (vols 1 + 2) + Mackay, T. (vol. 3) A History of the English Poor Law, in connection with the state of the country and the condition of the people Frank Cass reissue 1967 of a 1904 reissue.
    Volume One: 924 AD to 1714. Also a biography of Nicholls by H.G. Willink, Chairman, Bradfield Poor Law Union. Nicholls was a Poor Law commissioner and then Secretary to the Poor Law Board.
    Volume Two: 1714 to 1853. Index. Appears to have been first published 1854.
    Volume Three: "1834 to The Present Time" by "Thomas Mackay, author of "The English Poor". Index. Appears to have been first published 1899.

    Northbrook, Earl of (Editor) 1905, Journals and Correspondence from 1808 to 1852 of Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, afterwards Lord Northbrook Compiled and edited by his son, Thomas George, Earl of Northbrook. Printed for Private Circulation.

    Kingsley Norton
    Kingsley Norton is Head of Psychotherapy, St Bernard's Hospital, Middlesex. From 1989 to 2006 he was the Director of Henderson Hospital in Surrey, England. He is a Jungian analyst.

    Norton, K. 2006 Setting up New Services in the NHS: 'Just Add Water!'. Community, culture, and change 13. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley. 208 pages

    Gives an account of the attempt to replicate the Henderson Hospital in Crewe and Birmingham. (Duncan McLean, The Psychiatrist July 2008

    Edward Geoffrey O'Donoghue

    O'Donoghue, E.D. 1914 The Story of Bethlehem Hospital from its Foundation in 1247 London: T. Fisher Unwin,

    O'Donoghue, E.D. 1923 Bridewell Hospital: Palace, prison, school Volume one: "From the earliest times to the end of the reign of Elizabeth"

    O'Donoghue, E.D. 1929 Bridewell Hospital: Palace, prison, school Volume two: "From the death of Elizabeth to modern times".

    Mary O'Hagan

    O'Hagan, M. 1993 Stopovers on My Way Home from Mars: A journey into the psychiatric survivor movement in the USA, Britain and the Netherlands London: Survivors Speak Out. vi and 103 pages. ISBN: 1898002010. Available at Home%20from%20Mars.pdf

    Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard 28.12.1816 - 25.7.1897

    See 1863

    Sources about:
    Hendrik Hartog 1989

    Packard, E. 1864 The exposure on board the Atlantic and Pacific car of emanicipation for the slaves of old Columbia, engineered by the lightning express. or, Christianity and Calvinism compared. With an appeal to the government to emancipate the slaves of the marriage union. Volume I. Ed. by a slave, now imprisoned in Jacksonville insane asylum. Chicago, The authoress, 1864. 158 pages

    Packard, E. 1865 Great Disclosure of Spiritual Wickedness in High Places. With an appeal to the government to protect the inalienable rights of married women. Written under the inspection of Dr. M'Farland, Superintendent of Insane Asylum, Jacksonville, Illinois. Boston, Published by the Authoress, 1865. 158 pages

    Packard, E. 1866 Marital power exemplified in Mrs. Packard's trial, and self-defence from the charge of insanity, or, Three years' imprisonment for religious belief, by the arbitrary will of a husband : with an appeal to the government to so change the laws as to protect the rights of married women by E.P.W. Packard. Hartford: E.P.W. Packard. 137 pages

    Packard, E. 2.12. 1867 Mrs Packard's Address to the Legislature of Illinois on the passage of the "Personal Liberty Bill", given in the State House, Springfield, Feb. 12, 1867. The result of which was the passage of the Bill. A pamphlet bound in paper cover. Price 25 cents.

    Packard, E. 1868 The Prisoners' Hidden Life, Or Insane Asylums Unveiled

    Volume One: The prisoners' hidden life, or, Insane asylums unveiled : as demonstrated by the report of the Investigating committee of the legislature of Illinois, together with Mrs.Packard's coadjutors' testimony

    Volume Two: Mrs Olsen's narrative of her one year's imprisonment, at Jacksonville insane asylum: with the testimony of Mrs Minard, Mrs Shedd, Mrs Yates, and Mrs Lake, all corroborated by the Investigating committee appointed by the Legislature of Illinois in 1867. Collected and published by Mrs. E.P.W. Packard. 140 pages Price 50 cents.

    Also available as: Mrs Packard's Prison Life. A narrative of her Three Year's Imprisonment in Jacksonville Insane Asylum, to which is appended the Testimony of her Coadjutors, including Mrs. Olsen's Prison Life, and the testimony of Mrs. Minard, Mrs. Shedd, Mrs Yates and Mrs. Lake. The facts in the volume are authenticated by the Report of the Investigating Committee appointed by the Legislature of Illinois in 1867. 450 pages. Price $1.50.

    Packard, E. 1873 Modern Persecution New York, Pelletreau and Raynor, printers, - Case, Lockwood & Brainard, printers in Hartford. 1873. 2 volumes: published by the authoress

    Volume One: Modern Persecution, or, Insane asylums unveiled as demonstrated by the report of the Investigating Committee of the Legislature of Illinois. [Issued in 1868 under title : The prisoners' hidden life, or Insane asylums unveiled.]

    Volume Two: Modern Persecution, or Married woman's liabilities as demonstrated by the action of the Illinois legislature.

    Packard, E. 1886 The Mystic Key or the Asylum Secret Unlocked

    Nesta Pain

    Paine, N. 1975 King George Third at Home Methuen

    Tessa Parkes

    Parkes, T 2002 Feathers and Thorns. The Politics of Participation in Mental Health Services PhD Thesis, University of Kent.

    Parkinson, C. July 1981 The Right Approach to Mental Health. A Report Based on the Work of a Conservative Policy Group, with a Foreword by Cecil Parkinson M.P. Conservative Political Centre. Cecil Parkinson chaired the group, which was formed in 1976

    Parkinson, C., Speech made 11.5.1982. Printed in the 102nd Annual Report of the Mental After Care Association.

    William Ll. Parry Jones Lecturer in Psychiatry, Oxford University

    Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 The Trade in Lunacy. A Study of Private Madhouses in England in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Routledge Kegan Paul

    Table 6 Provincial private licensed houses containing, or licensed to receive, 100 or more patients. Distinguishes total number from number of paupers.

    Richard Paternoster 14.10.1802 - 21.7.1892

    Paternoster, R. 1841 The madhouse system London, for the author. A copy survives in the British Library.

    "essentially a compilation of a number of articles published previously in the Satirist... centred on his stay of forty-one days at Finch's madhouse, Kensington... his... seizure had been arranged by his father following a disagreement on money matters. He was released after the attention of the police and the press... He described several other metropolitan houses but, apart from a reference to an an enquiry at Hereford Lunatic Asylum, no mention was made of conditions outside London. Paternoster... had worked in the Madras Civil Service..." Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972 p.228)

    Patmore, C. 1877 Bryan Waller Procter...An Autobiographical Fragment and Biographical Notes London, Bell.

    Louise Roxanne Pembroke

    Pembroke, L.R. 1990 "The social realities of schizophrenia" by Louise Pembroke. Education officer Survivors Speak Out. Asylum Volume 4, no 3 Summer 1990

    Pembroke, L.R. 1992 Eating Distress: Perspectives From Personal Experience Edited by Louise Roxanne Pembroke - Published by Survivors Speak Out - pdf copy

    Pembroke, L.R. 1994 Self-Harm: Perspectives From Personal Experience Edited by Louise Roxanne Pembroke - Published by Survivors Speak Out - pdf copy

    Pembroke, L.R. 1995 "National self-harm network" by Louise Pembroke in OpenMind 73, February/March 1995, page 13.

    Pembroke, L.R. 2009 Relations with Psychiatrists a series of articles in OpenMind about how we improve relationships between service users and psychiatrists: Download here: "Them and Us" - "Education and Training" - "Communication" - "When Relationships Break Down" - "Not Rocket Science" -

    Pembroke, L.R. March 2009 "Mind Your Language"

    Louise Pembroke, Jan Wallcraft and Andrew Roberts

    Pembroke, L., Wallcraft, J. and Roberts, A. 2010 "Judy Chamberlin (1944-2010) Psychiatric Survivor Activist, Recollections on her impact by Louise Pembroke, Jan Wallcraft and Andrew Roberts, who met Judi on her visits to the UK". from Asylum September 2010 pp 20-21. Available at

    John Thomas Perceval
    See Alleged Lunatics Friend Society

    Perceval, J.T. 1838 A narrative of the treatment experienced by a gentleman, during a state of mental derangement : designed to explain the causes and the nature of insanity, and to expose the injudicious conduct pursued towards many unfortunate sufferers under that calamity. London: Effingham Wilson. 278 pages.

    Perceval, J.T. 1840 A narrative of the treatment experienced by a gentleman, during a state of mental derangement : designed to explain the causes and the nature of insanity, and to expose the injudicious conduct pursued towards many unfortunate sufferers under that calamity. London: [Same title: Different content] Available

    Perceval, J.T. 1844 A Letter to the Secretary of State for the Home Department upon the unjust and pettifogging conduct of the Metropolitan Commissioners on Lunacy, in the Case of a Gentleman lately under their surveillance. London: Effingham Wilson. 72 pages [About William Bailey]

    Perceval, J.T. 1846 Letters to the Right Honourable Sir James Graham, and to other noblemen and gentlemen: upon the reform of the law affecting the treatment of persons alleged alleged to be of unsound mind. London, Wilson, 1846.

    Perceval, J.T. [Editor] and Pearce, A.L. 1851 Poems by a Prisoner in Bethlehem. The poems are by Arthur Legent Pearce. A review of the book by appeared in the Journal of Psychological Medicine 1851, volume 4, pp 231-234, and is available here.

    Perceval, J.T. and Peithman, L.E. 1855 Case of Dr. Peithman, LL.D. The Petition of Dr Peithman ... as presented to Her Majesty in 1854, containing a brief account of his history ... together with letters, certificates, and testimonials to his sanity London: Joseph Clayton. [Reprinted Naropa Institute Journal of Psychology [ISSN 0271-7557] Volume 3. 1985 as an Historical Document with an introduction by Edward M. Podvoll. Available

    Perceval, J.T. and Bateson, G. 1962 Perceval's Narrative. A patient's account of his psychosis, 1830-1832. Edited by Gregory Bateson. London; printed in U.S.A: Hogarth Press. 22 page introductory. 331 pages. Originally published 1838 and 1840. Contains all of the first volume and much of the second. Available

    Peterkin, A. Johnston, W. and Drew, R. 1968 Commissioned Officers in the Medical Servces of the British Army, 1669-1960 Wellcome Historical Medical Library.

    Dale Alfred Peterson 20.11.1944 -

    Peterson, D. 1977 The literature of madness : autobiographical writings by mad people and mental patients in England and America from 1436 to 1975 Ann Arbor, Michigan Thesis - Stanford University, 1977 [Bibliography: leaves 571-595]

    Peterson, D. (Editor) 1982 A Mad People's History of Madness. University of Pittsburgh Press.

    List of authors quoted

    Pages 355 to 366 of the bibliography is "Writings by Mad People and Mental Patients" and (365-366) "anthologies". This list is developed by Gail Hornstein (2008).

    Michael Philpot, Cath Collins, Premila Trivedi, Adrian Treloar, Simon Gallacher, and Diana Rose
    South London and Maudsley NHS Trust
    Communicate (The User Group at the Maudsley Hospital)
    Oxleas NHS Trust
    Service Users Research Enterprise, Institute of Psychiatry

    Philpot, M., Collins, C., Trivedi, P., Treloar, A., Gallacher, S. and Rose, D. 2004 "Eliciting users' views of ECT in two mental health trusts with a user-designed questionnaire" Journal of Mental Health 2004, Vol. 13, No. 4 , Pages 403-413

    Phoenix Rising - The Voice of the Psychiatrized (1980 - 1990)

    Vol. 1. "Myths of Mental Illness" by Carla McKague and Don Weitz.

    Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring, 1980: Parkdale boarding house mess; computer therapy; Valium: the miracle drug that isn't.
    Vol. 1, No. 2, Summer 1980: Prison psychiatry; SmithKline boycott; Blindness: more than meets the eye.
    Vol. 1, No. 3, Fall 1980: The death of Aldo Alviani.
    Vol. 1, No. 4, Winter 1981: Women and psychiatry.

    Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 1981: From Kingston Psychiatric to City Hall– "Don't Spyhole Me," (Journal) by David Reville; Update on Kingston Psychiatric Hospital; Access to medical records; Profiles - People First; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 2, No. 2, Summer 1981: Kids and Psychiatry; Thistletown; Kids and the Law; Incest; Drugging - Ritalin; Annotated Antipsychiatry Bibliography; Psychiatric Inmates Liberation Directory; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 2, No. 3, Fall 1981: includes [History of] "The Movement" by Mel Starkman; 9th International Conference (Cleveland); International Year of Disabled Persons; Drugs; Canadian Groups; Profiles - Kendal Russell; Book reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 3, No. 1, Aug./Sept 1982: Tenth International Conference (Toronto); Davis drug death/inquest; Paraldehyde; Class bias in psychiatry; Profiles– Steve Stapleton; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 3, No. 2, November 1982: The Housing Crisis; Housing, Not Warehousing; Boarding Homes; Patient-run residence; housing facts; Declaration of Principles; Shock Death - Lynette Miller; Tardive Dyskinesia Epidemic; Profiles– Margaret Gibson; File Review– "Titicott Follies'; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 3, No. 3, Winter 1983: Schizophrenia, Exploding the Myth; Personal stories by ex-inmates; The CIA and Mind Control (excepts from book by John Marks); Moditen (Prolixin); Consent to treatment; Mental Health and Violence Against Women (feminist statement ex-inmate women); Profiles– David Oaks; Shock Doctor List (Canadian); Annotated Anti-Psychiatry Bibliography; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 3, No. 4, Spring 1983: Death by Psychiatry, Part I; Report on 8 deaths in NY State psychiatric institutions by Allen Markman; Profiles– Hope Scoville, Phyllis Moss; On Our Own: Self-Help Model; A Draft Bill of Rights for
    Psychiatric Inmates in Canada (On Our Own); Neuroleptics; List of Anti-Psychiatry groups; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 4, No. 1, Summer 1983: Death by Psychiatry, Part II; Deaths in New York; 11th International Conference; Mental Health Act; Demonstration against APA (NYC) Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 4, No. 2, Fall 1983: Mad With The Truth; Interview with Samuel Delaney on Art and Madness; Withdrawing from Pychiatric Drugs (reprint from Dr. Caligari's Psychiatric Drugs); Interview with mental health worker; Electroshock; International Conference on Prison Abolition; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 4, No. 3/4, April 1984 (Double Issue): Shock Supplement;
    Interview with Richard Kotuk; Out of the Ashes (new creative section); Shock case; Secret Brainwashing Experiments (5th Estate Transcript); Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 5, No. 1, Feb. 1985: Women and Psychiatry; Journal/drawings by Nira Fleischmann; Interview with Carol Stubbs; Still Sane (exerpts from book by S. Gilhooly and P. Blackbridge); Therapy, sexism and non- sexist alternatives by Dr. Bonnie Burstow; "Women and Shock Treatment" by Paula Fine (reprint); Psychiatric malpractice by Greta H. Nemiroff; Valium addiction (personal story); International Mad Movement; Interviews with ex-inmate women; Book Reviews; Poetry; Out of the Ashes.

    Vol. 5, No. 2/3, Aug. 1985 (Double Issue): Charter of Rights; People's Charter (reprint); Charter and the psychiatric inmate; Institutional injustice; Charter challenges involuntary committal; Fighting emergency committals (Theresa Lussa case); Shock and the Law; Voting Rights; Charter and sheltered workshops; Declaration of Principles (reprint); Italy closing psychiatric institutions; Brief history of psychiatry; Shock survivors' testimony; Shock doc list; Psychiatric Inmates Liberation Directory; Valium; Maggie's Bag; Book Reviews; Poetry; Out of the Ashes.

    Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec. 1985: Celebration Issue; Personal Stories; Riviere des Prairies torture (Montreal); Interview with Dr. Lee Coleman; 13th International Conference (Vermont); Maggie's Bag; Book Reviews; Poetry;
    Out of the Ashes.

    Vol. 6, No. 1, June 1986: Canadian Brainwashing Victims; A psychiatric holocaust - Dr. Cameron's brainwashing experiments; Canadian victims' case; "What's your excuse Grace?"; Critique of psychiatric patient advocates in
    Ontario; Maggie's Bag; Book Reviews; Poetry; Out of the Ashes.

    Vol. 6, No. 2, October 1986: The Anti-Psychiatry Movement; State of the Anti-Psychiatry Movement in California ; Declaration of Principles from 10th International Conference (reprint); Cooper Report on CIA Victims; Oak Ridge and the Hucker Report; Women Survivors of Psychiatry (Toronto Conference); Updated list of shock doctors; anti-psychiatry group list; Book Review; Poetry; Out of the Ashes.

    Vol. 6, No. 3, Dec. 1986: The Best of PHOENIX RISING; Mostly excerpts– back issues. Schizophrenia, Exploding the Myth; The Tardive Dyskinesia Epidemic; Psychiatry's Reign of Error; Psychiatric Treatment and your Right to Decide; Shock and the Law; Psychobable; Book Reviews; Poetry; Out of the Ashes.

    Vol. 6, No. 4, June 1987: Shelter: A Matter of Life and Death; Drina Joubert inquest; John Dimun inquest; Hostels; Boarding Homes; Roomers Protest; "Rule Thrity-Six House"; Zoning; Women & State workshop; Shock Lies; Drug Ads; Oak Ridge Demo; Ontario Mental Health Act amendments (Bill 7, Bill 190) Poetry; Book Reviews; Survivors Stories.

    Vol. 7, No. 1, Oct. 1987: Housing Options; "Getting off the Street"– interview with Alf Jackson; "Protection for Roomers'; "A Boarding House Renewed" (Channon Court); Interviews with three On Our Own members; "Getting Walter Out of Queen St. ; "Big Brother's Place" (critique of a halfway house); Linda Andre's shock case; Shock demo; Shock lies; Bill 190 ; Testimony on Bill 190 ; Book Reviews; Poetry.

    Vol. 7, No. 2, Nov. 1987: The Advocacy Game. Critique of the Ontario goverment's advocacy report; No Advocacy in New Zealand; Community Advocacy; Psychiatry in Manitoba; Being There for Each Other; Protest
    against CPA; Psychiatry Serves the Ruling Class; FDA denies CAT scan petitioners; The Chemical Gag.

    Vol. 7, No. 3, Dec. 1987: Out of the Ashes; Self Portrait; I Never Promised You a Nom de Plume; Movie Night; Warriors; Clarke Institute of Psychiatry Class Jacket; The Loony Bin; Appointing substitute decision-maker if "incompetent"– Form 44; Book Review; Poetry.

    Vol. 7, No. 4, May 1988: Fighting for Our Freedom; NYC vs. Joyce Brown; Challenging New Zealand's Mental Health Act; Dr. Breggin Speaks out Against Psychiatric Drugs; Banging Heads; Brainwashing case update;
    Withdrawing From Psychiatric Drugs; Nazi Doctors.

    Vol. 8, No. 1, Oct. 1988: A Close Up Look at the Enemy; Report on 14th International Conference of Law and Mental Health; Ex-inmates Challenge APA; Toronto Protesters Arrested For Distributing Shock Info; Shock Machine Classifications; Merril Dow Propaganda; Advocacy ; Network; personal stories; Poetry.

    Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1989: Prison Issue: Voices From Inside; Personal stories by prisoners; Media coverup of Oak Ridge; Prison Justice Day; Electroshock Conference in NY; Drugs and Consent; R.A.P. demo; Resources for Prisoners; Network; Shrinkwatch.

    Vol. 8, No. 3/4, July 1990 (Double Issue) Gay Lesbian Issue; Personal Stories; AIDS and Psychiatry, interview with Dr.Szasz; Interview with Dr. Bonnie Burstow; Psychiatric Drugs - A Co-factor in AIDS?; History of Psychiatric Homophobia; Montreal PUN Conference; Shrinkwatch; Clarke Institute Protest; Prozac; Dr. Peter Breggin on Psychiatric Drugs.

    Marco Piccinelli, Pierluigi Politi, and Francesco Barale
    Psychiatric services Pavia

    Piccinelli, P., Politi, P. and Barale, F. 12.2002 "Focus on psychiatry in Italy" British Journal of Psychiatry December 2002 181: pp 538-544; doi:10.1192/bjp.181.6.538. Available

    Susan Piddock 1963-
    Flinders University, South Australia.

    Piddock, S. 2002 A Space of Their Own: Nineteenth Century Lunatic Asylums in Britain, South Australia and Tasmania. A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Flinders University of South Australia, October 2002. [Used in notes on asylum architecture]

    Piddock, S. 2007 A Space of Their Own: The Archology of Nineteenth Century Lunatic Asylums in Britain, South Australia and Tasmania. Series: Contributions to global historical archaeology. New York: Springer
    Contents: A Space of Their Own.- The Archaeology of Institutions.- The Changing Face of Insanity and the Rise of the Lunatic Asylum.- The 'Ideal' Lunatic Asylum.- The British Lunatic Asylum: Ideals and Realities.- South Australia and the Ideal Lunatic Asylum.- Tasmania and the Ideal Asylum.- The Ideal Asylum: A World of Difference.- Conclusion: Archaeology and Lunatic Asylums.

    David Pilgrim 1950-

    Pilgrim, D. 1983 (Editor) Psychology and psychotherapy: current trends and issues Series: Perspectives on psychotherapy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

    Pilgrim, D. 1986 NHS psychotherapy: personal accounts Ph.D. Thesis University of Nottingham

    David Pilgrim and Anne Rogers

    Pilgrim, D. and Rogers, A. 1993 A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness Open University Press.
    Contents: Perspectives on mental health and illness; gender; race and ethnicity; age; the mental health professions; questions of treatment; the organization of psychiatry; psychiatry and legal control; users of mental health services.

    Pilgrim, D. 1997 Psychotherapy and Society Series: Perspectives on psychotherapy. London: SAGE
    Contents: Psychotherapy and Social Science Objectivism - Post- Structuralism and General Systems Theory - Class Distinctions Women and Men - Races Apart - The Vagaries of Age - The Contexts of Therapy - Watching the Professionals - Ordinary People and Patient Survivors

    Pilgrim, D. and Rogers, A. 1999 A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness Open University Press. Second edition.

    Pilgrim, D. 2.2000 "The real problem for postmodernism" Journal of Family Therapy Volume 22, Issue 1, pages 6-23, February 2000

    Pilgrim, D. 12.2002 "The biopsychosocial model in Anglo-American psychiatry: Past, present and future?" Journal of Mental Health Volume 11, Number 6, 1.12.2002, pp. 585-594

    Pilgrim, D. 2005 Key Concepts in Mental Health Series: SAGE key concepts. London : SAGE
    Contents: PART ONE: Mental Health and Mental Health Problems
    Concepts include: mental health - psychiatric diagnosis - personality disorder - self-harm - substance misuse - learning disability - causes and constructs ("biological, psychological and social explanations")
    PART TWO: Mental Health Services
    Concepts include: Primary care - Acute mental health services - Forensic mental health services - Service-user involvement - Carers - The mental health service user's movement.
    PART THREE: Mental Health and Society
    Concepts include: Mental health policy - Eugenics - Anti-psychiatry - Labelling theory - Stigma - Risk to and from people with mental health problems.

    Pilgrim, D. and Rogers, A. 11.2009 "Survival and its discontents: the case of British psychiatry" Sociology of Health and Illness Volume 31, Number 7, November 2009, pp. 947-961.

    David Pilgrim, Anne Rogers and Bernice Pescosolido

    Pilgrim, D., Rogers, A. and Pescosolido, B. 2011 (Editors) The SAGE handbook of mental health and illness London : SAGE. xviii and 547 pages.
    Editors' Introduction
    The Limits to Psychiatric and Behavioural Genetics by Angus Clarke
    The Challenge of Measurement of Mental Disorder in Community Surveys by Jerome C Wakefield and Mark F Schmitz
    Mental Health, Positive Psychology and the Sociology of the Self by Benedikt Rogge
    Sociological Aspects of the Emotions by Gillian Bendelow
    Ethnicity, Race and Mental Disorder in the UK by James Nazroo and Karen Iley
    Gender Matters: Differences in Depression between Women and Men by Jane M Ussher
    The Diagnosis of Depression in an International Context by Renata Kokanovic
    Stressors and Experienced Stress by Susan Roxburgh
    Religious Beliefs and Mental Health by Scott Schieman
    Applications and Extensions of the Stress Process Model Children, Culture and Mental Illness by Brea Perry and Bernice A Pescosolido
    Public Knowledge and Stigma toward Childhood Problems Stigma and Mental Disorder by Graham Scambler
    Medicalisation and Mental Health by Sigrun Olafsdottir
    The Critique of Medical Expansion and a Consideration of How Markets, National States, and Citizens Matter Danger and Diagnosed Mental Disorder by David Pilgrim and Anne Rogers
    Editors' Introduction
    Biological Explanations for and Responses to Madness by Philip Thomas
    The Psychology of Psychosis by Richard Bentall
    Sociological Aspects of Personality Disorder by Nick Manning
    Sociological Aspects of Substance Misuse by Michael Bloor and Alison Munro
    Sociological Aspects of Psychotropic Medication by David Pilgrim, Anne Rogers and Jonathan Gabe
    Common mental health problems: the impact of general practice on inequalities in the UK by Carolyn Chew-Graham
    Promoting Mental Health by Helen Herrman
    Institutionalisation and De-Institutionalisation by
    Andrew Scull
    Recovery in Mental Illness by Ann McCranie
    Action for Change in the UK: Thirty Years of the User/Survivor Movement by Peter Campbell and Diana Rose
    The Roots, Meanings and Implementations of a 'New' Services Movement Mental Health Problems, Social Exclusion and Social Inclusion. A UK Perspective by Jenny Secker
    Social Network Influence in Mental Health and Illness, Service Use and Settings, and Treatment Outcomes by Bernice A Pescosolido Summary

    Pilgrim, D. 5.2008 "The Eugenic Legacy in Psychology and Psychiatry" International Journal of Social Psychiatry May 2008 54: pp 272-284.

    David Pilgrim and Floris Tomasini

    Pilgrim, D. and Tomasini, F. 2012 "On being unreasonable in modern society: are mental health problems special?" Disability and Society 27:5, pp 631-646

    Plarr: Plarr's lives of the Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons..., Revised by Sir D'Arcy Power. 2 volumes. Bristol. 1930

    Anne Plumb 1946-

    Plumb , A. "Ear to the ground. Survivor and ally voices. Organisation and Action 1970-2000" Personal Archive. - See links

    Plumb, A. 1987 "That word consumer" Rochdale Mind newsletter

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    Plumb, A. 1993 "The Challenge of Self Advocacy Feminism and Psychology Volume 3, Issue 2. pp 169-187, London, Sage.

    Plumb, A. 2.1994 Distress or disability? An occasional paper from the GMCDP Publications. [Greater Manchester Coalition of Disabled People]. February 1994

    Plumb, A. 1999 "New Mental Health Legislation. A lifesaver? Changing paradigm and practice" Social Work Education 18: pp 459-76

    Plumb, A. 2002 Review article: From Psychiatric Patient to Citizen: Overcoming Discrimination and Social Exclusion by Liz Sayce. Social Work Education 21.1.

    Plumb, A. 2012 "Incorporation, or not, of MH survivors into the disability movement" in Anderson, J.; Sapey, B. and Spandler, H. 2012 pp 18-12

    Plumb, A. 27.8.2012 A narrative memo on service-user/survivor involvement in Manchester. Covering the 1980s and early 1990s.

    Plumb, A. 16.6.2013 "Going, Going, Gone: Grassroots Archives" presentation at the second Unofficial Histories Conference in John Dalton Building, Manchester Metropolitan University. See

    Plumb, A. 2015 "UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: out of the frying pan into the fire? Mental health service users and survivors aligning with the disability movement" in Spandler, Anderson and Sapey 2015

    Roy Porter

    Porter, R. March 1985 "The patient's view: doing medical history from below." Theory and Society 1985; volume 14: issue 2, March 1985 pp 175-1998.

    See Subject Index Consumers' voice

    Porter, R. 1987 A Social History of Madness: Stories of the Insane. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.

    Portsmouth, 1823 A genuine report of the proceedings on the Portsmouth Case, under a Commission issued by His Majesty [to enquire into the sanity of the Earl of Portsmouth], in which are faithfully given the speeches of the counsel on each side, verbatim: the whole of the interesting evidence: with copies of the various letters and documents produced and read; the summing up of the Chief Commissioner; the names of the commissioners, counsel and jury; with every other particular relating to this extraordinary case

    PP: Parliamentary Paper.
    Usual reference: PP/year/paper number/volume/page. e.g: "PP 1814-15 (296) vol.4, pp 810-1034", which is the 1814-15 Select Committee of the House of Commons Madhouses
    (see above). Page numbers are usually those of the standard volumes, but sometimes I may have taken down the page number of the paper instead. When two page numbers are given in the form "p.407\46", one is the volume, the other the paper page number.

    PP/1836 JPs: A return of Justices of the Peace (magistrates) in 1836 which appears to have been the earliest comprehensive printed list.

    PP/1838 Slaves: PP 1838 (215) vol.48 Account of Slave Compensation Claims Ordered to be printed 16.3.1838.

    See Dr Thomas Turner and Robert Gordon's interest in the West Indies.

    PP/Accs: The financial Accounts of the United Kingdom. House of Commons papers numbers: 252/1855-6 and 287/1868-9.

    PP/Ests: Estimates etc. Civil Services. House of Commons papers numbers: 90/1855-6, 131/1860-1 (for 1861-2), 112/1861-2 (for 1862-3), 55/1862-63 (for 1865/4), n.k./1867-8 (for 1868-9), 145/1869-70 (for 1870-1), 23/1878-9 (for 1879- 80), 57/1883-4 (for 1844-5).

    Hans Prinzhorn 6.6.1886-14.6.1933

    Prinzhorn, H. 1922 Bildnerei der Geisteskranken: ein Beitrag zur Psychologie und Psychopathologie der Gestaltung (Artistry of the Mentally Ill: A contribution to the psychology and psychopathology of design) Berlin: Julius Springer. viii and 361 pages. With 187 part color illustrations in the text and 20 panels mainly from the collection of Psychiatric Clinic Heidelberg. Available

    Notice that Paul Klee's Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre is translated "Writings on form and design theory". Gestaltung is about giving shape to things.

    Prinzhorn, H. 1922/1972/1995 Artistry of the Mentally Ill: A contribution to the psychology and psychopathology of configuration Bildnerei der Geisteskranken translated into English by Eric von Brockdorff from the second German edition; with an introduction by James L. Foy. Wien : Springer-Verlag, 1995. Previously published: New York : Springer-Verlag, 1972. xxii and 274 pages.

    Proceedings of the Statistical Society of London.

    Specific papers referenced:

    hathitrust links - more hathitrust links

    Google links: 1840 - 1841 - 1847 - 1849 - 1851

    Annabel Price

    Price, A. 1998 Care in the community?: a history of the reprovision programme of Friern Hospital 68 page BSc. Dissertation in Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine

    Punch or the London Charivari, a humorous political weekly, founded 17.7.1841 and published every Saturday. Editors Henry Mayhew, Mark Lemon and Joseph Stirling. A charivari is a serenade that mocks with a discordant medley of sounds.

    Shulamit Ramon and Maria Grazia Giannichedda

    Ramon, S and Giannichedda, M.G. (editors) 1988 Psychiatry in Transition: the British and Italian Experiences Pluto Press. ISBN: 0745304702. Second edition 1991. Articles are grouped in twos with one about Britain followed by one about Italy, on similar subjects. Includes:

    1) Ann Davis "Users' Perspectives" about Britain
    2) Maria Grazia Giannicheda "A Future of Social Invisibility" about Italy.

    19) Rick Hennelly "Mental Health Resource Centres"
    20) Tommaso Losavio "Community Mental Health Services in Rome"

    21) Mind Manchester Group. "Developing an Alternative Community Mental Health Service"
    22) Pasquale de Nicola, Enrica Giacobbi, Sandra Rogialli "Changing Professional Roles in the Italian Psychiatric System"

    Charles Stanford Read, 1871 -

    Read, C.S. 1920 Military Psychiatry in Peace and War London : H.K. Lewis, 1920. vii and 168 pages. - (text offline)

    Millicent Reagan MB ChB DPH MFCM

    Reagan, M. 1986 A Caring Society- a study of Lunacy in Liverpool and South West Lancashire. 1650-1948. Published by St. Helens & Knowlesley Health Authority, Rainhill Hospital, Merseyside.

    Eddie Ince sent me photocopies of extracts from this work in March 2004. It includes seven pages on Haydock Lodge: the most substantial coverage, apart from this website and Parry-Jones, W.L. 1972, that I have seen. Millicent Reagan used local records. I will be incorporating her findings.

    Geoffrey Francis Reaume 1962-

    Reaume, G. 1997 999 Queen Street West: Patient Life at the Toronto Hospital for the Insane, 1870 - 1940 A thesis submitted i n conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate Department of History, University of Toronto. Available at

    Redlich, J., Hirst, F. & Keith-Lucas, B. 1958 The History of Local Government in England. A reissue of volume one of Redlich, J., Hirst, F. 1903 Local Government in England, edited with an introduction and epilogue by Keith-Lucas. Macmillan

    Sir Alexander Wood Renton 1861-1933

    Renton, A.W. 1886 Monomanie sans délire. An examination of "The irresistible criminal impulse theory." Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 76 pages

    Renton, A.W. 1889 The People's Dictionary of English Law London: Hodder & Stoughton. 276 pages

    Renton, A.W. 1896 The Law of and Practice in Lunacy: with the Lunacy Acts 1890-1891 (consolidated and annotated) 1151 pages and 63 introductory pages. Edinburgh and London. William Green & Sons

    Edward Renvoize

    Renvoize, E. 1991 The Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane, the Medico-Psychological Association, and their Presidents in Berrios and Freeman 1991 pages 29-78

    Report: Unless otherwise stated a report of the Metropolitan or Lunacy Commission. See chronological bibliography. These are referenced by year of report only (e.g. 1844 Report) (not year of publication if that differed) except when there was more than one Report in one year. Special Reports have an additional indicator, e.g. 1844 Welsh Report.

    Return: Special return moved for by the House of Commons or House of Lords. Usually referenced: Return/date of printing, so that they can be looked up in the chronological bibliography e.g. Return 3.2.1842 p.

    Ridley, J. 1970 Lord Palmerston

    David Roberts

    Roberts, D. 1960 Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State. Yale University Press. Anchor Books edition 1969.

    Valerie Argent (Valerie Roberts) See Table of London Madhouses

    Roberts, Valerie, 1978, Counter Revolutionary Panic and the Treatment of the Insane: 1800. An enquiry into the enactment of the 1800 Criminal Lunatics Act. Unpublished dissertation. Middlesex Polytechnic at Enfield, BA Honours Social Science. January 1978.   [now being entered on the web by Joan Hughes]

    Roberts, Valerie, 1979 London Madhouses Manuscript Books summarising records in 19th century. Based on lists from 1815 to 1870 and visiting records in 1839/1830 See Table of London Madhouses

    Andrew Roberts some other listings

    Roberts, A. 1981- The Lunacy Commission, A Study of its Origin, Emergence and Character Manuscript thesis converted to web book. Conversion completed 13.8.2004. Available at or via the UK Web Archive under Mental Health History Timeline at .

    This bibliography - Mental Health History Words - The Asylums Index - and The Mental Health History Timeline are developments of this thesis. For referencing advice see the bottom of web pages Mental Health History Words - The Asylums Index - and The Mental Health History Timeline.

    "This somewhat busy, but extremely useful, web site is published by an academic at Middlesex University. It is an online monograph on the history of the Lunacy Commission in England and Wales. The book features an introductory chapter, which outlines the establishment of the Lunacy Commission as a government department in the mid-nineteenth century, and its evolution over the years, as well as examining its predecessors in full too. The subsequent chapters look at the individual commissions that preceded the Lunacy Commission, with a chapter each on the organisation and development of the Physician, Metropolitan, and Inquiry Commissions. The two final chapters provide a directory of commissioners, with biographies, and a list of relevant statutes with reference information". (Catalogued and reviewed by Humbul 20.2.2004)

    Charles Alexander Lockhart Robertson (1825-1897)

    Robertson, C.L. 1856 "The Military Lunatic Hospital", Asylum Journal of Mental Science 2, pp 31-40. (offline)

    Robertson, C.L. 1857 "The Military Lunatic Hospital; a Summary of the Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Medical Department (Army) so far as they relate to the Re-establishment of that Hospital". Asylum Journal of Mental Science 3, pp 271-276. [Listed by Parry-Jones 1972. I have not been able to find]

    Robertson, C.L. 1881 "Lunacy in England" Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology (New Series) 7, pp. 174-192

    James Robertson 1911- 31.12.1988 and Joyce Robertosn 27.3.1919 - 12.4.2013

    James Robertson and John Bowlby

    Robertson, J., and Bowlby, J. 1952 "Responses to young children to separation from their mothers. Observations of the sequences of response of children aged 18 to 24 months during the course of separation". Courrier du Centre International de l'Enfance 2 (3?), 131-142
    p. 132 noted that the child "commonly progresses through three phases of emotional response." In protest the child cries in the expectation that his mother will respond. Confused and frightened by the unfamiliar surroundings, he "seeks to recapture her by the full exercise of his limited resources." Protes is gradually succeeded despair. The child is no longer actively seeking his mother, his crying is "monotonous and intermittent". This quiet stage is "erroneously presumed to indicate a diminution of distress" by nurses and pediatricians. In denial the child begins to show more interest in the surroundings, which is "welcomed by the staff as a sign of recovery"; but, according to Robertson and Bowlby, this apparent recovery was only a way of coping for the child. Given the circumstances-the mother is no longer available-children try to make the best of the situation, because they simply cannot tolerate the intense distress they are exposed to.

    Robertson, J. 1952 A two-year-old goes to hospital [Film]. London: Tavistock Child Development Research Unit.
    Observational film narrated by Robertson (with no natural sound) with intertitles [filmed text] in capital letters. The film sequences are called 'time samples'. Laura, aged 2, is seen at home with her parents happily playing. She needs to be in hospital for 8 days to have a minor operation. She is too young to understand her mother's absence. Because her mother is not there and the nurses change frequently, she has to face the fears, frights and hurts with no familiar person to cling to. She is extremely upset by a rectal anaesthetic. Then she becomes quiet and 'settles'. At the end of her stay she is withdrawn from her mother, shaken in her trust. [Wellcome catalogue]

    Robertson, J. 1953 "Some responses of young children to loss of maternal care" Nursing Care 49, 382-386. Reprinted as a pamphlet by Tavistock Publications 1953

    Robertson, J. 1953 A two-year old goes to hospital : a scientific film record Tavistock Publications 1953. 21 pages.
    A guide to the film. Illustrated with 8 plates.

    Robertson, J. 1958 Young Children in Hospital by James Robertson with a foreword by Ronald Mac Keith published London: Tavistock Publications. xiv and 103 pages. (Based on a memorandum ... submitted to the Ministry of Health Committee on the welfare of sick children in hospital on behalf of the Tavistock Clinic and the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations.).

    Robertson, J. 1958 Going to hospital with mother [Film]. London: Tavistock Child Development Research Unit.
    A documentary made in co-operation with staff, patients and parents at Amersham General Hospital. Designed and filmed by James Robertson in co- operation with Dr Dermod MacCarthy, Dr Mary Lindsay, Sister Ivy Morris.
    Observational film contrasting with 'A Two Year Old Goes To Hospital'. Amersham General Hospital has a general ward where it is possible for parents to stay with their children. A plan of the ward is shown. Some younger children are in cubicles where their mothers can sleep too. Sally, aged 20 months, needs to go to hospital for five days to have a minor operation (an umbilical hernia similar to the little girl in 'A Two Year Old Goes To Hospital'); mother stays with her to prevent the distress of separation and to help in her care. There is a short sequence at the end of surgery. As Sally regains consciousness, her mother is there to reassure her. Secure in the presence of her mother, Sally survives the experience without becoming depressed and withdrawn as unaccompanied young patients often do, and at the end of their stay is as lively and cheerful as at the beginning. Other young patients are shown being attended to by their mothers and so the arrangement is shown to be practical, and of benefit not only to the young patient and her mother but also to the medical and nursing staff whose experience is enriched by dealing with child and mother together. Comaraderie between the mothers is evident. [Wellcome catalogue]

    James Robertson and Joyce Robertson

    Robertson, J. and Robertson, J. 1971 "Young children in brief separation" Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 26, pp 264-315.

    Robertson, J. and Robertson, J. 1989 Separation and the Very Young London: Free Association Books.

    Joyce Robertson and Katherine McGilly

    Robertson, J. and McGilly, K. 2009 "Comments on 'Changing attitudes towards the care of children in hospital: a new assessment of the influence of the work of Bowlby and Robertson in the UK, 1940-1970' by Frank C.P. van der Horst and Rene van der Veer..." Attachment and Human Development, 11(6), November 2009, pp.557-561.

    Robinson, A.J and Chesshyre, D.H.B. 1978 The Green. A history of the heart of Bethnal Green and the legend of the Blind Beggar. London Borough of Tower Hamlets Central Library, Bancroft Road, E1.

    George Robinson MD 1821-1875 Proprietor of Bensham Asylum

    Robinson, G. 1859 On the prevention and treatment of mental disorders Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts. 228 pages. "in studying the nature, and endeavouring to check the progress of, mental disease, the physician must look beyond the precincts of the asylum... No one would expect to discover the causes of typhus in a fever hospital... the most useful field of study is that constituted by the circumstances... surrounding the masses from which their victims are taken. And in like manner must the science of mental pathology be pursued in its application to preventive medicine." (from pages 9-12, quoted Hunter, R.A. and Macalpine, I. 1963 pp 1071-1072)

    Anne Rogers

    Anne Rogers and Alison Faulkner.

    Rogers, A and Faulkner, A. 1987 A place of safety : MIND's research into police referrals to the psychiatric services MIND's research into police referrals to the psychiatric services - MIND, 1987 51 pages [A Study of the implementation of section 136 of the Mental Health Act, 1983 in the London area.]

    Anne Rogers and David Pilgrim.

    Rogers, A and Pilgrim, D. 1991 "'Pulling down churches': accounting for the British mental health users' movement". Sociology of Health and Illness 13, 2, pp 129-148

    [and Ron Lacey]

    Rogers, A., Pilgrim, D. and Lacey, R. 1993 Experiencing Psychiatry: User's Views of Services Macmillan in association with Mind.

    Rogers, A and Pilgrim, D. 1996 Mental Health Policy in Britain: A Critical Introduction, Basingstoke: Macmillan.

    Rogers, A and Pilgrim, D. 2001 Mental Health Policy in Britain : A Critical Introduction, Basingstoke: Palgrave. Second edition
    [Reading on present day policy suggested by Chris Fitch]

    Rogers, A. and Pilgrim, D. 2005 A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness Open University Press. Third edition.

    Rogers, A. and Pilgrim, D. 2010 A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness Open University Press. Fourth edition. [See first edition]
    1. Perspectives on mental health and illness
    2. Stigma revisited and lay representations of mental health problems
    3. Social class and mental health
    4. Women and men
    5. Race and ethnicity
    6. Age and ageing

    See Subject Index age -

    7. Mental health work and professions
    8. The treatment of people with mental health problems
    9. The organization of mental health work
    10 Psychiatry and legal control
    11. Users of mental health services

    See Subject Index voice -

    12 Public mental health and the pursuit of happiness.

    John Wilson Rogers an apothecary or surgeon to all of Warburton's houses, who was dismissed.
    Mary Humieres His sister, who had worked as a housekeeper at the White House
    Matthew Talbot Superintendent of the White House

    Rogers, J.W. 1815 A statement of the cruelties, abuses and frauds, which are practised in mad-houses London: printed for the Author, sold by Wilson. 47 pages. 21cm

    Rogers, J.W. 1816 A statement of the cruelties, abuses and frauds, which are practised in mad-houses... Second edition London: London: printed for the author by E. Justins, and sold by Wilson.

    Talbot, M. 1816 Affidavits [by M. Talbot and others] sworn before Lord Ellenborough in refutation of the Testimony of J. W. Rogers and M. Humieres, given before the Committee of the House of Commons, on the Mad-house Bill. [With the report of an action, Talbot v. Hodson. Edited by M. Talbot.] British Library Catalogue.

    Charles G. Roland

    Roland, C.G. 1990 Clarence Hincks: Mental Health Crusader Canadian medical lives ; no. 4. Toronto : Hannah Institute and Dundurn Press. 128 pages offline

    Susan Rooke-Matthews and Vivien Lindow

    Rooke-Matthews, S. and Lindow, V. 1998 A Survivor's Guide to Working in Mental Health Services London : Mind Publications. 32 pages. ISBN: 1874690677

    Summary: This booklet outlines the difficulties and challenges facing user- workers, details recent changes in practice and policy, gives good practice recommendations for employers and lists professional schemes and sources of support for user-workers.

    A shorter version The experiences of mental health service users as mental health professionals by Vivien Lindow and Susan Rooke-Matthews, 31.3.1998 Joseph Rowntree Foundation available at mental-health-professionals - offline

    Diana Rose

    Rose, D. 1998 In our experience : user-focused monitoring of mental health services in Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster Health Authority Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. (35 pages)

    Rose, D. 2.11.2000 "The user movement in England. 2000. Position paper. background to proposed research on the user movement". Available at

    Rose, D. 2001 Users' Voices: The perspectives of mental health service users on community and hospital care, London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.

    Rose, D. 2003 "Collaborative Research between Users and Professionals: peaks and pitfalls", Psychiatric Bulletin, volume 27, pp 404-406.

    Diana S. Rose, Til H. Wykes, Jonathan P. Bindman, Pete S. Fleischmann

    Rose, D.S., Wykes, T.H., Bindman, J.P. and Fleischmann, P.S. 1.2005 "Information, consent and perceived coercion: patients' perspectives on electroconvulsive therapy" The British Journal of Psychiatry January 2005, 186 (1) pp 54-59. Available online
    Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure that attracts special safeguards under common law for voluntary patients and under both current and proposed mental health legislation, for those receiving compulsory treatment. Aims To review patients' views on issues of information, consent and perceived coercion. Method Seventeen papers and reports were identified that dealt with patients'views on information and consent in relation to ECT; 134 'testimonies'or first-hand accounts were identified. The papers and reports were subjected to a descriptive systematic review. The testimony data were analysed qualitatively. Results Approximately half the patients reported that they had received sufficient information about ECT and side- effects. Approximately a third did not feel they had freely consented to ECT even when they had signed a consent form. Clinician-led research evaluates these findings to mean that patients trust their doctors, whereas user-led work evaluates similar findings as showing inadequacies in informed consent. Conclusion Neither current nor proposed safeguards for patients are sufficient to ensure informed consent with respect to ECT, at least in England and Wales. Declaration of interest Funding detailedin Acknowledgements. D.R. and P.F. have been recipients of ECT and J.B. has administered it.

    Rose, D. 21.11.2006 "User-Focused and Collaborative Research in Mental Health: Where do we go next?". Presentation at the Innovative Approaches in Mental Health Research Seminar conference.

    Rose, D. 2009. "Survivor-produced knowledge" in This is Survivor Research pp. 38-43.

    Russo and Rose 2013 "But what if nobody's going to sit down and have a real conversation with you?"

    David L. Rosenhan

    Rosenhan, D.L. 19.1.1973 On Being Sane in Insane Places Science 19.1.1973: Volume 179 no. 4070 pp. 250-258
    DOI: 10.1126/science.179.4070.250

    Martin Roth, 1917-

    Martin Roth and Jerome Kroll

    Roth, M. and Kroll, J. 1986 The Reality of Mental Illness Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. viii and 128 pages
    Contents: Introduction; 1. Mental illness, psychiatry and its critics; 2. Disorders of the mind and the role of medicine in historical perspective; 3. The evidence from transcultural enquiries; 4. A consideration of the mind-body problem and its bearing on the concept of disease; 5. Medical and alternative models of mental disease; 6. Social, ethical and philosophical aspects of involuntary hospitalization and the insanity defence.

    Summary: This book is psychiatry's reply to the diverse group of antipsychiatrists, including Laing, Foucault, Goffman, Szasz and Bassaglia, that has made fashionable the view that mental illness is merely socially deviant behaviour and that psychiatrists are agents of the capitalist society seeking to repress such behaviour. It establishes, by the use of evidence from historical and transcultural studies, that mental illness has been recognized in all cultures since the beginning of history and goes on to explore the philosophical and medical basis for psychiatry's diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. Finally, it tackles two issues where psychiatry has been seen as at odds with the values prevailing in society: involuntary hospitalisation and the insanity defence. The Reality of Mental Illness does not pretend to offer simple answers to the complex problems it discusses, but will leave the reader with a much greater understanding of psychiatry's aims, practices and problems."

    David Roxan
    News of the World journalist. Married Margaret Quantrill (1924-2003) in 1945. Died 1999.

    Roxan, D. 1958 Sentenced without Cause - The Story of Peter Whitehead, London: Frederick Muller Limited.

    See Hansard 14.3.1958

    Roxan, D. 23.4.1967 "Storm over canings for navy boys" News of the World, London, 23.4.1967 By David Roxan


    Royal College of Physicians of London

    RCP Annals: Annals of the Royal College of Physicians, London. Microfilm.

    RCP Commission Account: The Royal College of Physicians Treasurer's Account book for the Madhouses Commission. Royal College of Physicians, London.

    RCP general accounts: The Royal College of Physicians Treasurer's Account book for the College. Royal College of Physicians, London.

    These are kept in the library of the Royal College of Physicians in London (external link). My thanks to the college for allowing me access to the data on which I based the analysis of the physician commission organisation and for permission to quote from their Annals and Accounts.


    Royal Academy of Arts

    The Royal Academy of Arts: a complete dictionary of contributors and their work from its foundation in 1769 to 1904 / Algernon Graves ; compiled with the sanction of the president and council of the Royal Academy . 1905

    Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905-1970: a dictionary of artists and their work in the Summer Exhibitions of the Royal Academy of Arts. by Jarman, Angela; Royal Academy of Arts. 1987


    The Royal College of Psychiatrists (1971) began as The Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane in 1841 (See journal). This became the Medico-Psychological Association in 1865 (see publications) and then the Royal Medico Psychological Association in 1926.

    Royal College of Psychiatrists: website, College Research Unit, The Living Project - international archive - (Chris Fitch, Paul Lelliott and Alan Quirk ) curent website (January 2009)

    RCPs 12.1989 "Patient advocacy - Report for Public Policy Committee" of the Royal College of Pschiatrists. Psychiatric Bulletin December 1989 Available at

    RCPs CR74 2.1999 PatientAdvocacy College Report Royal College of Psychiatrists February 1999. No longer available online.

    RCPs CR171 2.2012 Independent advocacy for people with mental disorder College Report Royal College of Psychiatrists February 2012 Approved by Central Policy Committee: October 2011. Replacing CR74: Patient Advocacy from 1999. Available 71.aspx


    Royal College of Surgeons of London

    See Plarr's lives - RCS History page -


    Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh

    external link to history - BBC History 1505 -


    RK: Royal Kalendar The Royal Kalendar, and Court Register, for England, Scotland, Ireland, and the Colonies, for the year ...: including a correct list of the ... Parliament, summoned to meet....

    Royal Society

    Notes and Records of the Royal Society


    Medical and Chirurgical Society
    Founded 1805
    Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society
    From 1834
    Royal Society of Medicine
    From 1907

    The British Library has a [List of the] Officers and Councillors [and Fellows] of the Medical Society of London for April 1842; April 1847; February 1850 and September 1850


    Sarah Rutherford

    Rutherford, S. 9.2003 The Landscapes of Public Lunatic Asylums in England, 1808-1914 PhD thesis, DeMontfort University. Includes a gazetteer of most of the English public asylums (which I am using).

    Joanna Ryan with Frank Thomas

    Ryan, J. with Thomas, F. 1980 The Politics of Mental Handicap. Penguin [Pelican Psychology]

    William Sargant 24.4.1907 - 27.8.1988

    Sargant and Slater 1963 An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry by William Slater and Eliot Slater. Fourth Edition. E.& S. Livingstone, Edinburgh and London 1964

    Liz Sayce 1954-
    Policy Director for Mind 1990 to 1998. August 1995-August 1996, based at the Bazelon Centre for Mental Health Law, Washington, on a Harkness Fellowship looking into anti-discrimination work in the USA. Director Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham Health Action Zone 1998-2000. Director, Policy and Communications, for the Disability Rights Commission 2000 to 2007. Chief Executive RADAR 2007 to 2012. Chief Executive of Disability Rights UK and a Commissioner at the UK Commission for Employment and Skills.
    OBE in 2009 for services to disabled people and an honorary doctorate from the University of Kent in 2014.

    Sayce, L. 2000 From Psychiatric Patient to Citizen Basingstoke: Macmillan. viii and 280 pages
    Introduction - A Dream of Inclusion - Future Dreams, Future Nightmares - The Illusion of Citizenship - Models of Anti-discrimination Work: The Brain Disease Model - The Individual Growth Model - The Libertarian Model - The Disability Inclusion Model - The Potential of Anti-Discrimination Law - The Limits of the Law - Public Debate, Political Action - Influencing Public Attitudes - Making Inclusion Happen at the Grassroots - Conclusion -
    Summary: This text proposes new theoretical models and practical strategies for tackling the widespread social exclusion faced by people diagnosed mentally ill. Based on research in the US and UK, with reference to other international examples, it analyzes evidence of discrimination and the effectiveness of different remedies: disability discrimination law, work to reframe media and cultural images, grassroots inclusion programmes, and challenges to the "nimby" factor.

    Sayce, L. 2015 From Psychiatric Patient to Citizen Revisited Palgrave's foundations of mental health practice. London and New York. Palgrave. December 2015. xiii and 186 pages.
    1. Competing Histories of Madness -- 2. Voices of Resistance and Social Change -- 3. Understanding the Problem, Understanding the Solution -- 4. Activists' Models of Anti-Discrimination Work -- 5. Social Models of Disability, Madness and Participation -- 6. Learning from Campaigns, Policies and Research: What has Worked? -- 7. Ways to a Better Future: Starting Personal -- 8. Ending Discrimination within Mental Health Services -- 9. Macro Changes Across Society.

    Carl Schneider 1891-1946

    Schneider, C. 1926 "Psychologie und Psychiatrie" Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 78, pp 522-571

    Schneider, C. 1930 Die Psychologie der Schizophrenen und ihre Bedeutung für die Klinik der Schizophrenie. (The Psychology of schizophrenics and their significance for clinical schizophrenia). Thieme, Leipzig

    In this he said he sought to overcome "therapeutic nihilism".

    Schneider, C. 1939 Behandlung und Verhütung der Geisteskranken (Prevention and treatment of the mentally ill) Springer, Berlin.

    Schneider, C. 1942 Die Schizophrenen Symptomverbäde (The schizophrenic symptom associations). Springer, Berlin

    Flip (Philip) Schrameijer 1945 -
    Free-lance researcher and publicist. Was an art therapist. Worked as a medical sociologist at the University of Amsterdam. One of the founders of
    De gekkenkrant in 1973. Active for more than a decade in the protest movement against "the then psychiatry". One of the designers of the Amsterdam Mental Health sysem. Worked for seventeen years at the Trimbos Institute. Graduated 1990 with a thesis entitled "Social support. Analysis of a paradigm".

    Schrameijer, P. 7.2002 "Deinstitutionalisation of Psychiatry in the Netherlands: or Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in mental health". The Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL. Anglo-Dutch- German Workshop. Social Psychiatry and Ambulant Care in the 20th Century. Section five: Deinstitutionalisation: A Paradigmatic Change? 4.7.2002-6.7.2002. Available at

    Scottish Independent Advocacy Alliance

    About Advocacy. Scottish Independent Advocacy Alliance Magazine
    The Magazine has been going since 2003. The more recent ones are online at and an archive that goes back to 2006 is at Unfortunately I have not been able to locate any electronic or paper copies from 2003-2005. (Rhian Thompson 26.7.2012)

    Andrew Scull 1947-
    Born Edinburgh, Scotland.

    Scull, A.T. 1977 Decarceration. Community Treatment and the Deviant - A Radical View. Prentice Hall. New Jersey.

    Scull, A.T. 1979 Museums of Madness Allen Lane, London

    Andrew Scull, Charlotte MacKenzie, Nicholas Hervey

    Scull, MacKenzie and Hervey 1996 Masters of Bedlam. The Transformation of the Mad-Doctoring Trade Princton University Press
    Contains biographies of John Haslam, John Conolly, WAF Browne, Alexander Morison, Samuel Gaskell, John Charles Bucknill and Henry Maudsley. The chapter on Morison is based on the ongoing research of Nicholas Hervey.

    Edward James Seymour

    Seymour, E.J. 1830 Illustration of some of the principal diseases of the Ovaria, their symptoms and treatment. To which are prefixed, observations on the structure and function of these parts in the human being and in animals, with fourteen engravings. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. 8 pages introductory + 126 pages + "atlas" of 14 plates

    Seymour, E.J. 1832 Observations on the medical treatment of insanity London : Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Co. 95 pages.

    Seymour, E.J. 1835 A relation of some cases of mental derangement, successfully treated by the acetate of morphia ... From the nineteenth volume of the Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, etc. London: printed by G. Woodfall. 11 pages.

    Seymour, E.J. 1837 The nature and treatment of dropsy: Considered especially in reference to the diseases of the internal organs of the body which most commonly produce it. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman. 218 pages.

    Seymour, E.J. 1847 Thoughts on the Nature and Treatment of Several Severe Diseases of the Human Body. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. 260 pages. This was volume one but it is believed no further volumes were published.

    Seymour, E.J. 1859 A Letter ... on the laws which regulate Private Lunatic Asylums; with a comparative view of the process "De lunatico inquirendo", in England, and the law of "Interdiction", in France. To which are added, ... observations on the causes of insanity and improvement in its treatment during the last twenty-five years. London. The only copy listed on COPAC is from the British Library catalogue. That copy has been destroyed. Does anyone know of another?

    Debbie Sharp
    Professor of Primary Health Care and Head of the Academic Unit of Primary Health Care, University of Bristol

    DJ Sharp, CA Chew-Graham, A Tylee, G Lewis, L Howard, I Anderson, K Abel, KM Turner, SP Hollinghurst, D Tallon, A McCarthy and TJ Peters

    Sharp, D.J. and others 9.2010 "A pragmatic randomised controlled trial to compare antidepressants with a community-based psychosocial intervention for the treatment of women with postnatal depression: the RESPOND trial" Health Technology Assessment Winchester, England, 2010; Vol. 14: No. 43. Available at

    See Subject Index Depression - Voice

    Shaw, William Arthur 1906 The Knights of England: a complete record from the earliest time to the present day of the knights of all the Orders of Chivalry in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of Knights Bachelors ... Incorporating a complete list of Knights Bachelors dubbed in Ireland, compiled by G. D. Burtchaell.

    Leonard Shelford 1795-1864

    Shelford, L. 1833 Treatise on the Law concerning Lunatics, Idiots, and Persons of Unsound Mind. With an appendix of the statutes of England, Ireland and Scotland, relating to such persons; and precedents and bills of costs London: S. Sweet. First edition. 866 pages plus 83 pages introductory.

    Shelford, L. 1847 Treatise on the Law concerning Lunatics, Idiots, and Persons of Unsound Mind. With an appendix of the statutes of England, Ireland and Scotland, relating to such persons; and precedents and bills of costs. Second edition, with considerable alterations and additions including the new general orders, statutes and decisions. London : S. Sweet. 1,116 pages plus 7 and 15 page introductory.

    Francis Henry Wollaston Sheppard

    Sheppard, F.H.W. 1958 Local government in St Marylebone 1688- 1835. A study of the vestry and the turnpike trusts

    Sheppard, F.H.W. 1971 London 1808-1870: The Infernal Wen. Secker and Warburg.

    Edward Shorter

    Shorter, E. 1997 A History of Psychiatry. From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. John Wiley and Sons, New York. "For historians of psychiatry who wrote 30 or 40 years ago - the last time anyone attempted an overview of the discipline" [I think Shorter means, for Alexander and Selesnick] "...there were those wicked biological psychiatrists in the nineteenth century, then psychoanalysts and psychotherapists came along to defeat the biological zealots."

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    Svein Atle Skalevag

    Skalevag S.A. 1.6.2006 "The matter of forensic psychiatry: a historical enquiry". Medical History 1.6.2006 volume 50 (1): pp 49- 68, available at

    Thomas Southwood Smith 1911 Encyclopedia

    Smith, T.S. 1828 Use of the dead to the living London: Baldwin and Cradock. Review of William Mackenzie's (1791-1868) An appeal to the public and to the legislature, on the necessity of affording dead bodies to the schools of anatomy, by legislative enactment, Glasgow, 1824

    Smith, T.S. 1830 A Treatise on Fever Two volumes. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green

    Smith, T.S. 1830 A Lecture delivered over the remains of Jeremy Bentham, Esq., in the Webb-Street School of Anatomy and Medicine on the 9th of June, 1832. [On the occasion of the dissection of his body in accordance with his Will.] London : Effingham Wilson

    Smith, T.S. 1837 The philosophy of health; or, An exposition of the physical and mental constitution of man, with a view to the promotion of human longevity and happiness Two volumes. London: C. Knight

    Social Perspectives Network

    "SPN Papers typically arise from our study days and contain the handouts, discussion notes and speakers' presentations from each day."

    SPN1 1.2002 SPN Paper One: Modernising the Social Model in Mental Health Author: Maria Duggan with Andrew Cooper and Judy Foster.
    Date: January 2002 reprinted April 2003.

    SPN2 1.5.2002 SPN Paper Two: What is the knowledge base and where does it come from? Author: Principal Paper by Maria Duggan
    Date: 1 May 2002

    SPN3 11.11.2002 SPN Paper Three: Start Making Sense. Developing Social Models to understand and work with mental distress. Author: J.Tew, P.Beresford, S.Plumb, P.Ferns, J.Wallcraft, J.Williams, S.Carr
    Date: 11 November 2002
    Foreword - what the study day was about by Jerry Tew 1
    Core themes for social models of mental distress by Jerry Tew 3
    User perspectives and user knowledge - some headings by Peter Beresford 5
    The social/trauma model: the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse and other life events by Sally Plumb 6
    Finding a way forward: a Black perspective on social model approaches to mental health services by Peter Ferns 16
    What is recovery? by Jan Wallcraft 25
    Women: a social inequalities perspective by Jennie Williams 27
    Lesbian and gay perspectives on mental distress by Sarah Carr

    SPN4 12.6.2003 SPN Paper Four: Emancipatory Research: Where you stand affects your point of view. Authors: J.Copperman, P.Ferns, J.Tew, F.Keating, J.Wallcraft, A.Sweeney, P.Alsop, H.Castillo, E.Hatzidimitriadou, A.Harris, T.Glynn, S.Wells et al
    Date: 12 June 2003

    SPN5 24.10.2003 SPN Paper Five: Falling through the gaps: Services for children and adolescent mental health. Authors: R. Hetherington, Dr J.Trowell, S. Foster, B. Smith, K.Corbett et al, M. Diggins.
    Date: 24 October 2003.

    Social Perspectives Network 2007 Whose Recovery is it Anyway Social Perspectives Network Paper 11. Available

    Southgate, D. 1962 The Passing of the Whigs 1832-1886 Macmillan

    Júlia Sorribes and Phil Ruthen

    Sorribes, J. and Ruthen, P. 2010 "A poet's view of the Survivors History Group". Published in Asylum volume 17, no 4, December 2010

    Helen Spandler Helen Spandler 1969
    Senior Research Fellow, Department of Social Work, University of Central Lancashire
    See Survivors History Group

    Spandler, H. 7.1990 "An attempt to analyse the anti-psychiatry and mental patients movements with regard to the social and political period of the sixties" Unpublished paper. July 1990

    Spandler, H. 1992 "To make an army out of illness: a history of the socialist patients' collective Heidelberg 1970-1972". Asylum 6, 4, pages 3-16. Available at

    Spandler, H. 1996 Who's Hurting Who? Young people, self-harm and suicide Manchester: 42nd Street, 1996. 126 pages. Reprint by Handsell Publishing 2001.

    Spandler, H. 2001 "Julian, not Adrian - Julian Goodburn: an appreciation." Therapeutic Communities 22, 4, pages 335-337.

    Spandler, H. 2002 Asylum to Action: Paddington Day Hospital, Therapeutic Communities and Beyond Ph.D thesis October 2002 Department of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Manchester Metropolitan University.

    Spandler, H 2004 "Friend or foe? towards a critical assessment of direct payments." Critical Social Policy 24, 2, pages 187-109

    Spandler, H 2006 Asylum to Action - Paddington Day Hospital, Therapeutic Communities and Beyond Jessica Kingsley Publishers - Link to publisher's website - review by Mark Cresswell

    McKeown, M. and Spandler, H. 2006 "Alienation and Redemption: The potential for worker and survivor alliances in mental health" 11th International Conference on Alternative Futures and Popular Protest. 11th, Manchester Metropolitan University, 19-21 April 2006. Vol. 3. Edited by C. Barker and M. Tyldesley.

    Helen Spandler and Sam Warner

    Spandler, H. and Warner, S. 2007 (Editors) Beyond Fear and Control: Working with young people who self-harm 42nd Street reader. Ross-on-Wye, Hertfordshire: PCCS Books

    Spandler, H. 11.2007 "From Social Exclusion to Inclusion? A Critique of the Inclusion Imperative in Mental Health" Medical Sociology Online Volume 2, Issue 2, November 2007, 3-16

    Helen Spandler, Jenny Secker. Lyn Kent, Sue Hacking, and Joe Shenton

    Spandler, H. Secker, J. Kent, L. Hacking, S. and Shenton, J. 2007 "Catching Life: The contribution of arts initiatives to 'recovery' approaches in mental health" Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 14(8): pp 791-799

    Spandler, H. 2007 "Individualised Funding, Social Inclusion and the Politics of Mental Health" Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy 7(1): pp 18-27

    Helen Spandler and Andrew Roberts

    Spandler, H. and Roberts, A. 2008 Literature on Survivor History. A web review begun in February 2008.

    Calton, T. Ferriter, M. Huband, N. and Spandler, H. (2008) 'A Systematic Review of the Soteria Paradigm for the Treatment of People Diagnosed with Schizophrenia'. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34: 181-192

    Secker J., Spandler H., Kent L., Hacking S. & Shenton J. (2008) 'Empowerment and arts participation for people with mental health needs.' Journal of Public Mental Health. 6(4) 14-23

    Hacking, S. Secker, J. Spandler, H. Kent, L. Shenton, J. (2008) 'Evaluating the impact of participatory art projects for people with mental health needs.' Health and Social Care in the Community 16(6): 638-648

    Spandler, H. 2009 "Spaces of psychiatric contention: A case study of a therapeutic community". Health and Place 15(3) pp 841-847

    Spandler, H. and Calton, T. 2009 "Psychosis and human rights: Conflicts in mental health policy and practice". Social Policy and Society 8(2) 245-256

    Cresswell, M. and Spandler, H. (2009) 'Psychopolitics: Peter Sedgwick's legacy for mental health movements'.

    Calton, T. & Spandler, H. (2009) 'Minimal-medication approaches to treating schizophrenia'. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 15(3) 209-17.

    Secker. J. Hacking. S. Kent, L. Shenton, J. Spandler, H. (2009) 'Development of a measure of social inclusion for arts and mental health project participants' Journal of Mental Health 18(1) 65-72

    Spandler, H. and Stickley, T. 2011 "No hope without compassion: The importance of compassion in recovery-focused mental health services". Journal of Mental Health 20(6) pp 555-566.

    Helen Spandler, Jill Anderson and Bob Sapey

    Spandler, H., Anderson, J. and Sapey, B. 2015 Madness, distress and the politics of disablement. Policy Press

    "explores the challenges of applying disability theory and policy, including the social model of disability, to madness and distress."

    Foreword by Jenny Morris
    Introduction by Bob Sapey, Helen Spandler and Jill Anderson
    Part One: Disjunctures between disability and madness
    Unreasonable adjustments? Applying disability policy to madness and distress by Helen Spandler and Jill Anderson
    What we talk about when we talk about disability: making sense of debates in the European user/survivor movement by Jasna Russo and Debra Shulkes
    Inconvenient complications: on the heterogeneities of madness and their relationship to disability by Nev Jones and Timothy Kelly
    Unsettling impairment: mental health and the social model of disability by William J Penson
    Part Two: Theorising distress and disablement
    Towards a socially situated model of mental distress by Jerry Tew
    The Capabilities Approach and the social model of mental health by Jan Wallcraft and Kim Hopper
    Psycho-emotional disablism in the lives of people experiencing mental distress by Donna Reeve
    Part Three: Applying social models of disability
    Psycho-emotional disablism, complex trauma and womenīs mental distress by Shelley Briggs and Fiona Cameron
    Linking 'race', mental health and a social model of disability: what are the possibilities? by Frank Keating
    Social models of disability and sexual distress by Meg John Barker and Alex Iantaffi
    The social model of disability and suicide prevention - Helen Spandler interviews David Webb
    Part Four: Universalising disability policy
    Advancing the rights of users and survivors of psychiatry using the
    UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities - An interview with Tina Minkowitz
    UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: out of the frying pan into the fire? Mental health service users and survivors aligning with the disability movement by Anne Plumb
    The global politics of disablement: assuming impairment and erasing complexity by China Mills
    Disabilities, colonisation and globalisation: how the very possibility of a disability identity was compromised for the `insaneī in India by Bhargavi V Davar
    Part Five: Meeting places
    Neurodiversity: bridging the gap between the Disabled People's Movement and the Mental Health System Survivors' Movement? by Steve Graby
    Distress and disability: not you, not me, but us? by Peter Beresford
    'Itīs complicated': blending disability and mad studies in the corporatising university by Kathryn Church
    Solidarity across difference: organising for democratic alliances by Mick McKeown and Helen Spandler
    Beyond the horizon: the landscape of madness, distress and disability by Jill Anderson, Helen Spandler and Bob Sapey.

    See also Mark Cresswell

    Sprigge, Samuel Squire 1897 The Life and Times of Thomas Wakley, founder and editor of the Lancet, Member of Parliament for Finsbury and Coroner for West Middlesex. Longmans and Co. Reissued 1899

    Mel Starkman

    Starkman, M. 1981 "The Movement" Phoenix Rising volume 2 number 3

    Alton Steene

    Steene, A. 1981 Maybury London: Star book. W.H. Allen. 155 pages.
    Cover text: "The psychiatric ward is a place of hope. Maybury. A powerful
    BBC-TV Drama Series"

    Stenton, M. (Editor) 1976 Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, 1832-1885, Harvester Press, London Based on Dod's

    John Stewart

    Stewart, J. 9.2009 "The Scientific Claims of British Child Guidance 1918-1945" British Journal for the History of Science September 2009, pp 407-432

    Susannah Strong

    Strong, S. 2000 Community Care in the Making: A History of the Mental After Care Association 1879-2000 London: Mental After Care Association. 82 pages

    Janet M. Stoppard

    Janet M. Stoppard and Linda M. McMullen

    Stoppard, J.M. and McMullen, L.M. 2003 (Editors) Situating Sadness: Women and depression in social context. Qualitative studies in psychology series. New York : New York University Press. x and 228 pages.
    Introduction by Janet Stoppard and Linda McMullen
    1. "Depressed" women's constructions of the deficient self by Linda M. McMullen
    2. Depressed women's treatment experiences: exploring themes of medicalization and empowerment by Janet M. Stoppard and Deanna J. Gammell
    3. The anger of hope and the anger of despair: how anger relates to women's depression by Dana Crowley Jack
    4. "Imprisoned in my own prison": a relational understanding of Sonya's story of postpartum depression by Natasha S. Mauthner
    5. Postpartum depression: women's accounts of loss and change by
    Paula Nicolson
    6. Legacy of betrayal: a theory of demoralization from the perspective of women who have been depressed by Susan A. Hurst
    7. "I just went on ... there was no feeling better, there was no feeling worse": rural women's experiences of living with and managing "depression" by Yvette Scattolon
    8. "Your heart is never free": women in Wales and Ghana talking about distress by Vivienne Walters, Joyce Yaa Avotri, and Nickie Charles --
    Conclusion by Linda M. McMullen and Janet M. Stoppard.
    Depression occurs more often in women than in men. It is the most commonly encountered mental health problem among women and ranks overall as one of the most important women's health problems. Situating Sadness sheds light on the influence of sociocultural factors, such as economic distress, child-bearing or child-care difficulties, or feelings of powerlessness which may play a significant role, and points to the importance of context for understanding women's depression. It draws on research in the United States and other parts of the world to look at depression through the eyes of women, exploring what being depressed is like in diverse social and cultural circumstances. It demonstrates that understanding depression requires close attention to the social context in which women become depressed.
    Review "Why do women experience depression at twice the rate of men? This important collection brings the missing voices of women's own experience to the discussion... An important analysis of gendered expectations in creating the context for depression." - Stephanie A. Shields, author of Speaking from the Heart: Gender and the Social Meaning of Emotion
    "... presents a powerful and convincing case for a relational approach." Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology

    See Subject Index Depression

    Survivors History Group is an independent survivor-led organisation established in April 2005 to promote the understanding and valuing of the history of action by service users/survivors and their organisations and to work towards the creation of an archive. Members include many who have a long personal history in the movement.

    Survivors History - Mental health and survivors movements archived, under Mental health history timeline, in the UK Web Archive at

    Survivors History Internet Forum

    2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009 - 2010 - 2011 - 2012 - 2013 - 2014 - 2015 - 2016 -

    Survivors History Group 18.7.2005 Short Manifesto. Available at

    Survivors History Group January 2006 Long Manifesto. Available at

    Survivors History Group 17.7.2008 Celebrating our history: Valuing ourselves A mental health service users' conference with historians. Report 17.7.2008 of a conference held Thursday 29.5.2008. Available at

    Survivors History Group November 2008 "Your History in Your Hands" OpenMind

    Charities Aid Foundation October 2009 offline

    Survivors History Group 21.2.2010 Reclaiming Bedlam, Reclaiming Our History - Unpublished draft paper

    Survivors History Group 19.3.2010 "Pageant of Survivor History - Mental patients in poetry, story and song from the 18th to 21st century". Performance at Kingsley Hall 19.3.2010. Available at\pageant.htm

    Survivors History Group 31.3.2010 A Review of Histories by the Survivors History Group - Unpublished paper available on request.

    Survivors History Group 2011 Survivors History Group takes a critical look at historians. Chapter one (pages 7-18) in the Policy Press (Bristol) publication Critical Perspectives on User Involvement edited by Marian Barnes and Phil Cotterell.

    Amended chapter online for study purposes

    Survivors History Group 12.2011 "Emotional Journeys" from Time Together December 2011

    Survivors History Group Annual Reports The Survivors History Group - The first decade 2005 - 2016 "Annual Reports for 2008 - 2009 - 2010 - 2011 - 2012 - 2013 - 2014 - 2015 - 2016" - draft

    Charities Aid Foundation Spring 2016 offline

    Charities Aid Foundation Spring 2018 offline

    Current rules offline

    Survivors Speak Out

    Survivors Speak Out 1989 Self Advocacy Action Pack: Empowering Mental Health Service Users Survivors Speak Out: London

    Akihito Suzuki

    Suzuki, A. 2006 Madness at Home. The Psychiatrist, the Patient, and the Family in England, 1820-1860. Medicine and Society, 13. University of California Press. (weblink)

    Thomas Stephen Szasz 1920-2012 Szasz - weblinks

    Szasz, T. 1961 The Myth of Mental Illness. Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct New York: Harper and Row. [London: Secker and Warburg, 1962]

    Szasz, T. 1961/1972 The Myth of Mental Illness. Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct. (Paladin edition, abbreviated with a summary, 1972):

    Contents and pages:
    Preface to the Paladin Edition p.9
    Preface to the American Edition p.13
    Introduction p.17
    Part 1. Growth and Structure of the Myth
    1. Charcot and the Problem of Hysteria p.37
    2. Illness and Counterfeit Illness p.50
    3. Sociology of the Therapeutic Situation p.65
    4. Breuer and Freud's Studies on Hysteria p.87
    5. Contemporary Views on Hysteria and Mental Illness p.96
    Part 2. Semiotical Analysis of Behaviour
    6. Language and Protolanguage p.111
    7. Hysteria as Communication p.128
    Part 3. Rule-following Analysis of Behaviour
    8. The Rule-following Model of Human Behaviour p.155
    9. The Ethics of Helplessness and Helpfulness p.169
    10. Theology, Witchcraft, and Hysteria p.188
    Part 4. Game-model Analysis of Behaviour
    11. The Game-playing Model of Human Behaviour p.207
    12. Impersonation and Cheating p.222
    13. Hysteria as a Game p.239
    14. Object Relationships and the Game Model p.256
    Conclusions p.269
    Epilogue p.271
    Summary for the Paladin Edition p.275
    Bibliography p.277
    Index p.289

    Szasz, T. 1963 Law, Liberty and Psychiatry

    Szasz, T. 1971 The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement.

    Translations into French (Paris, Payot): 1975: Le mythe de la maladie mentale 284 pages - and L'éthique de la psychanalyse 220 pages. - 1976: Fabriquer la folie 348 pages - 1977: Law, Liberty and Psychiatry.

    Szasz, T. 1978 "The Case Against Compulsory Psychiatric Interventions"
    The Lancet 13.5.1978

    Henry Study Theobald

    Theobald, H.S. 1924 The Law Relating to Lunacy. Stevens and Sons, Limited, Law Publishers, 119 & 120 Chancery Lane

    Thompson, F.M.L. 1963 English Landed Society in the 19th Century Routledge Kegan Paul.

    John Thurnum

    Thurnam, John 1845 Observations and Essays on the Statistics of Insanity, including an inquiry into the causes influencing the results of treatment in establishments for the Insane. To which are added the statistics of the Retreat, near York. Published London and York.

    Stephen Tilley and Sue Cowan
    Stephen Tilley: School of Health in Social Science, The University of Edinburgh,
    Sue Cowan: Tayside Institute for Health Studies, School of Social and Health Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee.

    Tilley, S. and Cowan, S. 2011 "Recovery in Mental Health Policy: Good strategy or bad rhetoric?" Critical Public Health Volume 21, No. 1, March 2011, pp 95-104

    The Times National daily newspaper published in London from 1787.

    Titmuss, R.M. 1968 Commitment to Welfare Allen and Unwin

    John Todd Sometime prior to 1991: Consultant Psychiatrist, High Royds Hospital, Menston, Yorkshire. See also A.L. Ashworth

    Todd, J. and Ashworth, L. 1991 The West Riding asylum and James Crichton-Browne, 1818-1876 in Berrios and Freeman 1991 pages 389-418

    E. Fuller Torrey and Robert H. Yolken
    Johns Hopkins University Medical Center, Baltimore

    Torrey, E.F. and Yolken, R.H. 2010 Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 36 no. 1 pp. 26-32, 2010. Available at

    Katrina M. Turner
    Academic Unit of Primary Health Care, Department of Community Based Medicine, University of Bristol

    Katrina M. Turner, Carolyn Chew-Graham, Liz Folkes and Deborah Sharp

    Turner, K.M. and others 2010 "Patient Perception, Preference and Participation: Women's experiences of health visitor delivered listening visits as a treatment for postnatal depression: A qualitative study" Available

    See Subject Index Depression - Voice

    John Courtenay Trewin 1908- and Evelyn Mansfield King

    Trewin, J.C. and King, E.M. 1952 Printer to the House : the story of Hansard Foreword by William S. Morrison, then Speaker of the House of Commons. London : Methuen, xv, and 272 pages

    Premila Trivedi and SIMBA

    SIMBA 10.1999 The Voice of SIMBA: let the tiger roar ... "The Newsletter of SIMBA (Share In Maudsley Black Action), the Black Patient/User/Survivor group in the Maudsley Hospital" October 1999 Issue one.

    SIMBA 8.2000 The Voice of SIMBA: let the tiger roar August 2000 Issue two.

    Trivedi, P. March 2001 "Simba roars - A personal perspective from Premila Trivedi". Strategies for Living Newsletter March 2001, Issue 12, pages 2-3.

    Trivedi, P. July/August 2001 "Never Again." OpenMind.

    Trivedi, P. and Wykes, Til 2002 "From passive subjects to equal partners - Qualitative review of user involvement in research" Bitish Journal of Psychiatry 2002 181 pages 468 to 472. Available at ["We thank Communicate, the users' group at the Maudsley Hospital, for allowing us to use and publish their research contract. We particularly acknowledge the work of Lisa Barcan, Su Glazier and Dawn Batcup, who (together with P.T.) played a crucial part in developing this contract."]

    Premila Trivedi with Robert Bradford, Andrew Douglas, Gary Elson, Linden Falconer, Mariyam Maule, Clifton Prophet, Kobla Sowu and Paulette Thomas
    Members of SIMBA (Share in Maudsley Black Action)

    Trivedi, P. and others August 2002 "Let the Tiger Roar." Mental Health Today, August 2002 pages 30-33.

    SIMBA 10.2002 The Voice of SIMBA: let the tiger roar October 2002 Issue three.

    Trivedi, P. 2008 "Black Service User Involvement: Rhetoric or Reality?" - Chapter 10 in Fernando, S. and Keating, F. 2009 pages 136- 146 (references at the end of the book pages 259-281) In Mental Health in a Multi-Ethnic Society. Edited by Suman Fernando and Frank Keating. London: Routledge.

    The Tukes See Borthwick, Digby and Foucault

    William Tuke (24.3.1732-6.12.1832) was the founder of The Retreat, York. Henry Tuke (24.1.1755-11.8.1814) was his eldest son. Samuel Tuke (31.7.1784-14.10.1857) was Henry's oldest son. James Hack Tuke (13.9.1819- 13.1.1896) and Daniel Hack Tuke (19.4.1827-5.3.1895) were great grandsons of William Tuke. Daniel Hack Tuke (and probably James) was a son of Samuel. This was an active Quaker family.

    The Tukes of Manor House Asylum were not related to the Retreat Tukes, and I have no reason to believe they were Quakers. Another well known Tuke, J. Batty Tuke, is also said (Bynum, W.F. 1991 p.163), to be unrelated to the Retreat Tukes.

    Samuel Tuke, born 31.7.1784 - died 14.10.1857

    Tuke, S. 1813 Description of the Retreat, an institution near York, for insane persons of the Society of Friends. Containing an account of its origin and progress, the modes of treatment, and a statement of cases ... With an elevation and plans of the building. London, Harvey and Co. [1964 Reprint by Dawsons of Pall Mall]

    Tuke, S. 1841 The statistics of the Retreat; consisting of a report and tables, exhibiting the experience of that institution for the insane; from its establishment in 1796, to 1840 York: Linney, 1841 Other author's name associated: John Thurnam

    Daniel Hack Tuke, born 19.4.1827 - died 5.3.1895

    Tuke, D.H. 1854 "The Progressive Changes which have taken place since the time of Pinel in the moral management of the Insane. (A Prize Essay)" in Rules and List of the Present Members of the Society for improving the condition of the Insane.

    Tuke, D.H. 1878 Insanity in Ancient and Modern Life: with Chapters on its Prevention. London

    Tuke, D.H. 1882 Chapters in the History of the Insane in the British Isles. Kegan Paul. [I have used a reprint made by E.J. Bonset, Amsterdam, in 1968. I believe the page numbers are the same.]

    Tuke, D.H. 1889 The Past and Present Provision for the Insane Poor in Yorkshire etc 55 pages J + A Churchill, London

    Tuke, D.H. 1891 Prichard and Symonds in Especial relation to Mental Science with Chapters on Moral Insanity J. A. Churchill, London

    Tuke, D.H. 1892 Reform in the Treatment of the Insane. Early History of the Retreat, York: Its Objects and Influence. (With a report on the centenary) 96 pages J + A Churchill, London

    Tuke, D.H. 1892/Dictionary A Dictionary of Psychological Medicine "giving the definition, etymology and synonyms of the terms used in medical psychology with the symptoms, treatment, and pathology of insanity and the law of lunacy in Great Britain and Ireland", edited by Daniel Hack Tuke, in two volumes. London, J + A Churchill. (Also published Philadelphia by Blakiston in 1892) 1477 double-columned pages, 128 authors.

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    David Uwins 1780?-1837

    Uwins, D. 1833 A Treatise on those Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System, which are usually considered and called Mental Renshaw and Rush, London.

    Vaughan, P. 1959 Doctors' Commons. A Short History of the British Medical Association Heinemann

    Votes and Proceedings. House of Commons Votes and Proceedings. The daily business papers of the House of Commons provided for MPs. In un-indexed bound volumes in Official Publications Library (British Library). The volumes I consulted prior to 1847 contained also Notices of Motions and Orders of the Day. I have not distinguished. The papers are bound in some sort of chronological order, but not one that I or the librarians could fully comprehend, and so I have not been able to reference papers.

    Nicholas J. Wade

    Wade, N.J. 2000 The emergence of neuroscience in the 19th century. Routledge/Thoemmes Press, Eight volumes:
    1: Containing the nervous system [and] Idea of a new anatomy of the brain / Charles Bell (1774-1842)
    2: Dr. F.J. Gall's system of the funtion of the brain / Charles [Carl] A. Bl”de [and] Phrenology examined / Pierre Flourens (1794-1867)
    3: "Physiology of the nerves" / Johannes Mller (1801-1858)
    4: "Of the senses" and "Of the mind" / Johannes Mller
    5: Mind and body: the theories of their relation / Alexander Bain (1810-1877)
    6: Lectures on the localisation of cerebral and spinal diseases / Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
    7: The functions of the brain / David Ferrier (1843-1928)
    8. The integrative action of the nervous system / Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952)

    Priscilla Wakefield (1751-1832)

    Priscilla Wakefield's Library Journal, 1805-08, Friend's Library, Hazel Mews Collection, Temp. MSS. 284/- is listed in the sources of Bridget Hill 1997. The Library holds a Photostat of Priscilla Wakefield's Library Journal c1805-c1808 at Temp MSS 284/1/4. It also holds a Photostat of her journal from 1798-1807 at Temp MSS 248/1/1. These items were donated by Hazel Mews who was researching a biography of Priscilla Wakefield in the 1960's. As well as Photostats the Hazel Mews papers contain biographical notes and Photostats of some of Priscilla Wakefield's letters. (information from Jennifer Milligan, Friends House)

    Elaine Murphy refers to another diary, typed extracts of which are in private ownership, with a microfilm copy in the Archives of the National Library of New Zealand AJCP film M 2794-5.

    Alexander Walk 1901-1982
    Assistant Editor of the Journal of Mental Science 1928. Co-editor from 1930 to 1973. Associate Editor to death. Librarian Royal Medico-Psychological Association 1945 to 1970 - "he built up the College's stock of antiquarian and historical books particularly those from the nineteenth century". Medical Superintendent Cane Hill Hospital 1949 to 1962. Secretary and then Chairman of the Parliamentary Committee (of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association?) which advised on the Mental Health Act 1959. President of the Royal Medico-Psychological Association 1961-1962. Parliamentary Reporter until 1982.

    Walk, A. 1950 Report of the Physician Superintendent, Cane Hill Hospital, for the years 1948-1949 and 1949-1950 [Includes a historical section]

    Helped Kathleen Jones with her research on 1744-1845

    Walk, A. 10.1953 "The Seventieth Anniversary of Cane Hill" The Hillsman, October 1953, 2-4.

    Walk, A. 1953 "The Centenary of the Journal of Mental Science" Journal of Mental Science (1953) 417, 633-637

    Walk, A. 9.2.1953 "Some Aspects of the Moral Treatment of the Insane up to 1854". Read at a Meeting of the Section of Psychiatry, Royal Society of Medicine, 9 February 1954. Journal of Mental Science (1954) 100, pp 807-837

    Walk, A. 1954 The Royal Medico-Psychological Association's "Memorandum of Evidence" to the Royal Commission on the Law Relating to Mental Illness and Mental Deficiency. Drafted by Dr Walk, as Secretary of the Evidence Committee. Journal of Mental Science (1954) 421, pp 994-1020.

    The Fathers and Mothers of Mental Nursing. Three (out of four) articles from the "Hillsman", Cane Hill Hospital Staff Magazine (cyclostyled):
    No.1 Not traced
    No.2 Sir William and Lady Ellis. Vol.2, No.7, July/August 1954, 2-5
    No.3 Dr Conolly and Miss Powell. Vol. 2, No.8, September 1954, 2-4
    No.4 George and Katherine Jepson at the Retreat. Vol.2, No. 8, October, 1954, 1-3.

    Helped Kathleen Jones with her research on 1845-1959

    Walk, A. 29.6.1954 "History of Mental Hospitals: The Last 150 Years" Draft of paper read at the National Association for Mental Health Meeting, 29 June 1956. (unpublished)

    Walk, A. 10.2.1958 "Psychiatric Pioneers and Precursors" Reconstructed from handwritten draft and notes for paper read at Royal Medico-Psychological Association Lecture Course, 10 February 1958. (unpublished)

    Walk, A. 1958 "History of Mental Hospitals with Special Reference to Mental Nursing" Draft of Address to the National Association of Chief Male Nurses, 1958. (unpublished)

    Walk, A. 1964 "Mental Hospitals", pages 123-146 in The Evolution of Hospitals in Britain, edited F.N.L. Poynter. Pitman Medical Publishing, 1964. Paper given September.1962 at the Third British Congress on the History of Medicine and Pharmacy.

    Walk, A. 1982 "Records, Retrospects and Researches: A Handful of Hospital Histories" by Alexander Walk. Psychiatric Bulletin (1982) 6: pages 195-197. Available at
    Reviews A Sunnyside Chronicle by A. S. Presly - Chronicle of Crichton Royal by C. C. Easterbrook, Chronicle of Crichton Royal 1937-71 by George Turner, Murray Royal Hospital, Perth: 1827- 1977 - The Dark Awakening - A History of St Lawrence's Hospital, Bodmin, Cornwall (February, 1978) by Charles Thomas Andrews - Stanley Royd Hospital - A History by A. L. Ashworth - Mapperley Hospital centenary 1880-1980 - The Private Lunatic Asylums of the East Riding by J. A. R. and M. E. Bickford - The Old Manor Hospital, Salisbury has been written by Mrs Gertrude Smith - and Dr Jancar's Research at Stoke Park, 1930-1980, a supplement to the two editions of Stoke Park Studies, first collected by R. J. A. Berry in 1933.

    See subject index: Mental Health History

    Nigel Walker Sarah MCabe

    Walker, N. 1968 Crime and Insanity in England. volume one: The Historical Perspective University Press, Edinburgh

    Walker, N. + MCabe, S. 1973 Crime and Insanity in England. volume two: New Solutions and New Problems University Press, Edinburgh

    Elizabeth Walsh
    Institute of Psychiatry, London

    Elizabeth Walsh, Alec Buchanan and Thomas Fahy
    Institute of Psychiatry, London

    Walsh, E., Buchanan, A. and Fahy, T. 2002 "Violence and schizophrenia: examining the evidence" British Journal of Psychiatry Volume: 180 June 2002 Pages: 490-495 Available

    Ward, J.T. 1967 Sir James Graham. A Biography Macmillan

    Warter, J. W. (Editor) 1856 Selections from the Letters of Robert Southey

    Webb, S + B, 1929 English Poor Law History Part 2 (2 vols) The Last Hundred Years. Frank Cass reprint.

    Week van de psychiatrie 1975-

    Week van de psychiatrie website of Week van de psychiatrie, archived from 29.11.2001 at*/ .

    Weiner, Martin J. 1990 Reconstructing the criminal: Culture, law and policy in England, 1830-1914, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    John Anthony Whitehead 1925 - 23.1.2003
    Consultant Psychiatrist, Brighton Health District

    Whitehead, J.A. 1969 In the Service of Old Age. The Welfare of Psychogeriatric Patients Penguin.(A second edition in 1978 was published by E.K. + M. Publishers, Aylesbury, Bucks).

    Janet Whitney

    Whitney, J. 1937 Elizabeth Fry. George G. Harrap and co. (Also Guild Books 1947) See Quakers around Shoreditch

    Willcocks, A.J. 1967 The Creation of the National Health Service. A Study of Pressure Groups and a Major Social Policy Decision Routledge + Kegan Paul.

    Francis Willis, junior

    Willis, F. 1823 A Treatise on Mental Derangement, containing the Substance of the Gulstonian Lectures for May 1822 London, Longman.

    John Kenneth Wing 1923-

    Wing, J.K. and Brown, G.W. 1970 Institutionalism and schizophrenia : a comparative study of three mental hospitals, 1960-1968 London : Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0521078822 [The hospitals were Mapperley - Severalls - and Netherne.

    Wing, J.K. 1973 Sheltered Environments for the Psychiatrically Handicapped "DHSS Reports on Health and Social Subjects. 8. Providing a Comprehensive District Psychiatric Service for -the Adult Mentally Ill". HMSO 1974.

    Wing, J.K. + Hailey, A.M. 1972 Evaluating a Community Psychiatric Service. The Camberwell Register 1961-1971 O.U.P.

    Wing, J.K. + Olsen, R. (Editors) 1979 Community Care for the Mentally Disabled. O.U.P.

    Winston, M. 1994 "The Bethel at Norwich: an eighteenth-century hospital for lunatics". Medical History. 1994 January; 38(1): 27-51

    Sarah Wise

    Wise, S. 2012 Inconvenient People. Lunacy, Liberty and the Mad- Doctors in Victorian England London: Bodley Head
    1. Being "burrowsed" -- 2. The attorney-general of all Her Majesty's madmen -- 3. The Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society -- 4. "Oh hail, holy love!" -- 5. "If I had been poor, they would have left me alone" -- 6. "Gaskell is single-patient hunting" -- 7. The woman in yellow -- 8. Juries in revolt -- 9. Dialoguing with the unseen -- 10. "Be sure you don't fall, Georgie!" -- Epilogue: The savage new century.

    Kathy Witheridge

    Witheridge, K. 200# Eliza Johnston Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Unpublished article on the first wife of Froome Talfourd, containing biographies of the Talfourd brothers. See The Talfourds' asylum

    Wolf Wolfensberger

    Wolfensberger, W. 1972 The Principle of Normalisation in Human Services

    Wolfensberger, W. 1975 The Origin and Nature of our Institutional Models

    Wolfensberger, W. 1980 "The Definition of Normalisation. Update, Problems, Disagreements and Misunderstandings" Flynn, R. and Nitsch, K. 1980

    World Health Organisation

    WHO 1959 "Mental health problems of aging and the aged" Sixth report of the Expert Committee on Mental Health. Meeting held in Geneva, 1.9.1958-6.9.1958. Issue Date: 1959. Technical report series no. 171. Geneva : World Health Organization. 51 pages. Available at

    WHO 1972 Psychogeriatrics Report of a WHO scientific group. Meeting held in Geneva from 19.10.1970 to 23.10.1970. Issue Date: 1972. Technical report series no. 507. World Health Organization Geneva 48 pages. Available at

    WHO 1976 The Future of Mental Hospitals. Report on a 'Working Group 1976 (Ref: ICP/MNH 019 11). World Health Organisation (COPENHAGEN). Available from MIND.

    WHO 1980 Changing Patterns in Mental Health Care Report on a WHO Working Group, Cologne 27.11.1978-1.12.1978. Available at

    WHO 1998 Health 21: An introduction to the health for all policy framework for the WHO European Region (European Health for All Series; No. 5) Available at

    WHO 2001 The World Health Report 2001: Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope Geneva: World Health Organisation, 2001. Available at

    WHO 2008 Maternal Mental Health and Child Health and Development in Low and Middle Income Countries Report of the meeting held in Geneva, Switzerland 30.1.2008 - 1.2.2008. Available t.pdf

    World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology

    See drug

    WHOCC ---- World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology, ATC [Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical] classification index with DDDs [defined daily doses], ----. Oslo ----. Available at

    WHOCC 2015 World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology, ATC classification index with DDDs, 2015. Oslo 2014.

    Wright, D.G., 1970 Democracy and Reform, 1815-1885 Longmans

    Sylvia Wright

    Wright, S. 2001 "The Establishments and Treatment of Lunatics in 19th Century Derbyshire". Available on the CD A History of Lunacy in 19th Century Derbyshire by Sylvia Wright

    Wright, S. 2001b "Lunacy Returns 1828, 1831 and 1836 (with index)" on the same CD.

    W.W. Whose Who?

    W.W.W. Who Was Who?

    Sarah Yiannoullou 1966-

    Yiannoullou, S. 5.5.2011 "National Survivor User Network (NSUN)". Unpublished paper for Survivor History Group

    See Barnes and Cotterell 2011

    Daisy Yuhas

    Yuhas, D. 14.2.2013 "Throughout History, Defining Schizophrenia Has Remained a Challenge [Timeline]" Scientific American Mind Mind Volume 24, Issue 1, Web Exclusive available at schizophrenia-has-remained-challenge/ - archive

    "Less than 200 years ago schizophrenia emerged from a tangle of mental disorders known simply as madness. Today its diagnosis remains shrouded in ambiguity. Psychiatrists may discover that this disorder is not a single syndrome after all but a bundle of overlapping conditions

    Gregory Zilboorg 25.12.1890 - 17.9.1959

    Zilboorg, G. 1941 History of Medical Psychology New York.

    7.3. Abbreviations

    Bibliographical abbreviations are included in the Alphabetical bibliography.

    FRCP Fellow Royal College of Physicians (London unless otherwise stated)
    FRCS Fellow
    Royal College of Surgeons (London unless otherwise stated)
    FRS Fellow of Royal Society

    LCA Licentiate College of Apothecaries

    LRCP Licentiate
    Royal College of Physicians (London unless otherwise stated)
    MRCS Member Royal College of Surgeons (London unless otherwise stated)

    MRCP Member
    Royal College of Physicians (London unless otherwise stated)
    Royal College of Physicians (London unless otherwise stated)

    © Andrew Roberts 1981-

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